The yellow tang is a saltwater fish species of the family Acanthuridae. It is one of the most popular aquarium fish; the yellow tang was first described by English naturalist Edward Turner Bennett as Acanthurus flavescens in 1828 from a collection in the Hawaiian Islands. Its species name is the Latin adjective flavescens "yellow". Yellow tang are in the surgeonfish family. Adult fish can grow to 20 centimetres in length, 1–2 centimetres in thickness. Adult males tend to be larger than females. Yellow tang are bright yellow in color. At night, the yellow coloring fades and a prominent brownish patch develops in the middle with a horizontal white band, they resume their bright yellow color during daylight. In the wild, yellow tang feed on other marine plant material. In captivity they are fed meat/fish based aquarium food, but the long term health effects of this diet are questionable. However, most experts in the marine aquarium industry express little skepticism that such a well rounded and balanced diet including plant and animal material would be in any way detrimental to herbivorous fishes like tangs, since they still need on occasion, complex amino acids and nutrients that only ocean animals can provide.
In the wild, yellow tang provide cleaner services to marine turtles, by removing algal growth from their shells. It is found in shallow reefs, from 2–46 metres deep, in the Pacific Ocean, west of Hawaii and east of Japan. Hawaii is the most common place for aquarium harvesting, where up to 70% of the yellow tangs for the aquarium industry are sourced from; the yellow tang has been recorded in waters around Florida. The yellow tang is commonly kept as a saltwater aquarium fish. In 2015, researchers bred them in captivity, they can grow up to 8 inches in the wild, but are introduced to aquariums in the 2" to 4" range. Some specimens as large as 6" are available. Life expectancy in the wild can exceed 30 years
Hāna is a census-designated place in Maui County, United States. The population was 1,235 at the 2010 census. Hana is located at the eastern end of the island of Maui and is one of the most isolated communities in the state, it is reached via the Hana Highway, a long, winding, 52-mile-long highway along Maui's northern shore and using boats. Like most of Hawaii, Hana was first settled between 500 and 800 AD by Polynesian peoples; the first sugarcane plantation in the area was established by George Wilfong in 1849, by 1883 there were six plantations operating in the area. By 1946, the last sugarcane plantation had closed, leading plantation workers to move to the west side of Maui; that same year saw the opening of the Ka-'uiki Inn, today known as the Hotel Travaasa - Hana, which helped transition the economy towards tourism. The winding, famously scenic Hana Highway was completed in 1926. Paved with gravel, it provided the first land vehicle access to the town. Hana's population peaked in the first half of the twentieth century, with a population of about 3,500.
Hana is located at 20°46′12″N 155°59′39″W, directly on the East Rift Zone of East Maui Volcano. The Hana Airport offers flights with regular service to the Big Island and Oahu. According to the United States Census Bureau, this CDP has a total area of 11.7 square miles, of which 10.5 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles, 9.77%, is water. Near Hana are several swimming holes in the Haleakala National Park. Hana's climate is wet year round, typical of a tropical rainforest; as of the census of 2010, Hana had 1,235 residents, 390 households, 252 families residing in the CDP. The 2010 population density was 105.6 people per square mile. There were 506 housing units at an average density of 48.2/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 22.2% White, 0.1% African American, 0.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 5.0% Asian, 29.1% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from some other race, 42.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.8% of the population. As of 2010, there were' 390 households out of which 23.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.6% were headed by married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families.
29.5% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.7% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.17, the average family size was 3.99. As of 2010, in the CDP the population was spread out with 27.8% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.9 males. As of 2000, the median income for a household in the CDP was $50,833, the median income for a family was $54,167. Males had a median income of $26,146 versus $22,969 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $14,672. About 5.6% of families and 8.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under age 18 and 3.8% of those age 65 or over. Pi'i-lani Temple - constructed in the 15th century, this is the largest temple in Hawaii Kahanu Garden Kaia Ranch Tropical Botanical Gardens Hana Beach Park Hana Ball Park Pailoa Bay Hamoa Beach Wai'anapanapa State Park Hasegawa General Store Hana's surfing culture was profiled by writer Susan Orlean in Outside magazine in 1998, inspiring the 2002 film Blue Crush.
Although not technically a hospital or emergency room, Hana Health Clinic, works in cooperation with American Medical Response and Maui Memorial Medical Center to stabilize and transport patients with emergent medical conditions. It is open 24/7 for urgent emergency access; the facility offers routine physical exams, acute care, chronic disease management, cancer screening, routine gynecology, family planning services, basic laboratory and x-ray, on-site medication dispensary, referrals for specialty care. Major employers in Hana include the Travaasa Hana hotel, Hana High and Elementary School, Waiʻanapanapa State Park. Queen Kaʻahumanu, born in Hana in 1768 Charles Lindbergh, retired there in the 1970s and was buried near Hana in 1974 Pat Benatar, married to Neil Giraldo in Hana in 1982, has houses in Hana and in California. George Harrison and his wife Olivia Harrison had a property in Hana. Harrison wrote the song Soft-Hearted Hana about time spent in Hawaii. Hana Tour
In the Hawaiian religion, Pele, is the goddess of volcanoes and fire and the creator of the Hawaiian Islands. Referred to as "Madame Pele" or "Tūtū Pele" as a sign of respect, she is a well-known deity within Hawaiian mythology, is notable for her contemporary presence and cultural influence as an enduring figure from ancient Hawaii. Epithets of the goddess include Ka wahine ʻai honua. In different stories talking about the goddess Pele, she was born from the female spirit named Haumea; this spirit is important when talking about Hawaii's gods due to how she is a descendant from Papa, or Sky Father, a supreme being. Due to Pele being born, she has become a notable deity known to the Hawaiian culture, she is known as "She who shapes the sacred land", known to be said in ancient Hawaiian chants. Kīlauea is a active volcano, located on the island of Hawaiʻi and is still being extensively studied. Many Hawaiians believe Kilauea to be inhabited by a "family of fire gods", one of the sisters being Pele, believed to govern Kilauea and is responsible for controlling its lava flows.
There are several traditional legends associated with Pele in Hawaiian mythology. In addition to being recognized as the goddess of volcanoes, Pele is known for her power, passion and capriciousness, she has numerous siblings, including Kāne Milohai, Kamohoaliʻi, Nāmaka and numerous sisters named Hiʻiaka, the most famous being Hiʻiakaikapoliopele. They are considered to be the offspring of Haumea. Pele's siblings include deities of various types of wind, fire, ocean wave forms, cloud forms, her home is believed to be the fire pit called Halemaʻumaʻu crater, at the summit caldera of Kīlauea, one of the Earth's most active volcanoes. Pele shares features similar to other malignant deities inhabiting volcanoes, as in the case of the devil Guayota of Guanche Mythology in Canary Islands, living on the volcano Teide and was considered by the aboriginal Guanches as responsible for the eruptions of the volcano. Legend told that journeyed on her canoe from the island of Tahiti to Hawaii; when going through with her journeys, it was said that she tried to create her fires on different islands, but her sister, Nāmaka, was chasing her wanting to put an end to her.
In the end, the two sisters fought Pele in the end was killed. With this happening, her body was destroyed but her spirit lives in the Halemaumau crater on Kilauea, they say, "Her body is the steam that comes from the volcano. She can change form, appearing as a white dog, old woman, or beautiful young woman". In addition to her role as goddess of fire and her strong association with volcanoes, Pele is regarded as the "goddess of the hula", she is a significant figure in the history of hula because of her sister Hiʻiaka, believed to be the first person to dance hula. As a result of Pele's significance in hula, there have been many hula dances and chants that are dedicated to her and her family; the hula being dedicated to Pele is performed in a way that represents her intense personality and the movement of volcanoes. In one version of the story, Pele is the daughter of Kanehoalani and Haumea in the mystical land of Kuaihelani, a floating free land like Fata Morgana. Kuaihelani was in the region of Kahiki.
She stays close to her mother's fireplace with the fire-keeper Lono-makua. Her older sister Nā-maka-o-Kahaʻi, a sea goddess, fears that Pele's ambition would smother the home-land and drives Pele away. Kamohoali'i drives Pele south in a canoe called Honua-i-a-kea with her younger sister Hiʻiaka and with her brothers Kamohoaliʻi, Kanemilohai and arrives at the islets above Hawaii. There Kane-milo-hai is left on Mokupapapa, just a reef, to build it up in fitness for human residence. On Nihoa, 800 feet above the ocean she leaves Kane-apua after her visit to Lehua and crowning a wreath of kau-no'a. Pele picks him up again. Pele used the divining rod. A group of chants tells of a pursuit by Namakaokaha'i and Pele is torn apart, her bones, KaiwioPele form a hill on Kahikinui. In another version, Pele comes from a land said to be "close to the clouds," with parents Kane-hoa-lani and Ka-hina-liʻi, brothers Ka-moho-aliʻi and Kahuila-o-ka-lani. From her husband Wahieloa she has a son Menehune. Pele-kumu-honua entices her Pele travels in search of him.
The sea pours from her head over the land of Kanaloa and her brothers say: The sea floods the land recedes. Pele is considered to be a rival of the Hawaiian goddess of snow, Poliʻahu, her sisters Lilinoe and Kahoupokane. All except Kahoupokane reside on Mauna Kea; the kapa maker lives on Hualalai. One myth tells that Poliʻahu had come from Mauna Kea with her friends to attend sled races down the grassy hills south of Hamakua. Pele was greeted by Poliʻahu. However, Pele became jealously enraged at the goddess of Mauna Kea, she opened the subterranean caverns of Mauna Kea and threw fire from them towards Poliʻahu, with the snow goddess fleeing towards
Bulwer's petrel is a small petrel in the family Procellariidae, found in the genus Bulweria. This bird is named after the Scottish naturalist James Bulwer; this long-winged petrel is 25–29 cm in length with a 78–90 cm wingspan. It has brown plumage and a long pointed tail, it has a buoyant twisting flight. The species breeds in the north Atlantic in colonies on islands in the Cape Verde Islands, Canary Islands and Madeira groups, across the north Pacific from east of China to Hawaii. After breeding, birds disperse to spend the rest of the year at sea in tropical waters worldwide; this species has been sighted in Europe as a rare vagrant to Ireland, Great Britain and the Netherlands. It has appeared as a vagrant in North America, with rare sightings far off the coast of both California and North Carolina. Nests are built in burrows, cliff caves/crevices, under man-made debris and onshore driftwood, it does not excavate these burrows. The breeding season for Bulwer's petrel starts in May; when breeding, it will always mate with its previous mate.
Breeding pairs form colonies of 7,000-9,000 pairs during the breeding season. This petrel lays a clutch of one egg, although young and inexperienced birds will lay two eggs; the egg is beige-white and measures 42 by 30 millimetres. Both sexes incubate the eggs for a period of 42 to 46 days, they will both feed the chicks. Bulwer's petrel is pelagic, found near land, its diet consists of small fish and squid, with some additional crustaceans and plankton. BTO BirdFacts - Bulwer's petrel Bulwer's petrel video on the Internet Bird Collection Oiseaux Text, photograph. VIREO Photographs
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
"United States Coast Survey" and "United States Coast and Geodetic Survey" redirect here. They are former scientific agencies of the United States government which should not be confused with the United States Coast Guard, a seagoing U. S. government law enforcement and safety agency, the modern Coast Survey, a U. S. government agency that makes nautical charts, or the United States Geological Survey, a U. S. government agency that studies earth science and makes topographical maps. The National Geodetic Survey the United States Survey of the Coast, United States Coast Survey, United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, of the United States Department of Commerce; the National Geodetic Survey's history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices.
As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, the agency operated a fleet of survey ships, from 1917 the Coast and Geodetic Survey was one of the uniformed services of the United States with its own corps of commissioned officers. Upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Upon the creation of NOAA in 1970, the ESSA Corps became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Officer Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Survey's ancestor organizations are the ancestors of today's NOAA Corps and Office of Coast Survey and are among the ancestors of today's NOAA fleet. In addition, today's National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Survey's Office of Weights and Measures; the National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service.
Its core function is to maintain the National Spatial Reference System, "a consistent coordinate system that defines latitude, height, scale and orientation throughout the United States." NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of where things are in the United States and its territories; the NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components. The official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space; the datum may be accessed via NGS's network of survey marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF; the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling.
Because of the close relationship between height and Earth's gravity field, NGS collects and curates terrestrial gravity measurements and develops regional models of the geoid and its slope, the deflection of the vertical. NGS is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the NSRS over time as the North American plate rotates and deforms over time due to crustal strain, post-glacial rebound, elastic deformation of the crust, other geophysical phenomena. NGS will release new datums in 2022; the North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the geometric relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums; the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88. It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, eliminating the need for future leveling projects.
This geoid model will be based on airborne and terrestrial gravity measurements collected by NGS's GRAV-D program as well as satellite-based gravity models derived from observations collected by GRACE, GOCE, satellite altimetry missions. NGS provides a number of other public services, it maps changing shorelines in the United States and provides aerial imagery of regions affected by natural disasters, enabling rapid damage assessment by emergency managers and members of the public. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS; the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. The original predecessor agency of the National Geodetic Survey was the United States Survey of the Coast, created within the United States Department of the Treasury by an Act of Congress on February 10, 1807, to conduct a "Survey of the Coast." The Survey of the Coast, the United States government's first scientific agency, represented the interest of the administration of President Thomas Jefferson in science and the stimulation of international trade by using scientific surveying methods to chart t
A volcanic crater is a circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity. It is a bowl-shaped feature within which occurs a vent or vents. During volcanic eruptions, molten magma and volcanic gases rise from an underground magma chamber, through a tube-shaped conduit, until they reach the crater's vent, from where the gases escape into the atmosphere and the magma is erupted as lava. A volcanic crater can be of large dimensions, sometimes of great depth. During certain types of explosive eruptions, a volcano's magma chamber may empty enough for an area above it to subside, forming a type of larger depression known as a caldera. In most volcanoes, the crater is situated at the top of a mountain formed from the erupted volcanic deposits such as lava flows and tephra. Volcanoes that terminate in such a summit crater are of a conical form. Other volcanic craters may be found on the flanks of volcanoes, these are referred to as flank craters; some volcanic craters may fill either or with rain and/or melted snow, forming a crater lake.
A crater may be breached during an eruption, either by explosions or by lava, or through erosion. Breached craters have a much lower rim on one side; some volcanoes, such as maars, consist of a crater alone, with scarcely any mountain at all. These volcanic explosion craters are formed when magma rises through water-saturated rocks, which causes a phreatic eruption. Volcanic craters from phreatic eruptions occur on plains away from other obvious volcanoes. Not all volcanoes form craters. Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a magma chamber