The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Phantasmagoria (The Damned album)
Phantasmagoria is the sixth album by the Damned, released by MCA in July 1985. Special editions were available on white picture disc. After much wrangling, the Damned received a new contract with MCA Records in October 1984 on the strength of the song "Grimly Fiendish", issued as a single the following March, they recorded the album in Eel Pie Studios between March and June 1985. It reached No. 11 in the charts, was the band's highest charting album ever. The non-album single "Eloise,", released six months became a huge UK hit, reaching No. 3. The Damned centred the entire album around David Vanian's deep voice, giving much of the album a gothic feeling; the album was remastered and reissued by Geffen Records in Japan in 2007, featuring replicas of the LP's outer and inner sleeves and a CD label resembling the white vinyl edition. In 2009, an expanded edition was issued by Universal Music Group in Europe; the cover image of Susie Bick was taken by photographer Bob Carlos Clarke at Kensal Green Cemetery, Harrow Road.
All tracks written except where noted. NoteThe non-album single "Eloise" appeared as a bonus track on the 1986 reissued LP versions in Australia and Italy. All tracks written except where noted. Note"Let There Be Rats" and "Wiped Out" were released as a Rat Scabies 7" solo single in 1984; the DamnedDave Vanian – vocals Roman Jugg – guitar, vocals Bryn Merrick – bass Rat Scabies – drumsAdditional musiciansPaul Shepley – additional keyboards Andy Richards – additional keyboards Luís Jardim – percussion Gary Barnacle – saxophone and brass Steve Nieve – keyboard inspiration ProductionJon Kelly – production, engineering Chris Ludwinsky – additional engineering Bob Sargeant – production The Damned – production Bob Carlos Clarke – cover photography Booce – cover artworkExpanded Edition disc 2Vivian Mason – vocals Rat Scabies - guitar Roman Jugg - vocals, drums Paul Shepley – keyboards The Damned – production Will Birch – production
Damned Damned Damned
Damned Damned Damned is the debut studio album by English punk rock band the Damned. It was released on 18 February 1977 by Stiff Records. Produced by Nick Lowe, Damned Damned Damned was the first full-length album released by a UK punk group. After the success of "New Rose" and a tour with the Sex Pistols, the Heartbreakers and the Clash, the band went into Pathway Studios to record the album Damned Damned Damned with producer Nick Lowe, who had recorded "New Rose" with them. Following 10 days of recording, the mix was completed on 15 January 1977, the day the master tapes were compiled; the album cover features the four members of the band. Guitarist Brian James recalled: "That was organised by this photographer called Peter Kodick, Stiff had assigned him to do the thing, they thought it was a jolly wheeze to surprise us with a few cream cakes, little knowing that we would relish it, get into to it and enjoy the whole experience". After the photo session, Damned bassist Captain Sensible noted: "...
I had more pie on my face than any of the other buggers and on the back of the sleeve I had my back to the picture, so I went down a photo booth and got some pictures, cut one out and said'put that on there' so I would have something to show my relatives, because I didn't think we'd be invited to make another album". Stiff deliberately printed a limited number of initial copies of the LP with a photo of Eddie and the Hot Rods on the back of the album cover, rather than the Damned playing at The Roxy. An "erratum" sticker was put on the back cover, on the front of the LP - on top of the original shrink wrap - was a red "food-fight" sticker that said "Damned Damned", thus completing the LP title when read underneath the band's name. Stiff was known for such unusual promotional activity; as of 2009, a copy of this rare print which still had both stickers and the shrink wrap intact fetched £200-500, depending on condition. The album design was credited to a pseudonym of Barney Bubbles. Damned Damned Damned was issued by Stiff Records on 18 February 1977, James' 22nd birthday.
In a contemporary review, NME praised the group's musical ability, opining that the Damned have "all the residual skills needed for the actual performance of exhausting modern music", stating that James was the most effective powerhouse guitarist since Pete Townshend and concluding that the album as a whole was "a professional production and is much more convincing than some other new wave bands I've heard on record."BBC's retrospective review praised the album's energy, pop satire and general humour, commenting, "Each track featured the hammering toms of Rat Scabies and Captain Sensible's bass-as-guitar propelling Brian James' exhilarating machine gun axe into your living room". The American press has favored the album. Ned Raggett of AllMusic gave it their highest rating of 5 stars, calling it "a stone classic of rock & roll fire" and declaring that "Damned Damned Damned is and remains rock at its messy, wonderful best." Pitchfork positively assessed the album in a negative review of the Damned's 2001 album Grave Disorder, stating, "I won't lie to you: the Damned's new album isn't good.
In fact, the Damned have only recorded a few albums that were—for instance, their debut or 1979's Machine Gun Etiquette". All tracks written except where noted. Adapted from the album's liner notes; the first disc contains the twelve tracks from the original album. NoteDisc 3 was recorded at the Damned's live debut at the 100 Club on 6 July 1976 supporting the Sex Pistols. Recorded on a Sony cassette recorder, hidden in a sports bag, onto a Scotch 120 tape. Dave Vanian – vocals Brian James – guitar, vocals Captain Sensible – bass, vocals Rat Scabies – drums, vocals Nick Lowe – producer Barry "Bazza" Farmer – engineer Peter "Kodick" Gravelle - cover photographyAdditional production Disc 2Matt Dangerfield – producer, engineer Jeff Griffin – producer Shel Talmy – producer Mike Robinson – engineer Damned Damned Damned at Discogs
Dave Vanian is a rock musician and lead singer of the punk rock band The Damned. Formed in 1976 in London, The Damned were the first British punk band to release a single, an album, have a record hit the UK charts, tour the United States. With a fluid line-up since their founding, Vanian has been the only ever-present member, his rich baritone voice has been described as "impressively sonorous". Born in Hemel Hempstead, Vanian changed his name from Lett to Vanian in early life after a stint as a gravedigger – Vanian being a play on "Transylvanian", he remains one of the early influencers of gothic fashion, wearing dark and otherworldly clothing both on stage and off. He is known to be a fan of renaissance art, film noir and horror movies, all of which manifest in his stage appearance. In November 1976, the British music magazine NME stated that Vanian "resembles a runaway from the Addams Family". In 1978, he was guest in the song "Don't Panic England", from the band Doctors of Madness. In 2004, he and Captain Sensible turned on the Christmas lights in Cambridge, causing some controversy.
Vanian sang with the MC5 for their 40th anniversary singing "Looking at You", released as part of Revolution: A Celebration of the MC5. In 2008, with the band the Throb, played "Let's Get Lost" to the compilation The Original Sailor Jerry Rum – Music To........... To. Outside of the Damned he has led the rockabilly band David Vanian & the Phantom Chords, hosted Dave Vanian's Dark Screen on the UK-based television channel Rockworld TV and composed the soundtrack for the 2009 film, The Perfect Sleep. Vanian has kept his personal life out of the limelight opting out of any input into The Damned biography The Light at the End of the Tunnel by Carol Clerk. Vanian joined The Damned in 1976 He married his first wife Laurie in 1977, but they separated in the mid-1990s, he married Patricia Morrison in Las Vegas in 1996, after The Damned had performed an Australian tour. The couple have one child and live in Islington in London Dave Vanian and the Phantom Chords The Damned: Dave Vanian section Interview, November 1993
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Patricia Morrison is an American bass guitarist and songwriter. She worked with The Gun Club, Fur Bible, The Sisters of Mercy and The Damned, she was active in the Los Angeles, California punk rock scene in her mid-teens, was a founding member of The Bags in 1976. She left that band after a fallout with Alice Bag, she began Legal Weapon in 1981. Morrison joined The Gun Club in 1982, she formed the band Fur Bible with Kid Congo Powers, performing as the opening act for Siouxsie and the Banshees. It was during this time Morrison was contacted by Andrew Eldritch, asking her to join The Sisters of Mercy, she performed on The Sisters of Mercy's 1987 album Floodland. According to Jennifer Park: The Sisters of Mercy song "Lucretia My Reflection" was written by Eldritch about Morrison; the lyrics compare her to the historical figure of Lucrezia Borgia. She left the band in the early 1990s, claiming money, owed by Eldritch was not paid. In 1994, Morrison released Reflect on This. In 1996, she joined The Damned.
That same year Morrison married the Damned's lead singer Dave Vanian. After giving birth to Emily Vanian in 2004, Morrison retired from the Damned. Http://www.artifixrecords.com/bagsbio.htm 13. Artifixrecords.com March 15, 2003