The Sawatch Range is a high and extensive mountain range in central Colorado which includes eight of the twenty highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, including Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet elevation, the highest peak in the Rockies. The range is oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, extending 80 miles from 39°37′36″N 106°32′13″W in the north to 38°5′51″N 106°3′48″W in the south; the range contains 15 peaks topping 14,000 feet known as 14ers. The range forms a portion of the Continental Divide, its eastern flanks are drained by the headwaters of the Arkansas River; the western side of the range feeds the headwaters of the Roaring Fork River, the Eagle River, the Gunnison River, tributaries of the Colorado River. The Sawatch mountains in general are high and gentle in contour. While some peaks are rugged enough to require technical climbing, most can be climbed by a simple, yet arduous hike. Notable summits include Mount Elbert, Mount Massive, La Plata Peak, Mount of the Holy Cross, the Collegiate Peaks.
State Highway 82 traverses the range at Independence Pass. It is traversed by Cottonwood Pass, which connects the town of Buena Vista with Gunnison County. Both Independence Pass and Cottonwood Pass are over 12,000 feet, making them 2 of the highest passes in Colorado and are open only from late spring to mid autumn. Hagerman Pass is another pass to the north, connecting the Arkansas Headwaters near Leadville with the upper valley of the Fryingpan River. Hagerman pass is traversable with four-wheel drive vehicles and on foot during summer and early autumn months; the range contains numerous hiking trails within the San Isabel National Forest and White River National Forest. Southern Rocky Mountains Missouri Lakes Trail Mountain ranges of Colorado Collegiate Peaks Sawatch Range @ Peakbagger Sawatch Range @ 14ers.com Sawatch Range @ summitpost.org Mt. Aetna @ summitpost.org
Tomichi Creek is a 71.8-mile-long tributary of the Gunnison River in Gunnison County, Colorado. Tomichi Creek originates north and west of Monarch Pass and flows to the southwest along the base of Monarch Mountain. Congress Creek drains into Tomichi west of Old Monarch Pass. Agape Creek flows into Tomichi just north of Sargents. Just below Sargents, Long Branch Creek, flowing out of Baldy Lake from the south, enters Tomichi Creek which takes a westward course where Needle Creek Reservoir drains into Tomichi east of Doyleville. Hot Springs Reservoir drains down Wanita Canyon flowing into Tomichi Creek just west of Doyleville; the Tomichi Valley is a semi-wide valley allowing Tomichi Creek to meander and split into several waterways creating an excellent livestock range and being private ranch lands. At Parlin, Quartz Creek flows from Ohio into Tomichi Creek. Tomichi continues its westward journey northwest, where the Cochetopa Creek drains into Tomichi at State Highway 114 from the south at the intersection of U.
S. continues west to Gunnison where it enters the Gunnison River. A map can be viewed at the BLM Colorado website here. Tomichi Creek State Wildlife Area is a gated public access with parking located at the east end of the runway at Gunnison-Crested Butte Regional Airport; this area provides fishing on private lands without required permission. Access to hiking W Mountain is provided. Tomichi flows through private property with a one-mile stretch of public access just off US 50 below Sargents at the narrow part of the canyon. Snowblind Campground, upstream nearly two miles toward Whitepine, offers another public access to Tomichi Creek. There are certain sections of Marshall Pass Road that takes off from US 50 at Sargents which offers public fishing areas and access to Needle Creek Reservoir and Razor Creek takes off from US 50 near Doyleville onto County Road 46. There are several picnic areas with parking on the Cochetopa Creek along State Hwy 114 around mile mark 12 and 5 miles upstream. Beyond that signs designate state stocked requires permission to fish.
In late summer the creek yields brown trout. Near the summit of State Hwy 114 a sign reads National Forest Access - Old Agency, turning south on this gravel road accesses Cochetopa Creek and the middle of the Colorado Division of Wildlife's Coleman Easement five miles of Cochetopa Creek, two miles of Los Pinos Creek and one-half mile of lower Archuleta Creek are open to the public, yet are private lands which should be respected; these streams have produced wild trout for the avid angler. Located below Dome Lakes, Coleman Easement is accessible by automobile and other vehicles and designated as Wild Trout water by the Colorado Division of Wildlife. Rainbow trout up to 15 inches are angled by small stream tactics using dry flies. Spinners and heavy nymphs are troubled by the streambed vegetation. Stocked rainbows found in the private stretches require permission to fish. List of rivers of Colorado List of tributaries of the Colorado River
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief using contour lines, but using a variety of methods. Traditional definitions require a topographic map to show both man-made features. A topographic survey is published as a map series, made up of two or more map sheets that combine to form the whole map. A contour line is a line connecting places of equal elevation. Natural Resources Canada provides this description of topographic maps:These maps depict in detail ground relief, forest cover, administrative areas, populated areas, transportation routes and facilities, other man-made features. Other authors define topographic maps by contrasting them with another type of map. However, in the vernacular and day to day world, the representation of relief is popularly held to define the genre, such that small-scale maps showing relief are called "topographic"; the study or discipline of topography is a much broader field of study, which takes into account all natural and man-made features of terrain.
Topographic maps are based on topographical surveys. Performed at large scales, these surveys are called topographical in the old sense of topography, showing a variety of elevations and landforms; this is in contrast to older cadastral surveys, which show property and governmental boundaries. The first multi-sheet topographic map series of an entire country, the Carte géométrique de la France, was completed in 1789; the Great Trigonometric Survey of India, started by the East India Company in 1802 taken over by the British Raj after 1857 was notable as a successful effort on a larger scale and for determining heights of Himalayan peaks from viewpoints over one hundred miles distant. Topographic surveys were prepared by the military to assist in planning for battle and for defensive emplacements; as such, elevation information was of vital importance. As they evolved, topographic map series became a national resource in modern nations in planning infrastructure and resource exploitation. In the United States, the national map-making function, shared by both the Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of the Interior migrated to the newly created United States Geological Survey in 1879, where it has remained since.1913 saw the beginning of the International Map of the World initiative, which set out to map all of Earth's significant land areas at a scale of 1:1 million, on about one thousand sheets, each covering four degrees latitude by six or more degrees longitude.
Excluding borders, each sheet was up to 66 cm wide. Although the project foundered, it left an indexing system that remains in use. By the 1980s, centralized printing of standardized topographic maps began to be superseded by databases of coordinates that could be used on computers by moderately skilled end users to view or print maps with arbitrary contents and scale. For example, the Federal government of the United States' TIGER initiative compiled interlinked databases of federal and local political borders and census enumeration areas, of roadways and water features with support for locating street addresses within street segments. TIGER was used in the 1990 and subsequent decennial censuses. Digital elevation models were compiled from topographic maps and stereographic interpretation of aerial photographs and from satellite photography and radar data. Since all these were government projects funded with taxes and not classified for national security reasons, the datasets were in the public domain and usable without fees or licensing.
TIGER and DEM datasets facilitated Geographic information systems and made the Global Positioning System much more useful by providing context around locations given by the technology as coordinates. Initial applications were professionalized forms such as innovative surveying instruments and agency-level GIS systems tended by experts. By the mid-1990s user-friendly resources such as online mapping in two and three dimensions, integration of GPS with mobile phones and automotive navigation systems appeared; as of 2011, the future of standardized, centrally printed topographical maps is left somewhat in doubt. Topographic maps have multiple uses in the present day: any type of geographic planning or large-scale architecture; the various features shown on the map are represented by conventional symbols. For example, colors can be used to indicate a classification of roads; these signs are explained in the margin of the map, or on a separately published characteristic sheet. Topographic maps are commonly called contour maps or topo maps.
In the United States, where the primary national series is organized by a strict 7.5-minute grid, they are called topo quads or quadrangles. Topographic maps conventionally show land contours, by means of contour lines. Contour lines are curves. In other words, every point on the marked line of 100 m elevation is 100 m above mean sea level; these maps show
Chaffee County, Colorado
Chaffee County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,809; the county seat is Salida. Chaffee County has a confusing origin. Between February 8 and February 10, 1879, Carbonate County was created by the Colorado legislature out of northern Lake County. On February 10 the two counties were renamed, with the southern part of Lake County becoming Chaffee County, Carbonate County becoming Lake County. Chaffee County is known as the “Heart of the Rockies”, it was named for Jerome B. Chaffee, Colorado's first United States Senator. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,015 square miles, of which 1,013 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water. Browns Canyon National Monument Buffalo Peaks Wilderness Collegiate Peaks Wilderness San Isabel National Forest Arkansas Headwaters Recreation Area American Discovery Trail Colorado Trail Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Great Parks Bicycle Route Western Express Bicycle Route Lake County - north Park County - northeast Fremont County - southeast Saguache County - south Gunnison County - west Pitkin County - northwest As of the census of 2000, there were 16,242 people, 6,584 households, 4,365 families residing in the county.
The population density was 16 people per square mile. There were 8,392 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.94% White, 1.58% Black or African American, 1.09% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.21% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 8.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,584 households out of which 25.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.70% were non-families. 28.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.77. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 27.50% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years.
For every 100 females there were 113.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $34,368, the median income for a family was $42,043. Males had a median income of $30,770 versus $22,219 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,430. About 7.40% of families and 11.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 10.20% of those age 65 or over. Chaffee County is home to a source of water that Arrowhead water uses for some water bottles; the source is Ruby Mountain Springs. Salida Buena Vista Poncha Springs Garfield Johnson Village Maysville Smeltertown St. Elmo Vicksburg Winfield Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Chaffee County, Colorado Cultural and Archeological Resources Chaffee County Clerk of Court Chaffee County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society Geologic Map of the Harvard Lakes 7.5ʹ Quadrangle and Chaffee Counties, Colorado United States Geological Survey
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Gunnison County, Colorado
Gunnison County is the fifth-most extensive of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,324; the county seat is Gunnison. The county was named for John W. Gunnison, a United States Army officer and captain in the Army Topographical Engineers, who surveyed for the transcontinental railroad in 1853. Archeological studies have dated the Ute people's appearance in the Uncompahgre region of Colorado as early as 1150 A. D. Possibilities exist that they are descendants of an earlier people living in the area as far back as 1500 B. C, they were a nomadic race of dark skin moving about the Western Slope of Colorado in the various parts of the year. In the early to mid-1600s the Spaniards of New Mexico introduced the horse which changed their patterns of hunting taking them across the divide to the eastern slopes and into conflict with the Plains Indians which soon became their bitter enemies; the first recorded expedition of Western Colorado wilderness was led by Don Juan Rivera in 1765.
In 1776, two Spanish priests, Fathers Escalante and Dominguez, led a party into the area around Montrose and Paonia. The 1830s brought the mountainmen into the area to trap beaver. An old cabin located on Cochetopa Creek discovered by Sidney Jocknick was most built between 1830 and 1840 and a rude fort was discovered on a tributary of Tomichi Creek bore signs of a conflict. In 1853, Capt. John W. Gunnison surveyed the area for the transcontinental railroad route. In 1858 gold was discovered near Denver bringing the white man across the divide into the western slope in search of the precious metal. In 1859 a party settled on Texas Gulch in Union Park. Placer gold was found at Washington Gulch in 1861 as part of the Colorado Gold Rush. In 1861 the Territory of Colorado was organized; the territorial governor was made ex officio Superintentant of Indian Affairs. A conference on October 1, 1863 established a boundary line for a reservation; this treaty averted a possible dangerous situation by giving the Utes some cattle and sheep, a blacksmith and 20,000 dollars a year in goods and provisions.
The government failed to fulfill any these obligations straining the relations further. The treaty of 1868 recognized Chief Ouray as the sole spokesman for seven tribes of the Ute People, he held this power over his people through understanding. The Los Pinos Agency was developed through the Treaties of 1868 and 1873; the first agent was 2nd Lieutenant Calvin T. Speer. In 1871 a cow camp was started near the present site of Gunnison with James P. Kelley in charge. In this year, Jabez Nelson Trask, a Harvard grad, relieved Speer as agent upon orders from Governor Edward M. McCook. In 1872 Trask was replaced by Charles Adams. In 1875 orders from Washington to move the agency to the Uncomphgre Valley were completed in November. In 1876 Colorado entered the Gunnison County was formed. 1879 was a year of expansion due to the miners and adventurers seeking wealth. The cattle industry was established by 1880; the short growing season was not conducive to farming and the ranchers had to level fields and construct irrigation ditches to water the fields for hay.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,260 square miles, of which 3,239 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county by area in Colorado. The county seat is Gunnison, Colorado, located in a wide valley at the confluence of Tomichi Creek and Gunnison River; the county rests in the Gunnison Basin formed by the Continental Divide to the east, Collegiate Peaks Wilderness rises in the northeast, Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and the White River National Forest to the north, the West Elk Wilderness rises in the west of the county with Delta and Montrose Counties on its western slopes. The Uncompahgre Wilderness rises in the southwest of the county and the Powderhorn Wilderness east of there and Saquache County being south of Gunnison county eastward over to Marshall Pass southeast of the county. Taylor Park Reservoir is a man-made lake created by the Taylor Dam constructed in 1934 with appropriations of 2,725,000 dollars; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,956 people, 5,649 households, 2,965 families residing in the county.
The population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 9,135 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.08% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 0.70% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 5.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,649 households out of which 24.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.20% were married couples living together, 5.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 47.50% were non-families. 27.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.84. In the county, the population was spread out with 17.90% under the age of 18, 21.10% from 18 to 24, 32.90% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 6.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years.
For every 100 females there were 118.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,916, the median income for a family was $51,950. Males had a median income of $30,885 versus $25,000 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,407. About 6.00% of families and 15.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.40% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. Total population for Gunnison Count
Salida is a Statutory City, the county seat and most populous city of Chaffee County, United States. The population was 5,236 at the 2010 census. A post office has been in operation at Salida since 1881; the community was named on account of its distance from a nearby canyon, Salida meaning "exit" in Spanish. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles of it is land, the Arkansas River, which runs through the town, is the major source of water for local agriculture. The Sawatch Range runs north and south and is located 10 miles west of Salida. Methodist Mountain, a major feature on Salida's southern horizon, is the northernmost mountain in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. To the north of Salida is the Arkansas Valley and the town of Buena Vista. U. S. Route 50 runs along the southern edge of the city and leads east down the Arkansas River 58 miles to Cañon City; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,504 people, 2,504 households, 1,449 families residing in the city.
The population density was 2,480.1 people per square mile. There were 2,748 housing units at an average density of 1,238.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.66% White, 0.05% African American, 1.44% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 3.29% from other races, 2.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.76% of the population. There were 2,504 households out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.9% were married couples living together, 8.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.1% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.80. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.4% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,790, the median income for a family was $38,240. Males had a median income of $30,447 versus $20,867 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,252. About 9.2% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.7% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over. The city is served by Salida Public Schools. There are Salida High School and Horizons Exploratory Academy. Salida and Chaffee County are served by the Heart of the Rockies Regional Medical Center, located on the north side of Town on Rush Drive. Sally Blane, actress Louie Croft Boyd, Superintendent of Nurses, Rio Grande Hospital Chris Guccione, Major League Baseball umpire Kent Haruf, novelist Frank H. Mayer, American frontiersman, interred at Fairview Cemetery in Salida, 1954 Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Colorado cities and towns Colorado municipalities Colorado counties Official website