Prime Minister of Solomon Islands
The Prime Minister of Solomon Islands is Solomon Islands' head of government, consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the National Parliament. Since 15 November 2017, the Prime Minister has been Rick Houenipwela. Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm; the Prime Minister's official residence is Red House in Honiara. Deputy Prime Minister of Solomon Islands Governor-General of Solomon Islands Leader of the Opposition Leader of the Independent Members
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Ajilon Jasper Nasiu
Ajilon Jasper Nasiu is a politician of Solomon Islands who has served as sixth Speaker of the National Parliament of Solomon Islands since 17 December 2014. Before assuming this post, he had been a Provincial Premier for Bellona Province. Ajilon Jasper Nasiu met with president Tsai Ing-wen of Taiwan in January 31, 2018
Provinces of Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands is divided into nine provinces. The national capital, Honiara, on the island of Guadalcanal, is separately governed as the islands' Capital Territory. Under the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, there were 12 administrative districts: Choiseul, Eastern Solomons, Guadalcanal, Lord Howe, Malaita and Savo, Rennell and Bellona Islands, Santa Cruz, Shortlands and Ysabel and Cape Marsh; the administrative centre was in Tulagi. After World War II, the protectorate was reorganised into four districts, namely Central, Western and Malaita, which were further subdivided into councils; the administrative centre was moved from Tulagi to Honiara. At its independence in 1978, the protectorate became the sovereign state of Solomon Islands. Honiara continued to function as the capital of the sovereign nation, the inherited districts and councils remained until 1981, when the nation was reorganised into seven provinces by splitting some of the districts into provinces: the Central District was split into Central and Isabel provinces, while the Eastern District was split into Makira-Ulawa and Temotu provinces.
The other two districts and Malaita, were designated as provinces. These new provinces corresponded to the councils of the districts before 1981. In 1983, the 22 square-kilometer Honiara was split from Guadalcanal Province and became a separately-governed capital territory; the city remains as the capital of Guadalcanal Province. In 1995, Choiseul Province was split from Western Province, Rennell and Bellona Province was split from Central Province, resulting in the nine provinces of today; the population census data is from the 1999 census. They show that the population has increased in the past decade for most of the provinces the more urban ones, as urbanisation increases; the figures for Guadalcanal Province do not include the separately-administered Capital Territory of Honiara. Excluding the Capital Territory of Honiara ISO 3166-2:SB
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person, first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person. An heir presumptive, by contrast, is someone, first in line to inherit a title but who can be displaced by the birth of a more eligible heir. Today these terms most describe heirs to hereditary titles or offices when only inheritable by a single person. Most monarchies refer to the heir apparent of their thrones with the descriptive term of crown prince but these heirs may be accorded with a more specific substantive title, such as Prince of Orange in the Netherlands, Duke of Brabant in Belgium, Prince of Asturias in Spain, or Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In France the title was le Dauphin, in Imperial Russia; the term is used metaphorically to indicate an "anointed" successor to any position of power, e.g. a political or corporate leader. This article describes the term heir apparent in a hereditary system regulated by laws of primogeniture—as opposed to cases where a monarch has a say in naming the heir.
In a hereditary system governed by some form of primogeniture, an heir apparent is identifiable as the person whose position as first in the line of succession to a title or office is secure, regardless of future births. An heir presumptive, by contrast, can always be "bumped down" in the succession by the birth of somebody more related in a legal sense to the current title-holder; the clearest example occurs in the case of a holder of a hereditary title, one that can only be inherited by a single person, with no children. If at any time he were to produce children, they rank ahead of whatever more "distant" relative had been heir presumptive. Many legal systems assume childbirth is always possible regardless of health. In such circumstances a person may be, in a practical sense, the heir apparent but still speaking, heir presumptive. Indeed, when Queen Victoria succeeded her uncle King William IV, the wording of the proclamation gave as a caveat:...saving the rights of any issue of his late Majesty King William IV, which may be born of his late Majesty's consort.
This provided for the possibility that William's wife, Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, was pregnant at the moment of his death, since such a posthumous child, regardless of its sex, would have displaced Victoria from the throne. Adelaide was 44 at the time, so pregnancy was possible if unlikely. Daughters may inherit titles that descend according to male-preference primogeniture, but only in default of sons; that is, both female and male offspring have the right to a place somewhere in the order of succession, but when it comes to what that place is, a female will rank behind her brothers regardless of their ages or her age. Thus even an only daughter will not be heir apparent, since at any time a brother might be born who, though younger, would assume that position. Hence, she is an heir presumptive. For example, Queen Elizabeth II was heir presumptive during the reign of her father, King George VI, because at any stage up to his death, George could have fathered a legitimate son. In a system of absolute primogeniture that disregards gender, female heirs apparent occur.
As succession to titles, positions, or offices in the past most favoured males than females, females considered to be an heir apparent were rare. Absolute primogeniture was not practised by any modern monarchy for succession to their thrones until the late twentieth century with Sweden being the first to adopt absolute primogeniture in 1980 and other Western European monarchies following suit. Since the adoption of absolute primogeniture by contemporary Western European monarchies, examples of female heirs apparent include: Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, Princess Elisabeth of Belgium. Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway is heir apparent to her father, Victoria herself has a female heir apparent in her oldest child, Princess Estelle. Victoria was not heir apparent from birth, but gained the status in 1980 following a change in the Swedish Act of Succession, her younger brother Carl Philip was thus heir apparent for a few months. In 2015, pursuant to the 2011 Perth Agreement, the Commonwealth realms changed the rules of succession to the 16 thrones of Elizabeth II to absolute primogeniture, except for male heirs born before the Perth Agreement.
The effects are not to be felt for many years. But in legal systems that apply male-preference primogeniture, female heirs apparent are by no means impossible: if a male heir apparent dies leaving no sons but at least one daughter the eldest daughter would replace her father as heir apparent to whatever throne or title is concerned, but only when it has become clear that the widow of the deceased is not pregnant; as the representative of her father's line she would assume a place ahead of any more distant relatives. Such a situation has not to date occurred with the British throne.
Manasseh Damukana Sogavare was the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands from 9 December 2014 to 15 November 2017, he had served two terms between 2000 and 2001, between 2006 and 2007. Before becoming Prime Minister, Sogavare served in the National Parliament as Member for East Choiseul beginning in 1997. Sogavare, a Seventh-day Adventist, was born in Popondetta, Northern Province, Papua New Guinea on January 17, 1955 to missionary parents from Choiseul Island, Solomon Islands, he has four older brothers: Moses, Samson and Jacob. In life and his older brother Jacob moved to the Solomon Islands. Sogavare was Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Finance from February 1994 to October 1996. Prior to his election to Parliament, he served as the Commissioner of Inland Revenue, Director of the Central Bank of the Solomon Islands, Chairman of the Solomon Islands National Provident Fund, he was first elected to the National Parliament from the East Choiseul constituency in the 6 August 1997 election. Under Prime Minister Bartholomew Ulufa'alu, Sogavare became Minister for Finance and Treasury in 1997 but was dismissed from that post by Ulufa'alu in mid-July 1998.
Sogavare said that he was shocked at the dismissal, as he could see no reason for it and no reason was given, he demanded an explanation. A few days Ulufa'alu said that the decision was motivated by the need for the government to keep the numbers to stay in power. In early August 1998, Sogavare withdrew his support for Ulufa'alu and his government, accusing Ulufa'alu of authoritarian and hypocritical leadership and of emphasizing stability only to protect himself. Sogavare was chosen as deputy leader of the opposition in late September 1998, with Solomon Mamaloni as leader. Following Mamaloni's death in January 2000, Sogavare was elected as leader of the opposition that month, he received the votes of all ten members of the opposition. Sogavare was elected as Prime Minister by parliament on 30 June 2000, with 23 votes in favor and 21 against, after Ulufa'alu was captured by rebels and forced to resign, he served as Prime Minister until 17 December 2001. His party won only three seats in the 2001 general election, but Sogavare was re-elected to his seat in Parliament.
In Parliament, Sogavare was a member of the Bills and Legislation Committee in 2002 and again from 2005 to April 2006. Following the 2006 general election, Sogavare led the Solomon Islands Social Credit Party into a coalition to oust Prime Minister Allan Kemakeza's chosen successor Snyder Rini, but there was much disagreement about who should be its candidate for Prime Minister. On 18 April 2006, he received 11 of 50 votes placing him third, he switched his support to Rini, allowing Rini to become Prime Minister while Sogavare became part of the coalition and was named Minister for Commerce and Employment. Following Rini's resignation on 26 April 2006, Sogavare decided to attempt again to become Prime Minister; this time the opponents of Kemakeza and Rini united behind him, in parliamentary vote on 4 May 2006, he received 28 votes, defeating the government candidate Fred Fono, who received 22 votes. Sogavare was sworn in, his main tasks included organizing the recovery from rioting that took place during Rini's time as Prime Minister.
On 11 October 2006, Sogavare survived a no-confidence vote in parliament. The no-confidence vote was prompted by deteriorating relations with Australia. Sogavare had expelled the Australian High Commissioner Patrick Cole in September and defended the Solomons' suspended attorney general, Julian Moti, who Australia wanted extradited to face child sex charges there. Moti presently faces charges in the Solomons for illegally entering the country. On 13 October, Sogavare threatened to expel Australia from an assistance mission in the Solomons, a week Australian peacekeepers from the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands raided Sogavare's office looking for evidence related to the Moti case. On 13 December 2007, Sogavare was defeated in a parliamentary vote of no confidence, he remained in office in a caretaker capacity until the election of a new Prime Minister on 20 December, when opposition candidate Derek Sikua was elected, defeating Patteson Oti, Foreign Minister under Sogavare. On the same date, Sogavare became Leader of the Opposition.
In 2010, Sogavare and eight other MPs established the Ownership and Responsibility Party, which won three seats in the 2010 general election. Following the November 19, 2014 general election, Sogavere became Prime Minister for the third time. On September 22, 2017 Sogavare spoke at the United Nations General Assembly, he condemned North Korea for their testing of ballistic missiles. He condemned Indonesia for violence in West Papua. On November 7 2017, seventeen members of his Democratic Coalition for Change voted against him in another motion of no-confidence; the lawmaker who submitted the motion of no confidence, Derek Sikua, claimed that Sogavere had lost touch with reality and become fixated on conspiracy theories, while Sogavere attributed the defections to a proposed anti-graft bill, saying that some MPs were afraid it would lead to them being imprisoned. Sogavere remained as Acting Prime Minister until Rick Houenipwela was elected on 15 November 2017. Sogavare dedicated the Sogavare Memorial Seventh-day Adventist Church in memory of his father Sagavare Loko
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (Solomon Islands)
The Solomon Islands Truth and Reconciliation Commission is a commission established by the government of Solomon Islands in September 2008. It has been formed to investigate the causes of the ethnic violence that gripped Solomon Islands between 1997 and 2003; the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is the first of its kind in the Pacific Islands region. The purpose of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is to "address people's traumatic experiences during the five-year ethnic conflict on Guadalcanal", its goal is to promote national reconciliation. The members of the TRC will hear testimony from witnesses and victims of the violence, which killed over 100 people and displaced more than 20,000 internal refugees nationwide, it is modelled after the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa, chaired by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Tutu, a Nobel Peace Prize recipient, has taken an active role in the establishment of the TRC in Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands descended into ethnic violence between 1997 and 2003.
Much of the violence was committed by rival ethnic gangs from the islands of Guadalcanal and Malaita. The gangs took advantage of ethnic tensions between Malaitan settlers on Guadalcanal and the island's indigenous residents; the Isatabu Freedom Movement, made up by indigenous residents of the island of Guadalcanal, fought for several years with the Malaita Eagle Force, a militia group consisting of residents and settlers from Malaita. The two groups fought for political power and land rights on the island of Guadalcanal; the violence was quelled by the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, invited into the country by the government of former Prime Minister Allan Kemakeza in 2003. RAMSI finalised operations in Solomon Islands as of 30 June 2017. In late August 2008, Sam Iduri, Minister for Peace and Reconciliation, introduced a Truth and Reconciliation Commission Bill to the National Parliament of Solomon Islands. In February 2009, it was reported that Archbishop Desmond Tutu, former chair of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa, would visit the Solomons in April to assist in setting up the Commission.
Australia has contributed A$500,000 towards the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission is composed of five members, three of which are citizens of the Solomon Islands, while two others were chosen from outside of the country. There are two women; the National Selection Committee was charged with choosing the five members of the TRC. The Chairman of the National Selection Committee, Chief Justice of the Solomon Islands Supreme Court Sir Albert Palmer, submitted the names of the proposed members to the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands on 22 April 2009, as required by the Truth and Reconciliation Act of 2008; the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands Derek Sikua announced the five members of the TRC on 27 April 2009, two days before the launch of the Commission. Sikua thanked the selection committee for working to choose the members of the commission. "I wish to thank our people for their participation and in thanking them, I wish to call on our people to help the Truth and Reconciliation Commission because without the Truth there can be no true reconciliation and thus no lasting national peace and healing."By law, the members of the TRC must begin their investigations within fourteen days of their appointment by Prime Minister Sikua.
The five members of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission are: Reverend Sam Ata of Malaita Province, Solomon Islands. George Kejoa of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands. Caroline Laore of Western Province, Solomon Islands Ratu Joni Madraiwiwi of Fiji Sofia Macher, a human rights activist from Peru; the Commission was launched on 29 April 2009, at the Lawson Tama Stadium in Honiara, the capital of Solomon Islands. Thousands of Solomon Islanders attended the opening, which included a speech by Archbishop Desmond Tutu. Tutu spoke of the need for forgiveness in the country to achieve a long term, sustainable peace. Prime Minister Derek Sikua told the crowd that the TRC marked an important day in the history of Solomon Islands and the years of ethnic violence which engulfed the country, "The launching of the Commission is a vital part of the efforts as Solomon Islands continue to work towards closure of a most challenging chapter in the history of the country, when disputes led to conflict and conflict erupted into violence between communities."Tutu is hosting a conference called the Winds of Change, which will bring together former combatants from Malaita and Guadalcanal for reconciliation talks.
The Commission's first public hearings were held in March 2010, with victims called upon to describe their sufferings during the violence. The Commission explained that the aim of the process was to provide victims with an opportunity to be heard, "end th silence and make the whole country to give recognition to their sufferings": "Above all, it will help to restore the dignity of the victims, to retrieve the memory of those who were killed, to hear the voice of those who were humiliated and abused in countless ways." Victims were permitted to name groups, but not individuals. The Commission would not pass judgement, but treat the hearings as "moments to listen with respect and compassion"; the opening of the hearings was attended by Governor-General Frank Kabui, Prime Minister Derek Sikua, Speaker of Parliament Sir Peter Kenilorea and the Chief Justice. The Australian: Solomon Islands gets Desmond Tutu truth help Australian Broadcasting Corporation video on the beginning of the Commission's hearings, 10 March 2010