Strafford County, New Hampshire
Strafford County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 123,143, its county seat is Dover. Strafford County was one of the five original counties identified for New Hampshire in 1769, it was named after William Wentworth, 2nd Earl of Strafford in the mistaken belief that he was the ancestor of governor John Wentworth – although they were distantly related, William had no descendants. The county was organized at Dover in 1771. In 1840, the size of the original county was reduced with the creation of Belknap County. Strafford County constitutes a portion of the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as of the greater Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area. Strafford County is in southeastern New Hampshire, separated from York County in the state of Maine by the Salmon Falls River; the southern part of the Salmon Falls, from Rollinsford to Dover, is a tidal river that flows into the Piscataqua River.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 384 square miles, of which 369 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water, it is the smallest county in New Hampshire by area. Carroll County York County, Maine Rockingham County Merrimack County Belknap County As of the census of 2000, there were 112,233 people, 42,581 households, 27,762 families residing in the county; the population density was 304 people per square mile. There were 45,539 housing units at an average density of 124 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.29% White, 0.63% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.39% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 1.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.8% were of English, 14.9% Irish, 14.0% French, 10.5% French Canadian, 7.6% American, 6.3% Italian and 6.2% German ancestry. 93.7% spoke English and 3.2% French as their first language. There were 42,581 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.10% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.80% were non-families.
24.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 13.60% from 18 to 24, 30.60% from 25 to 44, 20.90% from 45 to 64, 11.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,803, the median income for a family was $53,075. Males had a median income of $36,661 versus $26,208 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,479. About 5.00% of families and 9.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.10% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. The largest cities in Strafford County are Rochester; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 123,143 people, 47,100 households, 29,862 families residing in the county.
The population density was 333.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 51,697 housing units at an average density of 140.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.8% white, 2.6% Asian, 1.0% black or African American, 0.2% American Indian, 0.5% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.8% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.4% were French or French Canadian, 19.7% were Irish, 17.4% were English, 9.5% were Italian, 8.7% were German, 5.2% were American, 5.0% were Scottish. Of the 47,100 households, 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families, 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.93. The median age was 36.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $57,809 and the median income for a family was $72,286.
Males had a median income of $50,489 versus $37,178 for females. The per capita income for the county was $28,059. About 6.7% of families and 11.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.3% of those under age 18 and 8.0% of those age 65 or over. The executive power of Strafford County's government is held by three county commissioners. In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer; the legislative branch of Strafford County is made up of all of the members of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from the county. In total, as of January 2019 there were 37 members from 25 different districts. Dover Rochester Somersworth Durham Farmington Milton Milton Mills Bow Lake Village Center Strafford East Rochester Gonic North Rochester Place National Register of Historic Places listings in Strafford County, New Hampshire Robert S. Canney, The Early Marriages of Strafford County, New Hampshire.
Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1995. D. Hamilton Hurd, History of Rockingham and Strafford Counties, New Hampshire: With Biographical Sketches of Many of Its Pioneers and Prominent Men. Philadelphia: J. W. Lewis, 1882. John Scales, History of Strafford County, New Hampshire and Representative Citizens. Chicago: Richmond-Arnold Publishing Co. 1914. Strafford County web site
Claremont, New Hampshire
Claremont is the only city in Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 13,355 at the 2010 census. Before colonial settlement, the Upper Connecticut River Valley was home to the Pennacook and Western Abenaki peoples merging with members of other Algonquin tribes displaced by the wars and famines that accompanied the European settling of the region; the Hunter Archeological Site, located near the bridge connecting Claremont with Ascutney, Vermont, is a significant prehistoric Native American site that includes seven levels of occupational evidence, including evidence of at least three longhouses. The oldest dates recorded from evidence gathered during excavations in 1967 were to AD 1300; the city was named after the country mansion of Thomas Pelham-Holles, Earl of Clare. On October 26, 1764, Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth granted the township to Josiah Willard, Samuel Ashley and 67 others. Although first settled in 1762 by Moses Spafford and David Lynde, many of the proprietors arrived in 1767, with a large number from Farmington and Colchester, Connecticut.
The undulating surface of rich, gravelly loam made agriculture an early occupation. Spafford was deeded land from Col. Samuel Ashley, given a charter to establish a ferry across the Connecticut River in 1784, the location of, still known as Ashley's Ferry landing. Spafford was the first man to marry in Claremont, his son, was the first white child to be born in the town; the Union Episcopal Church in West Claremont was built in 1773, is the oldest surviving Episcopal church building in New Hampshire and the state's oldest surviving building built for religious purposes. The parish was organized in 1771 and chartered by the New Hampshire legislature in 1794 as Union Church Parish. Located across the street, Old St. Mary's Church, built in 1823 in the Federalist style, was the first Roman Catholic church in New Hampshire, it was discontinued in 1870 in favor of the new St. Mary's Church in the Lower Village District. During the American Revolution, Claremont had a large number of loyalists, who used a small wooded valley in West Claremont called the Tory Hole to hide from the patriots.
In 1777, when the New Hampshire Grants declared their own sovereignty as the Vermont Republic, Claremont was one of sixteen New Hampshire towns inclined to join them, made multiple attempts to do so. Claremont's first millwright was Col. Benjamin Tyler, who arrived in the area from Farmington, Connecticut, in the spring of 1767. Tyler built mills using stone quarried from his land on nearby Mount Ascutney, built Claremont's first mill on the Sugar River on the site of the Coy Paper Mill. Tyler invented the wry-fly water wheel, the subject of the Supreme Court case Tyler v. Tuel, his grandson John Tyler evolved the technology to create the Tyler Water Wheel and the Tyler Turbine. Tyler's grandson was Benjamin Tyler Henry, inventor of the Henry Repeating rifle, manufactured in neighboring Windsor and used in the Civil War; the water power harnessed from the Sugar River brought the town prosperity during the Industrial Revolution. Large brick factories were built along the stream, including the Sunapee Mills, Monadnock Mills, Claremont Machine Works, Home Mills, Sanford & Rossiter, Claremont Manufacturing Company.
Principal products were cotton and woolen textiles and planers, paper. Although like other New England mill towns, much industry moved away or closed in the 20th century, the city's former prosperity is evident in some fine Victorian architecture, including the 1897 city hall and opera house. In 1874, businesses in Claremont included Monadnock Mills, manufacturing cotton cloths from one to three yards wide, Marseilles quilts, union flannels, lumber, employing 125 males and 225 females; the Monadnock Mills Co. and Sullivan Mills Co. were responsible the two most prominent collections of manufacturing structures in the Lower Village District. Monadnock Mills' textile operations began with its founding in 1842, lasted through 1932, shuttering operations following the decline of the textile industry in New England during the 1920s. By the 1920s, Sullivan Mills Co. had become New Hampshire's largest machining company, as well as Claremont's largest employer. Sullivan's Machinery division merged with Joy Mining Machinery in 1946, becoming Joy Manufacturing Co.
Its founder, inventor Joseph Francis Joy, stayed on as general manager of the facility. Which remained the dominant employer in Claremont through the 1970s, when manufacturing technology had advanced sufficiently to hamper sales and productivity
Rindge, New Hampshire
Rindge is a town in Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 6,014 at the 2010 census. Rindge is home to Franklin Pierce University, the Cathedral of the Pines, part of Annett State Forest; the land in and around Rindge was inhabited by ancestors of the Abenaki tribe of Native Americans. Archeological evidence from nearby Swanzey indicates that the region was inhabited as much as 11,000 years ago; as much as half of the Western Abenakis were victims of a wave of epidemics that coincided with the arrival of Europeans in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Many of the Western Abenaki present in southwestern New Hampshire chose to relocate to Canada during Colonial times due to their allegiance with the French during the French and Indian Wars. In the eighteenth century, Massachusetts granted unappropriated land to veterans of Sir William Phipps' 1690 expedition against French-held Canada as compensation for services. Whole townships became known as "Canada" townships.
Granted in 1736 by Governor Jonathan Belcher to soldiers from Rowley, Rindge was first known as Rowley-Canada. But the Masonian proprietors were making competing claims to the area, in 1740 commissioners of the Crown decided that the boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire lay south of Rowley-Canada, it was re-granted in 1749 by Governor Benning Wentworth as Monadnock No. 1, or South Monadnock. The town would be incorporated in 1768 by Governor John Wentworth as Rindge, in honor of Captain Daniel Rindge of Portsmouth, one of the original grant holders, the one who represented New Hampshire's claim to the land before the king. Captain Abel Platts is credited as being Rindge's first temporary settler, arriving in 1738 to take possession of his family's land grant, but disputes about the grants, combined with the outbreak in 1744 of King George's War, made it untenable to remain in Rindge, so early settlers abandoned it. Platts and others returned in 1752, starting in 1758, settlement increased steadily.
There were 1,274 residents by 1859, when water powered industries included three gristmills, thirteen sawmills, thirteen shingle mills, six stave mills, two planing mills, several clapboard mills. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 40.0 square miles, of which 37.2 sq mi is land and 2.8 sq mi is water, comprising 6.93% of the town. Rindge is located in a hilly upland lake region. Hubbard Pond is in the northeast, Contoocook Lake on the northern boundary, Pearly Lake is in the northwest, Lake Monomonac is on the southern boundary; the town is the headwaters for two river systems. The Contoocook River flows north to the Merrimack River, thence to the Gulf of Maine, the North Branch of the Millers River flows southwest to the Connecticut River, thence to Long Island Sound. Rindge's highest point is on its eastern border, on the lower slopes of Pratt Mountain, where the elevation reaches 1,505 feet above sea level. Rindge is home to the villages of Rindge Center, East Rindge and West Rindge.
The town is crossed by U. S. Route 202 and New Hampshire Route 119; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,451 people, 1,502 households, 1,138 families residing in the town. The population density was 146.6 people per square mile. There were 1,863 housing units at an average density of 50.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.21% White, 1.16% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.40% from other races, 0.73% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. 15.1% were of English, 11.2% Finnish, 11.0% Irish, 9.5% French, 9.3% French Canadian, 8.9% American and 7.5% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. There were 1,502 households of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 6.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.2% were non-families. 18.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.30. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 26.3% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 19.8% from 45 to 64, 7.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $50,494, the median income for a family was $52,500. Males had a median income of $36,268 versus $27,204 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,495. About 4.3% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.5% of those under age 18 and 3.3% of those age 65 or over. Rindge belongs to the Jaffrey-Rindge Cooperative School District. Rindge is the home of Franklin Pierce University. Colleges and universitiesFranklin Pierce UniversityPublic high schoolsConant High School Public middle and grade schoolsRindge Memorial School Jaffrey Grade School Jaffrey-Rindge Middle School Private schoolsHampshire Country School Annett Wayside Park, part of Annett State Forest, includes picnic tables, a hiking trail to Black Reservoir.
Cathedral of the Pines, a national memorial for all American war dead. The location had been selected by Lieutenant Sanderson Sloane and his wife as the place to build their home when he returned from World War II. A cath
Keene, New Hampshire
Keene is a city in and the seat of Cheshire County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 23,409 at the 2010 census. Keene is home to Antioch University New England, it hosted the state's annual pumpkin festival—then called the Keene Pumpkin Festival—from 1991 until 2014, after which the festival moved to Laconia. A new, child-focused Keene Pumpkin Festival, organized by the state festival's previous organizers, has taken its place in the city since 2017. In 1735 Colonial Governor Jonathan Belcher granted lots in the township of "Upper Ashuelot" to 63 settlers who paid five pounds each. Settled after 1736, it was intended to be a fort town protecting the Province of Massachusetts Bay from French and their Native allies during the French and Indian Wars, the North American front of the Seven Years' War; when the boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed in 1741, Upper Ashuelot became part of New Hampshire. In 1747, during King George's War, the village was burned by Natives.
Colonists fled to safety, but would return to rebuild in 1749. It was regranted to its inhabitants in 1753 by Governor Benning Wentworth, who renamed it "Keene" after Sir Benjamin Keene, English minister to Spain and a West Indies trader. Located at the center of Cheshire County, Keene was designated as the county seat in 1769. Land was set off for the towns of Sullivan and Roxbury, although Keene would annex 154 acres from Swanzey. Timothy Dwight, the Yale president who chronicled his travels, described the town as "...one of the prettiest in New England." Situated on an ancient lake bed surrounded by hills, the valley with fertile meadows was excellent for farming. The Ashuelot River was used to provided water power for sawmills and tanneries. After the railroad was constructed to the town in 1848, numerous other industries were established. Keene became a manufacturing center for wooden-ware, chairs, shutters, pottery, soap, woolen textiles, saddles, mowing machines and sleighs, it had a brickyard and foundry.
Keene was incorporated as a city in 1874, by 1880 had a population of 6,784. New England manufacturing declined in the 20th century, however during the Great Depression. Keene is today a center for insurance and tourism; the city retains a considerable inventory of fine Victorian architecture from its mill town era. An example is the Keene Public Library, which occupies a Second Empire mansion built about 1869 by manufacturer Henry Colony. Keene's manufacturing success was brought on in part by its importance as a railroad city; the Cheshire Railroad, Manchester & Keene Railroad, the Ashuelot Railroad all met here. By the early 1900s all had been absorbed by the Maine Railroad. Keene was home to two railroad yards; the Manchester & Keene Branch was abandoned following the floods of 1936. Beginning in 1945, Keene was a stopping point for the Boston & Maine's streamlined trainset known at that time as the Cheshire. Keene became notable in 1962 when F. Nelson Blount chose the city for the site of his Steamtown, U.
S. A. attraction. But Blount's plan fell through and, after one operating season in Keene, the museum was relocated to nearby Bellows Falls, Vermont; the Boston & Maine abandoned the Cheshire Branch in 1972, leaving the Ashuelot Branch as Keene's only rail connection to the outside world. In 1978 the B&M leased switching operations in Keene to the Green Mountain Railroad, which took over the entire Ashuelot Branch in 1982. Passenger decline and track conditions forced the Green Mountain to end service on the Ashuelot Branch in 1983 and return operating rights to the B&M. However, there were no longer enough customers to warrant service on the line. In 1984 the last train arrived in and departed Keene, consisting of Boston & Maine EMD GP9 1714, pulling flat cars to carry rails removed from the railyard. Track conditions on the Ashuelot Branch were so poor at the time that the engine returned light to Brattleboro. A hi-rail truck was used instead to remove the flatcars. In 1995 the freight house, one of the last remaining railroad buildings in town, burned due to arson.
Since the late 20th century, the railroad beds through town were redeveloped as the Cheshire Rail Trail and the Ashuelot Rail Trail. In 2011, radical activist Thomas Ball immolated himself on the steps of a courthouse in Keene to protest what he considered the court system's abuse of divorced fathers' rights. Keene is located at 42°56′01″N 72°16′41″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.5 square miles. 37.3 square miles of it is land and 0.3 square miles of it is water, comprising 0.67% of the town. Keene is drained by the Ashuelot River; the highest point in Keene is the summit of Grays Hill in the city's northwest corner, at 1,388 feet above sea level. Keene is within the Connecticut River watershed, with all of the city except for the northwest corner draining to the Connecticut via the Ashuelot. State highways converge on Keene from nine directions. New Hampshire Route 9 leads northeast to Concord, the state capital, west to Brattleboro, Vermont. Route 10 leads north to Newport and southwest to Massachusetts.
Route 12 leads northwest to Walpole and Charlestown and southeast to Massachusetts. Route 101 leads east to Peterborough and Manchester, Route 32 leads south to Swanzey, New Hampshire, to Athol and Route 12A leads north to Surry and Alstead. A limited-access bypass used variously by Routes 9, 10, 12, 101 passes around the north and south sides of downtown. Keene is served by Dillant–Hopkins Airport, located
Nashua, New Hampshire
Nashua is a city in Hillsborough County, New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2010 census, Nashua had a population of 86,494, making it the second-largest city in the state after Manchester; as of 2017 the population had risen to an estimated 88,341. Built around the now-departed textile industry, in recent decades it has been swept up in southern New Hampshire's economic expansion as part of the Boston region. Nashua was twice named "Best Place" in annual surveys by Money magazine, it is the only city to get the No. 1 ranking on two occasions—in 1987 and 1998. The area was part of a 200-square-mile tract of land in Massachusetts called "Dunstable", awarded to Edward Tyng of Dunstable, England. Nashua lies in the center of the original 1673 grant. In 1732, Dunstable was split along the Merrimack River, with the town of Nottingham created out of the eastern portion; the disputed boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was fixed in 1741 when the governorships of the two provinces were separated.
As a result, the township of Dunstable was divided in two. Tyngsborough and some of Dunstable remained in Massachusetts, while Dunstable, New Hampshire, was incorporated in 1746 from the northern section of the town. Located at the confluence of the Nashua and Merrimack rivers, Dunstable was first settled about 1654 as a fur trading town. Like many 19th century riverfront New England communities, it would be developed during the Industrial Revolution with textile mills operated from water power. By 1836, the Nashua Manufacturing Company had built three cotton mills which produced 9.3 million yards of cloth annually on 710 looms. On December 31, 1836, the New Hampshire half of Dunstable was renamed "Nashua", after the Nashua River, by a declaration of the New Hampshire legislature; the Nashua River was named by the Nashuway Indians, in the Penacook language it means "beautiful stream with a pebbly bottom", with an alternative meaning of "land between two rivers". In 1842 the town split again in two for eleven years following a dispute between the area north of the Nashua, the area south of the river.
During that time the northern area called itself "Nashville", while the southern part kept the name Nashua. They reconciled in 1853 and joined together to charter the "city of Nashua". Six railroad lines crossed the mill town, namely the Boston and Nashua; these various railroads led to all sections of the country, east and west. The Jackson Manufacturing Company employed hundreds of workers in the 1870s. Like the rival Amoskeag Manufacturing Company upriver in Manchester, the Nashua mills prospered until about World War I, after which a slow decline set in. Water power was replaced with newer forms of energy to run factories. Cotton could be manufactured into fabric; the textile business started moving to the South during the Great Depression, with the last mill closing in 1949. Many citizens were left unemployed, but Sanders Associates, a newly created defense firm, now part of BAE Systems, moved into one of the closed mills and launched the city's rebirth. Besides being credited with reviving the city's economy, Sanders Associates played a key role in the development of the home video game console market.
Ralph H. Baer, an employee of Sanders, developed what would become the Magnavox Odyssey, the first commercial home video game system. Sam Tamposi is credited with much of the city's revival; the arrival of Digital Equipment Corp. in the 1970s made the city part of the Boston-area high-tech corridor. Nashua is in southeastern Hillsborough County at 42°45′04″N 71°28′51″W, it is bordered to the south by Massachusetts. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 31.9 square miles, of which 30.8 square miles is land and 1.0 square mile is water, comprising 3.25% of the city. The eastern boundary of Nashua is formed by the Merrimack River, the city is drained by the Nashua River and Salmon Brook, tributaries of the Merrimack; the Nashua River bisects the city. Pennichuck Brook forms the city's northern boundary; the highest point in Nashua is Gilboa Hill in the southern part of the city, at 426 feet above sea level. The city is bordered on the east by the Merrimack River, across which lies the town of Hudson, New Hampshire.
Nashua has a four-season humid continental climate, with long, snowy winters, warm and somewhat humid summers. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 22.7 °F in January to 70.9 °F in July. On average, there are 9.4 days of 8.7 days of sub-0 °F lows. Precipitation is well-spread throughout the year. Snowfall, the heaviest of which comes from nor'easters, averages around 55 inches per season, but can vary from year to year; as of the census of 2010, there were 86,494 people, 35,044 households, 21,876 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,719.9 people per square mile. There were 37,168 housing units at an average density of 1,202.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.4% White, 2.7% African American, 0.3% Native American, 6.5% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 4.6% from some other race, 2.5
New Hampshire Supreme Court
The New Hampshire Supreme Court is the supreme court of the U. S. state of New Hampshire and sole appellate court of the state. The Supreme Court is seated in Concord; the Court is composed of a Chief Justice and four Associate Justices appointed by the Governor and Executive Council to serve during "good behavior" until retirement or the age of seventy. The senior member of the Court is able to specially assign lower-court judges, as well as retired justices, to fill vacancies on the Court; the Supreme Court is the administrative authority over the state's judicial system. The Court has both discretionary appellate jurisdiction. In 2000, the Court created a "Three Judges Expedited" or 3JX panel to issue decisions in cases of less precedential value, with its decision only binding on the present case. In 2004, the court began accepting all appeals from the trial courts for the first time in 25 years. From 1776 to 1876, the four-member court was known as the "Superior Court of Judicature," until the name was changed by an act of the New Hampshire General Court.
In 1901, the number of justices was increased from four to five. Two Supreme Court justices have been the only two state officials to be impeached in New Hampshire: Justice Langdon resigned prior to his trial in 1790, Chief Justice David Brock was acquitted by the New Hampshire Senate in 2000. Retired Associate Justice David Souter of the Supreme Court of the United States served on the New Hampshire Supreme Court from 1983 to 1990; the Colony of New Hampshire adopted the temporary 1776 Constitution. The newly formed legislature abolished the existing executive courts made up of the governor and council, established the "Superior Court of Judicature" as the appellate court with four justices; the Court follows the common law and since Tomson v. Ward has published official law reports of its precedential opinions. In 1876, an act was passed creating the "Supreme Court" as New Hampshire’s highest court. In 1901, the legislature established two courts to take the place of the existing Supreme Court.
Jurisdiction over "law terms" during which court decisions were appealed, was given to the Supreme Court, made up of a chief justice and four associate justices. Matters handled at "trial terms" were given to the Superior Court; the advantage was a separate appeals court. In 1966, the state constitution was amended to establish the Supreme Court and Superior Court as constitutional courts, which means that they could only be changed or abolished by a constitutional amendment, not by the legislature. In 1971, the General Court established by statute a "Unified Court System," making the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court responsible for the efficient operation of all the courts in New Hampshire; the law stated the Supreme Court Chief Justice will have the advice and consent of the Chief Justice of the Superior Court. It required both to seek cooperation from others interested in the administration of justice including other justices and judges, court clerks, the court accreditation committee, the state and local bar associations, the judicial council.
The 24-member Judicial Council is an ongoing, independent forum for consideration and discussion of issues involving the administration of justice. In 1978, New Hampshire voters approved the addition of Part II, Article 73-a, a constitution amendment to the constitution making the Chief Justice the administrative head of the court and giving the Judicial Branch greater control over itself. In 1983, the General Courts consolidated funding for all the state courts into the state's biennial budget; this abolished the prior practice of the superior and probate courts funded by the counties and the district courts by the cities and towns in which they were located. The Office of Administrative Services, now known as the Administrative Office of the Courts, was established; the office consolidated functions such as personnel, accounting and budgeting into one central office for the Judicial Branch. In May 2000, the Supreme Court announced the creation of a new Judicial Conduct Commission that would be independent of the court system and have its own staff, office space, funding.
The Judicial Conduct Commission took the place of the prior Judicial Conduct Committee, which the court had created in 1977. In 2004, RSA Chapter 494-A came into effect codified the JCC as being independent of the New Hampshire court system and other branches of government; the legislature left the rules the JCC intact, except where they contradicted the RSA Chapter 494-A. The Supreme Court took an appeal, Petition of the Judicial Conduct Commission, from the JCC that RSA chapter 494-A was unconstitutional because it purported to authorize the JCC to impose disciplinary action on judges; the court ruled that the legislature had violated the separation of powers doctrine by encroaching on the power of the Supreme Court to regulate the conduct of the judiciary, by giving such power to the commission. The court hears a variety of cases, most of which are either mandatory or discretionary appeals from the lower courts. In January 2004, the court began accepting all appeals from the trial court for the first time in 25 years.
Below, fiscal year caseload statistics are shown for the Family Divisions, District Courts, Probate Courts and the Superior Courts in the 2003 and 2004 fiscal years show this change. The Supreme Court has jurisdiction to review appeals from the State trial courts and from many State administrative agencies. For many years, the Court did not accept every appeal from the lower courts. In 2003, the court only accepted 40 percent of the appeals. In January 2004, the Supreme Court institut
Our Town is a 1938 metatheatrical three-act play by American playwright Thornton Wilder. It tells the story of the fictional American small town of Grover's Corners between 1901 and 1913 through the everyday lives of its citizens. Throughout, Wilder uses metatheatrical devices, setting the play in the actual theatre where it is being performed; the main character is the stage manager of the theatre who directly addresses the audience, brings in guest lecturers, fields questions from the audience, fills in playing some of the roles. The play is performed without a set on a bare stage. With a few exceptions, the actors mime actions without the use of props. Our Town was first performed at McCarter Theatre in Princeton, New Jersey in 1938, it went on to success on Broadway and won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. It remains popular today and revivals are frequent; the Stage Manager introduces the audience to the small town of Grover's Corners, New Hampshire, the people living there as a morning begins in the year 1901.
Professor Willard speaks to the audience about the history of the town. Joe Crowell delivers the paper to Doc Gibbs, Howie Newsome delivers the milk, the Webb and Gibbs households send their children off to school on this beautifully simple morning. Three years have passed, George and Emily prepare to wed; the day is filled with stress. Howie Newsome is delivering milk in the pouring rain while Si Crowell, younger brother of Joe, laments how George's baseball talents will be squandered. George pays an awkward visit to his soon-to-be in-laws. Here, the Stage Manager interrupts the scene and takes the audience back a year, to the end of Emily and George's junior year. Emily confronts George about his pride, over an ice cream soda, they discuss the future and they confess their love for each other. George decides not to go to college, as he had planned, but to work and take over his uncle's farm. In the present and Emily say that they are not ready to marry—George to his mother, Emily to her father—but they both calm down and go through with the wedding.
Nine years have passed. The Stage Manager opens the act with a lengthy monologue emphasizing eternity, bringing the audience's attention to the cemetery outside of town and the characters who have died since the wedding, including Mrs. Gibbs, Wally Webb, Mrs. Soames, Simon Stimson. Town undertaker Joe Stoddard is introduced, as is a young man named Sam Craig who has returned to Grover's Corners for his cousin's funeral; that cousin is Emily, who died giving birth to George's second child. Once the funeral ends, Emily emerges to join the dead. Ignoring the warnings of Simon, Mrs. Soames, Mrs. Gibbs, Emily returns to Earth to relive one day, her 12th birthday. Emily watches with joy at being able to see her parents and some of the people of her childhood for the first time in years. However, her joy turns to pain as she realizes how little people appreciate the simple joys of life; the memory proves too painful for her, she realizes that every moment of life should be treasured. When she asks the Stage Manager if anyone understands the value of life while they live it, he responds, "No.
The saints and poets, maybe—they do some." Emily returns to her grave next to Mrs. Gibbs and watches impassively as George kneels weeping over her; the Stage Manager wishes the audience a good night. Stage Manager – a narrator and guide through Grover's Corners, he joins in the action of the play periodically, as the minister at the wedding, the soda shop owner, a local townsman, etc. and speaks directly to Emily after her death. Emily Webb – one of the main characters. George Gibbs – the other main character. Frank Gibbs – George's father, the town doctor. Julia Gibbs – George's mother, she doesn't get there. She saved $350 for the trip from the sale of an antique furniture piece but willed it to George and Emily. Dies while visiting her daughter in Ohio. Charles Webb – Emily's father, Editor of the Grover's Corners Sentinel Myrtle Webb – Emily and Wally’s mother. Secondary characters Joe and Si Crowell – local paperboys. Joe's intelligence earns him a full scholarship to MIT, his promise will be cut short on the fields of France during World War I, according to the Stage Manager.
Both he and his brother Si hold marriage in high disdain. Simon Stimson – the choir director and church organist. We never learn the specific cause of his alcoholism and suicide, although Joe Stoddard, the undertaker, observes that "He's seen a peck of troubles." He remains bitter and cynical beyond the grave. Howie Newsome – the milkman, a fixture of Grover's Corners. Rebecca Gibbs – George's younger sister. Elopes with a traveling salesman and settles in Ohio. Wally Webb – Emily's younger brother. Dies of a burst appendix on a Boy Scout camping trip. Professor Willard – a rather long-winded lecturer Woman in Auditorium – concerned with temperance Man in Auditorium – concerned with social justice Another Woman in Auditorium – concerned with culture and beauty Mrs. Louella Soames – a gossipy townswoman and member of the choir Constable Bill Warren – the policeman Three Baseball Players – who mock George at t