Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Ainharp is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainharbars. Or Ainharbear. Ainharp is located some 50 km west by southwest of Pau, 15 km southeast of Saint-Palais, 10 km north-west of Mauleon-Licharre, it is part of the former province of Soule. The commune can be accessed by road D242 from Lohitzun-Oyhercq in the west passing through the village and continuing southeast to Mauleon-Licharre; the D344 road goes to the north from the village through the commune east to Espes-Undurein. The commune terrain is undulating of mixed forest. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is the source of numerous streams including the Lagardoye which forms part of the south-eastern border, the Quihilleri which forms much of the western border, the Lafaure which forms much of the northern border; the commune name in Basque is Ainharbe. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan proposed two etymological interpretations: a meaning of "low heather" from ilharr meaning "heather" and -be or "height of the low rocks" from gain meaning "high" and har meaning "rock" that indicates the high position of the village on the left bank of the Saison.
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque ToponymyOrigins: Notaries: Notaries of Labastide-Villefranche Ohix:Contracts retained by Ohix, Notary of Soule Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the commune was a former priory in the diocese of Oloron and that there was a hospital for pilgrims. List of Successive Mayors of Ainharp Mayors from 1929 Ainharp is a member of seven intercommunal structures: the community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the association to support Basque culture the intercommunal association of the Valley the intercommunal association for the construction and operation of the CES of Mauleon the AEP association for Soule Country the remediation association for Soule Country the energy association of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques The activity is agricultural.
The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. The commune has a church which dates back to the 11th century and a Calvary-Bell Tower from the 17th century, its cemetery features Hilarri dating from the time of the bell tower. The village is located on a secondary road of the pilgrimage to Saint Jacques de Compostela which passes on the highway to Ports de Cize, the priory of Saint-Palais to Saint-Michel-le-Vieux which had a hospice for pilgrims called Benta to L'Hôpital-Saint-Blaise, Pagolle, Haux and Ordiarp; the commune has a primary school. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINHARBE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ainharp on Lion1906 Ainharp on Google Maps Ainharp on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ainharp on the 1750 Cassini Map Ainharp on the INSEE website INSEE
Ainhice-Mongelos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Lower Navarre; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Monjolostars. The town is part of the country Basque province of Cize of Lower Navarre, it is located in the Pyrenees mountains some 40 km in a direct line southeast of Bayonne and about 15 km northeast of the Spanish border. The commune is farmland with scattered small forests. Access to Ainhice-Mongelos is via the Highway D933 which runs northeast from Saint-Jean-le-Vieux which runs from southwest to northeast along the eastern side of the commune through the village of Mongelos continues northeast, ending near Saint Palais. Just south of the commune at Lacarre, the Highway D422 branches from the D933 to the northwest and passes through the western side of the commune, ending at Lopeenia just to the west of the commune. No other highways enter the commune; the village of Anhice-Mongelos can be reached by a country road from the D933 at Mongelos or by any of the many country roads which cover the commune.
In the Drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is traversed by a tributary of the Nive, the Lakako erreka and, a tributary of the Laurhibar, the Arzubiko erreka and by tributaries of the latter, the Bassaguibeléko erreka and the Idiondoa brook. The Artikaitéko erreka which flows into Bidouze passes through the commune; the name of the commune in Basque is Ainhize-Monjolose. According to Jean-Baptiste Orpustan the origin of the name Ainhice remains unknown. According to Brigitte Jobbé-Duval Mongelos is a Gascon name meaning Mont Jaloux; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Mérimée: Presentation of Ainhice-Mongelos on the Ministry of Culture database. Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Origins: Pamplona: Titles of Pamplona Biscay: Martin Biscay Navarre: Regulations of the States of Navarre Camara: Titles of the Camara de Comptos Ohix: Contracts of Ohix Bayonne: Visitations of the Diocese of Bayonne The medieval village of Mongelos was established in 1240 as subject to the King of Navarre.
Subject to Ainhice, they were reunited on 16 August 1841. List of Successive Mayors of Anhice-Mongelos The commune belongs to seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Garazi-Baigorri the AEP union of Ainhice the energy union of Pyrenees-Atlantiques the school union for RPI Ainhice-Gamarthe-Lacarre the inter-communal association for the development and management of the abattoir at Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port the joint association for the watershed of the Nive the union to support Basque culture. Economic activity is agricultural; the town is part of the zone of appellation of Ossau-iraty. Euskal Herriko Laborantza Ganbara or the "Chamber of Agriculture for the Basque Country" is an association under the law of 1901 founded on 15 January 2005 and is headquartered in Ainhice-Mongelos. According to the Map of the Seven Basque Provinces published in 1863 by Prince Louis-Lucien Bonaparte, the dialect of Basque spoken in Ainhice-Mongelos is eastern low Navarrese. Several houses and farms are registered as historical monuments.
These are: Houses and Farms Barnetxea Farm Elizaldea Farm Etxeparea Farm Irazabalea Farm Church of the Assumption The town has a kindergarten. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department AINHIZE-MONJOLOSE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Ainhice-Mongelos on Lion1906 Ainhice on the 1750 Cassini Map Ainhice-Mongelos on the INSEE website INSEE
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France. It takes its name from the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the Béarn. Named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre, i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd and Soule, Béarn. The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native laws; the Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers Garat, representing Labourd voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions. On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwest France. It is bordered by Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Biarritz, Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located here. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain. Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, 344,000 workers in the local area. Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan the main language of southern France, it is more related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by all inhabitants. Pyrénées-Atlantiques is home to a number of professional sports teams, including Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique, Section Paloise, Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez and Pau FC.
The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship. The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces: Béarn Labourd Lower Navarre Soule Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department General Council website Archives of the Pyrenees-Atlantiques department website Photography Panoramics 360° website Prefecture official website Pyrenees-Atlantiques at Curlie Pyrenees-Atlantiques Monuments, Villages and Attractions Information on living and visiting Pyrenees Atlantiques
Abidos is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. Abidos is a Béarnais commune located some 13 km south-east of Orthez and 4 km north of Mourenx on the south side of the Gave de Pau. Access to the commune is by the D31 road from Le Bourguet in the north turning west in the commune to access the village and continuing southwest to join the D9; the D33 road from Noguères in the southeast passes through the commune east of the village and joins the D31 as it turns west. The commune has an industrial area in the southwest with the rest of the commune farmland; the Gave de Pau forms the north-eastern border of the commune and passes through the northern corner of the commune as it flows north-west to join the Gave d'Oloron at Peyrehorade. The Baïse river flows through the centre of the commune from the southeast and joins the Gave de Pau in the commune; the Luzoué flows from the southeast through the west of the commune to join the Gave de Pau.
Bastia Bernacheyre Chalosse Joanlong Pleasure Us The name Abidos appears in the forms: Avitos in the 11th century, Pierre de Marca and around 1100 and in the Cartulary of the Abbey of Lucq. Avitoss was another form around 1100, Cartulary of the Abbey of Lucq-de-Béarn. *Avezos appeared around 1100 in the Cartulary of the Abbey of Lucq-de-Béarn Avidoos in the 13th century in the Fors de Béarn Sent-Sadarnii of Abidos in 1344 Notaries of Pardies Bidos and Bydos in 1548, Reformation of Béarn Abidos on the Cassini Map of 1750Michel Grosclaude offers a Latin etymology of Avitus plus the Aquitaine suffix -ossum "domain of Avitus". Its name in Béarnais is Avidos. Paul Raymond notes that in 1385, Abidos had 18 fires and depended on the bailiwicks of Lagor and Pardies. Abidos had a castle with an attached door across the Pau river. List of Successive Mayors of Abidos Abidos is a member of seven inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Lacq SIVU for the development and management of the river basin of Baïses AEP union for water and Baise.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The 2006 classification by INSEE, indicated that the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households classed Abidos to rank at No. 10,338, with an average income of €17,174. The town is part of the zone designation of Ossau-iraty. There is an old chapel at Abidos castle. An arboretum created by the community of communes of Lacq and the Abengoa BioEnergy France company, is located behind the village hall. Found in Abydos, a mill with its canal; the path of Naöu means an unencumbered way along the Pau river. The commune has a school with two classrooms for primary school, a school canteen, a library; the town has a sports field in the centre with a football field, basketball court, volleyball court, tennis courts. There is a sports hall equipped for basketball and Basque pelota. Lastly there is a roller skate park for BMX edge of the Baise. Raoul Vergez was born in Abidos on 3 August 1908 and died in Senlis on 7 July 1977.
He was writer and journalist. Known by the name of "Béarnais, the friend of the Tour de France", he left an important mark on the work of the Companions in France, he reported from the United States during a trip in 1952, some special techniques for companion carpenters. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Abidos on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Abidos on the 1750 Cassini Map Abidos on the INSEE website INSEE
Anos is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Anosiens or Anosiennes Anos is located some 15 km north-east of Pau and 10 km south-east of Auriac. Access to the commune is by road D39 from Morlaas in the south passing north through the commune and the village and continuing north to join the D834 just north of Astis. Several other country roads pass through the commune; the Lau river forms the western border of the commune with the eastern shore of the Lake of Saint-Amour forming the part just west of the village. The Lau flows north to join the Luy de France which forms the eastern border of the commune; the commune name in Béarnais is Anòs. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval indicates that Anos could be of Gallic origin being the name of the property owner Andus plus the suffix -ossu with a proposed meaning of "Domain of Andus"; the name Anos was mentioned in 1243 in the Titles of Ossau and in the Cassini map in 1750).
Paul Raymond noted on page 6 of the 1863 dictionary that in the 14th century Anos belonged to the community of Preachers of Morlaàs. The commune was part of the archdeaconry of Vic-Bihl which depended on the diocese of Lescar of which Lembeye was the capital. List of Successive Mayors Anos is part of five inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of Pays de Morlaàs. In 2009 the commune had 193 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Anos is part of the Urban area of Pau; the Maison Tachoères farmhouse is registered as an historical monument. Other Houses and Farms are registered as historical monuments; the Parish Church of Saint-Laurent is registered as an historical monument.
An artificial lake called Lake Saint-Armou or Lake of Anos is on the border between the two communes. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Anos on Lion1906 Anos on Google Maps Anos on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Anos on the 1750 Cassini Map Anos on the INSEE website INSEE
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona