The Alaunt is an extinct breed of dog, with the original breed having existed in Central Asia and Europe from ancient times through the 17th century. In France, the Alaunt breed had three distinct types: the Alaunt Veantre, Alaunt Boucherie and Alaunt Gentile, they all were short-coated dogs of varying head-types. The former two resembled the molosser-type dogs much like the present-day Dogo Argentino or like the Caucasian Shepherd Dog except with short hair and a mesocephalic head which made them excellent large-game hunters; the Alaunt was bred by the Alani tribes, the nomads of Indo-European Sarmatian ancestry who spoke an Iranian language. The Alans were known as superb warriors and breeders of horses and dogs; the Alans bred their dogs for work and developed different strains within the breed for specific duties. The breed was further developed in Spain, Germany, in Italy; the Molossus descended into Epirus in about 1200 BC from the north. However, their artifacts did not resemble the Mastiff prototype, as they had a long nose of a narrow type, a long mane.
Varro, described a herding dog of Epirus, white, large-headed, undershot, used to defend sheep and goats. One group of Alans arrived in what is now Albania in the 5th or 6th centuries BC. Molossis of Epirus is located in Southern Albania, it is most plausible the Alaunt gave rise to the fighting dogs of the Molossi, which were introduced to Britain by Roman invasion in 55 BC. The Alans provided cavalry for Rome and in AD 50, 5,500 Alans were sent to Britain to guard Hadrian's Wall. Thus, the Alaunt genetic template most plausibly gave rise to the British Pugnaces as fighting dogs which English Mastiffs and Bulldogs descend from. In the AD 370s, Hun invasions divided the Alani into the Western Alans; the Eastern Alani tribes merged with the Ossetians and other nations, introducing their dogs into the bloodlines of many Balkan breeds, such as the Šarplaninac, Qen Ghedje, Hellenikos Poimenikos and other Molossers of the region. Some believe that the white-coloured Alaunts were the direct ancestors of the Balkan breeds, which in turn influenced all other white dogs in the Balkans.
The Western Alans joined the Vandals on their raids through Europe and by the AD 410s, their fierce dogs were influencing many breeds in France, Portugal and other countries, spreading the use of the "Alaunt" name, which became synonymous with a type of a working dog, rather than a specific breed. Through breeding with various scenthounds and sighthounds, some Alaunts became valued large game hunting dogs, existing in a variety of types, dictated by regional preferences. In AD 1500, Spain was used them to conquer the New World. In France, Alaunts were separated into three main categories, based on physical appearance and the duties they performed; the lightest type was the Alaunt Gentil, a greyhound-like dog, which became assimilated into the local hunting breeds with the Alaunt Veantre. The original mastiff variety, known as the Alaunt de Boucherie, was crucial in the development of the fighting and baiting dogs of France; the Alaunt de Boucherie in France was known as the Alaunt Butchers in England and the Alano in Spain and Italy and were termed the original Bulldogs as they were used to control and defend herds of cattle.
In Spain, the three categories were the Mastins and Lebrels, further separated as the ayuda and the presa, such as the Perro de Presa Canario, Fila Brasileiro, Dogo Cubano. The long, flat head of the Alaunt should never be confused with the modified brachycephalic breeds; the brachycephalic head type is wide in base, but short in length.. While the preferred bite is reverse scissor, like the Mastiff, may have been a trait introduced by the Mongolian breeds at some remote time in history, skull type and bite type are separate subjects of genetic traits; the dolichocephalic skull is narrow at base yet long in length, so the Alaunt could be referred to as a modified dolichocephalic breed, as mesocephalic is a balance of base to length. Moreover, the Alaunt or Mastiff must be separated from the Molossoides in head study, as this term does not separate the Mastiff from the mountain dogs or the Pug. Contemporary enthusiasts are developing new breeds based on Alaunt bloodlines, such as the British Alaunt, New Alaunt, Antebellum Bulldog or Altamaha Plantation Dog, Dogo Belgrado, Abraxas bulldog and the American Alaunt.
While its origins are rooted in the ancient mountain dogs of the East, the Alaunt is regarded by some cynologists as the ancestor to the original bulldog breeds. Alano Español Cane Corso Perro de Presa Canario Great Dane Greyhound Hound Dogo Dogo Argentino Fleig, Dieter. Fighting Dog Breeds. TFH Publications. ISBN 0-7938-0499-X. Hancock, David; the Mastiffs: The Big Game Hunters - Their History and Future. Charwynne Dog Features. ISBN 0-9527801-2-7. Jenkins, Robert E.. The Story of the Real Bulldog. TFH Publications. ISBN 0-7938-0491-4; the Lincoln library of essential information. Columbus, Ohio: Frontier Press. 1985. ISBN 978-0-912168-12-8. American Kennel Club Staff; the complete dog book. New York: Howell Book House. ISBN 0-87605-047-X. Derr, Mark. A dog's history of America: how our best friend explored and settled a continent. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-631-8. Couturier, Casey. "The True History of the Spanish Conquest of Americas". American Bulldog Review, Fall 2001. Prisco, Andrew de. Canine lexicon.
T. F. H. Publications. ISBN 978-0-86622-198-6. Stratton, Richard F.. This is the American pit bull terrier. T. F
Mastiff-type means a large molosser dog. The term "mastiff-type" has been used synonymously with the term "molosser". For example, the bulldog breeds, the Great Dane, mountain dogs, pit bulls and smaller dogs, such as the Boston Terrier, may be considered "mastiff-types" in this broad sense; the descriptive term, mastiff-type, should not be confused with the breed, the English Mastiff, referred to as the Mastiff. The dog genome indicates that the mastiffs and molossers are genetically related; as to the extent that foreign loanwords from the English word "dog" may be translated as "Mastiffs", molosser breeds such as the Dogo Argentino, Dogo Tyson and Dogo Canario may be considered "Mastiffs". However, these terms may refer not only to breeds called "Mastiffs" in English, but to Bulldogs and pit bulls. In addition, historical records of the development of these breeds shows that they have not only Mastiff and other molosser ancestry, but dogs from several other branches, including sighthounds and scenthounds
The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history and culture. Its permanent collection of some eight million works is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence, having been sourced during the era of the British Empire, it documents the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. It was the first public national museum in the world; the British Museum was established in 1753 based on the collections of the Irish physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane. It first opened in Montagu House, on the site of the current building, its expansion over the following 250 years was a result of expanding British colonisation and has resulted in the creation of several branch institutions, the first being the Natural History Museum in 1881. In 1973, the British Library Act 1972 detached the library department from the British Museum, but it continued to host the now separated British Library in the same Reading Room and building as the museum until 1997.
The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport, as with all national museums in the UK it charges no admission fee, except for loan exhibitions. Its ownership of some of its most famous objects originating in other countries is disputed and remains the subject of international controversy, most notably in the case of the Parthenon Marbles. Although today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum", its foundations lie in the will of the Irish physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane, a London-based doctor and scientist from Ulster. During the course of his lifetime, after he married the widow of a wealthy Jamaican planter, Sloane gathered a large collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000. At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants and drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Greece, the Ancient Near and Far East and the Americas.
On 7 June 1753, King George II gave his Royal Assent to the Act of Parliament which established the British Museum. The British Museum Act 1753 added two other libraries to the Sloane collection, namely the Cottonian Library, assembled by Sir Robert Cotton, dating back to Elizabethan times, the Harleian Library, the collection of the Earls of Oxford, they were joined in 1757 by the "Old Royal Library", now the Royal manuscripts, assembled by various British monarchs. Together these four "foundation collections" included many of the most treasured books now in the British Library including the Lindisfarne Gospels and the sole surviving manuscript of Beowulf; the British Museum was the first of a new kind of museum – national, belonging to neither church nor king open to the public and aiming to collect everything. Sloane's collection, while including a vast miscellany of objects, tended to reflect his scientific interests; the addition of the Cotton and Harley manuscripts introduced a literary and antiquarian element and meant that the British Museum now became both National Museum and library.
The body of trustees decided on a converted 17th-century mansion, Montagu House, as a location for the museum, which it bought from the Montagu family for £20,000. The trustees rejected Buckingham House, on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace, on the grounds of cost and the unsuitability of its location. With the acquisition of Montagu House, the first exhibition galleries and reading room for scholars opened on 15 January 1759. At this time, the largest parts of collection were the library, which took up the majority of the rooms on the ground floor of Montagu House and the natural history objects, which took up an entire wing on the second state storey of the building. In 1763, the trustees of the British Museum, under the influence of Peter Collinson and William Watson, employed the former student of Carl Linnaeus, Daniel Solander to reclassify the natural history collection according to the Linnaean system, thereby making the Museum a public centre of learning accessible to the full range of European natural historians.
In 1823, King George IV gave the King's Library assembled by George III, Parliament gave the right to a copy of every book published in the country, thereby ensuring that the museum's library would expand indefinitely. During the few years after its foundation the British Museum received several further gifts, including the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts and David Garrick's library of 1,000 printed plays; the predominance of natural history and manuscripts began to lessen when in 1772 the museum acquired for £8,410 its first significant antiquities in Sir William Hamilton's "first" collection of Greek vases. From 1778, a display of objects from the South Seas brought back from the round-the-world voyages of Captain James Cook and the travels of other explorers fascinated visitors with a glimpse of unknown lands; the bequest of a collection of books, engraved gems, coins and drawings by Clayton Mordaunt Cracherode in 1800 did much to raise the museum's reputation. The museum's first notable addition towards its collection of antiquities, since its foundation, was by Sir William Hamilton, British Ambassador to Naples, who sold his collection of Greek and Roman artefacts to
The Jennings Dog is a Roman sculpture of a dog with a docked tail. Named for its first modern owner, Henry Constantine Jennings, it is a 2nd-century AD Roman copy of a Hellenistic bronze original; the original was of the 2nd century BC. It is 1.05 metres high. Though it is one of only a few animal sculptures surviving from antiquity, a pair of similar marble mastiffs of the same model can be seen in the Belvedere Court of the Vatican Museums, it is identified at the British Museum as a Molossian guard dog. The Molossian breed was native to Epirus in northwestern Greece, sacked by Rome in 168 BC, so it is assumed to have been associated with some civic monument in Epirus, to have been brought to Rome. Pliny mentions a valued bronze dog surviving in Rome into his lifetime, before being lost in 69 AD:... our own generation saw on the Capitol, before it went up in flames burnt at the hands of the adherents of Vitellius, in the shrine of Juno, a bronze figure of a hound licking its wound, the miraculous excellence and absolute truth to life of, shown not only by the fact of its dedication in that place but by the method taken for insuring it.
The stone sculpture was discovered at Monte Cagnuolo, near the ancient Lanuvium, the site of an imperial villa of Antoninus Pius, 32 km southeast of Rome, where it was made. Henry Constantine Jennings saw it in a pile of rubble in Cavaceppi's workshop in Rome between 1753 and 1756, bought it from him for 400 scudi, took it back to Britain; the sculpture became famous on its arrival in Britain, praised by Horace Walpole among a scant handful of masterly Roman sculptures of animals, with replicas that were thought to make "a most noble appearance in a gentleman's hall", in Dr Johnson's words. A story in Plutarch's life of Alcibiades tells of the statesman owning a large, handsome dog whose tail Alcibiades cut off so as to invoke pity from the Athenians and distract them from his worse deeds; the broken tail of this sculpture led Jennings to link it to this story, calling it "the dog of Alcibiades". A 19th-century pair carved in serpentine were sold by Bonham's, London, in 2005. In settlement of his gambling debts in 1778, Jennings was forced to sell the sculpture, stating "A fine dog it was, a lucky dog was I to purchase it".
The dog was soon afterwards sold at Phillips for £1000 to the Rt Hon Charles Duncombe. James Boswell records a conversation between Johnson and other members of the Literary Club, around the time of the statue's sale, in which Edmund Burke exclaimed "A thousand guineas! The representation of no animal whatever is worth so much", to which Dr Johnson replied "Sir, it is not the worth of the thing, but the skill in forming it, so estimated; every thing that enlarges the sphere of human powers, that shews man he can do what he thought he could not do, is valuable."For 150 years the sculpture stood guard in the entrance hall of Duncombe Park, the family mansion in Yorkshire. It remained there, away from public view, until 1925. In that year, inheritance taxes forced the Duncombes to rent out the hall to Queen Mary's School for Girls, whose pupils were rumoured to feed the dog unwanted Marmite sandwiches, it was sold by Thomas Duncombe's descendent Charles Anthony Peter Duncombe, 6th Baron Feversham, in 2001.
The Houston Museum, Texas, USA attempted to purchase it, at the price of $950,000, but the granting of an export licence was deferred by the UK government. The Heritage Lottery Fund, National Art Collections Fund, British Museum Friends, Duthie Fund, Ready Bequest, Caryatid Fund, Mrs Barbara G. Fleischman, Mr Frank A. Ladd and the Ready Bequest had pledged funds to help "save it for the nation". With the sculpture on temporary display in its Great Court, the delay on the export allowed the British Museum enough time to raise the remaining £662,297 through a public appeal, thus to acquire it permanently, it is now on permanent display in gallery 22 of the Museum, B. 2001.1010.1. Export of Works of Art 2000-2001 by the Department for Culture and Sport Encyclopaedia Romana Diggings Online Kennedy, Maev. "Give a dog a bone". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-04. Green, Susie. "Hound dog days". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-07-04
The Greek Shepherd or Greek Sheepdog is a Greek livestock guardian dog, bred for centuries for guarding livestock in the mountainous regions of the country. The Greek Sheepdog is a medium to large size dog, with a solid body and great physical strength, capable of escorting the flock and fight with the enemy while maintaining its physical superiority, its head is massive with its muzzle-skull. The skull is curved, with obvious hyper eyebrow arches and it is nearly as wide as it is long; the muzzle and cheeks are deep. It has a scissors or plane bite and is covered by fat and loose lips; the skin is covered by dense fur. Cropping the ears is not permitted, dogs with cropped ears cannot be shown; the brown eyes are of average size, egg-shaped, placed symmetrical in parallel lines of the oblong axon of the skull, with enough distance between each other. From the oblique side of the head their position is a little under the muzzle level, as if there is an imaginary line extended toward the skull. More dark tints are preferred.
The eyelids must be tight without revealing their mucous membrane. This dog has a serious penetrating, calm look about him; the chest must be deep up to the height of the elbows. The thorax consists of arched ribs with medium curvature; the tail is thick at the base. Some have long tails; the double coat is abundant. Coat colors include grayish-brown and white; the breed has never been bred for color, but rather for a heavy skeleton, good muscle, a dense, semi-long to long coat. DetailsHeight: Males 25–29 inches Females 23–26 inches Weight: Males 84–110 pounds Females 70–92 pounds Life expectancy: about 12 years Recognition: KCG, APRI, DRA A Greek Shepherd might not be suitable for first-time dog owners; as all livestock guardian dogs, they tend to be independent thinkers. They are considered brave, loyal, working dogs with a high sense of duty and strong protective instinct towards flock animals and their environment. Wary, loyal only to the flock leader-shepherd, the Greek Sheepdog can be characterized as the Big Mountain shepherd’s dog of Greece.
They do not tolerate violent training. These independent dogs need intelligent guidance, they need an owner. When placed in a pack situation, this dog could seek to be top dog by fights. Suspicious but tactful in the presence of strangers, they do not make friends easily, they are ready to protect at all costs at any time. When protecting their flock they move along the border, selecting places from where they will be able to see a wide area, they are able to drive them back with their deep bark. If their deep bark does not drive them away they will pursue the attack. Early socialization is vital, they have a tendency to judge a situation before taking any action. The decline of livestock farming and uncontrolled interbreeding with other dogs altered its distinctive characteristics and it has been estimated that less than 3,000 pure Greek Shepherd dogs have remained in the country. In an attempt to rescue it, ARCTUROS has been implementing the Greek Shepherd Dog Breeding Program since 1998. Molossus of Epirus ΟΦΕΠ Website ARCTUROS Website
The Tibetan Mastiff is a large Tibetan dog breed in the mastiff family. Originating with the nomadic cultures of Tibet, China and Nepal, it is used by local tribes of Tibetans to protect sheep from wolves, bears, large mustelids, tigers; the Tibetan Mastiff known as Drog-Khyi in Tibetan, which means "nomad dog", reflects its use as a guardian of herds, tents, villages and palaces, much as the old English ban-dog was a dog tied outside the home as a guardian. However, in nomad camps and in villages, the Drog-Khyi is traditionally allowed to run loose at night; this dog is known for its loyalty, it has been used as nomad dog for thousands of years. The guardian type from which the modern Tibetan Mastiff breed has been derived was known across the ancient world by many names. Bhote Kukur in Nepali as bhote means someone from Tibet and kukur means dog; the Chinese name for the breed is 藏獒, meaning "Tibetan Mastiff-dog". In Mongolia, a similar looking dog it is called банхар, but this dog is genetically distinct and is of a more ancient linage..
The name Tibetan Mastiff is a misnomer. The term "mastiff" was used by the Europeans who first came to Tibet because it was used to refer to nearly all large dog breeds in the West. Early Western visitors to Tibet misnamed several of its breeds: The "Tibetan Terrier" is not a terrier and the "Tibetan Spaniel" is not a spaniel. A better name for the dog might be Tibetan mountain dog or, to encompass the landrace breed throughout its range, Himalayan mountain dog; some breeders differentiate between two "types" of the Do-khyi and the Tsang-khyi. The Tsang-khyi is referred to as the "monastery" type, described as taller and more boned, with more facial wrinkling and haw than the Do-khyi or "nomad" type. Both types are produced in the same litter with the larger, heavier pups being placed in more stationary jobs versus more active jobs for the Tibetan Mastiffs that are better structured and well-muscled. Males can reach heights up to 83 cm; the original Tibetan mastiff breed from its native range weighed 55–90 kg.
The enormous dogs being produced in some Western and Chinese kennels, which sometimes weigh in excess of 115 kg would have cost too much to keep fed to have been useful to nomads. The Tibetan Mastiff is considered a primitive breed, it retains the hardiness which would be required for it to survive in Tibet and the high-altitude Himalayan range, including the northern part of Nepal and Bhutan. Instinctive behaviors including canine pack behavior contributed to the survival of the breed in harsh environments, it is one of the few primitive dog breeds that retains a single estrus per year instead of two at much lower altitudes and in much more temperate climates than its native climate. This characteristic is found in wild canids such as the wolf and other wild animals. Since its estrus takes place during late fall, most Tibetan Mastiff puppies are born between December and January, its double coat is long, subject to climate, found in a wide variety of colors, including solid black and tan, various shades of red and bluish-gray with white markings.
Some breeders are now marketing white Tibetan Mastiffs. These dogs are very pale gold, not white. Photoshop is used to make dogs of normal color appear white in advertisements; the coat of a Tibetan Mastiff lacks the unpleasant big-dog smell. The coat, whatever color, should shed dirt and odors. Although the dogs shed somewhat throughout the year, there is one great molt in late winter or early spring and sometimes another, lesser molt in the late summer or early fall. Tibetan Mastiffs are shown under one standard in the West, but separated by the Indian breed standard into two varieties: Lion Head and Tiger Head; as a flock guardian dog in Tibet and in the West, it uses all the usual livestock guardian tactics to warn away predators and avoid direct confrontations. As a socialized, more domestic dog, it can thrive in a spacious, fenced yard with a canine companion, but it is not an appropriate dog for apartment living; the Western-bred dogs are more easy-going, although somewhat aloof with strangers coming to the home.
Through hundreds of years of selective breeding for a protective flock and family guardian, the breed has been prized for being a nocturnal sentry, keeping would-be predators and intruders at bay, barking at sounds throughout the night. Leaving a Tibetan Mastiff outside all night with neighbors nearby is not recommended, they sleep during the day, making them more active and aware at night. Like all flock guardian breeds, they are intelligent and stubborn to a fault, so obedience training is recommended since this is a strong-willed, powerful breed. Unless they are to be used as livestock guardians, socialization obedience training is critical with this br
The Alans were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity. The name Alan is an Iranian dialectical form of Aryan. Related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by modern historians with the Central Asian Yancai and Aorsi of Chinese and Roman sources, respectively. Having migrated westwards and become dominant among the Sarmatians on the Pontic Steppe, they are mentioned by Roman sources in the 1st century AD. At the time, they had settled the region north of the Black Sea and raided the Parthian Empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire. From 215–250 AD, their power on the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Goths. Upon the Hunnic defeat of the Goths on the Pontic Steppe around 375 AD, many of the Alans migrated westwards along with various Germanic tribes, they crossed the Rhine in 406 AD along with the Vandals and Suebi, settling in Valence. Around 409 AD, they joined the Vandals and Suebi in the crossing of the Pyrenees into the Iberian Peninsula, settling in Lusitania and Carthaginensis.
The Iberian Alans were soundly defeated by the Visigoths in 418 AD and subsequently surrendered their authority to the Hasdingi Vandals. In 428 AD, the Vandals and Alans crossed the Strait of Gibraltar into North Africa, where they founded a powerful kingdom which lasted until its conquest by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century AD; the Alans who remained under Hunnic rule founded a powerful kingdom in the North Caucasus in the Middle Ages, which ended with the Mongol invasions in the 13th century AD. These Alans are said to be the ancestors of the modern Ossetians; the Alans spoke an Eastern Iranian language which derived from Scytho-Sarmatian and which in turn evolved into modern Ossetian. The various forms of Alan – Greek: Ἀλανοί Alanoi; this word was preserved in the modern Ossetian language in the form of Allon. These and other variants of Aryan were common self-designations of the Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryans and Iranian peoples to whom the Alans belonged.
Rarer spellings include Halani. The Alans were known over the course of their history by another group of related names including the variations Asi, As, Os, it is this name, the root of the modern Ossetian. The first mentions of names that historians link with the Alani appear at the same time in texts from the Mediterranean, Middle East and China. In the 1st century AD, the Alans migrated westwards from Central Asia, achieving a dominant position among the Sarmatians living between the Don River and the Caspian Sea; the Alans are mentioned in the Vologeses inscription which reads that Vologeses I, the Parthian king between around 51 and 78 AD, in the 11th year of his reign, battled Kuluk, king of the Alani. The 1st century AD. Josephus reports in the Jewish Wars how Alans living near the Sea of Azov crossed the Iron Gates for plunder and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I: 4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have mentioned somewhere as being Scythians, living around Tanais and Lake Maeotis.
This nation about this time laid a design of falling upon Media, the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them. This king gave; these Alans therefore plundered the country without opposition, with great ease, proceeded as far as Armenia, laying waste all before them. Now, Tiridates was king of that country, who met them and fought them but was lucky not to have been taken alive in the battle. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this sight, laid waste the country, drove a great multitude of the men, a great quantity of the other booty from both kingdoms, along with them, retreated back to their own country; the fact that the Alans invaded Parthia through Hyrcania shows that at the time many Alans were still based north-east of the Caspian Sea. By the early 2nd century AD the Alans were in firm control of Kuban; these lands had earlier been occupied by the Aorsi and the Siraces, whom the Alans absorbed, dispersed and/or destroyed, since they were no longer mentioned in contemporaneous accounts.
It is that the Alans' influence stretched further westwards, encompassing most of the Sarmatian world, which by possessed a homogenous culture. In 135 AD, the Alans made a huge raid into Asia Minor via the Caucasus, ravaging Armenia, they were driven back by Arrian, the governor of Cappadocia, who wrote a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or'War Ag