Henry IV of Castile
Henry IV of Castile, King of Castile, nicknamed the Impotent, was the last of the weak late medieval kings of Castile. During Henry's reign the nobles increased in power and the nation became less centralised, he was born in 1425 at the Casa de las Aldabas in Teresa Gil street of Valladolid. He was the son of John II of Castile and Maria of daughter of King Ferdinand I of Aragon, he displaced his older sister and became heir apparent to the Castilian throne as the Prince of Asturias. At the time of his birth, Castile was under control of Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo, who intended to select Henry's companions and direct his education; the companions of his own age included Juan Pacheco. The struggles and intrigues for power among the aristocracy, Álvaro de Luna, the Infantes of Aragon would be constant. On 10 October 1444, he became the only prince of Jaén. In 1445 he won the First Battle of Olmedo. After the victory at Olmedo, Álvaro de Luna's power waned, Prince Henry and Juan Pacheco's influence grew.
Henry IV's father died on July 20, 1454 and he was proclaimed king the following day. One of King Henry's first priorities was the alliance with Portugal, he achieved this by marrying a second time to Joan of Portugal, daughter of King Edward of Portugal, in 1455. His other main concerns were the possibility of intervention from King John II of Navarre, establishing peace with France and Aragon, pardoning various aristocrats. Henry IV convened the Cuéllar Courts to launch an offensive against the Emirate of Granada; the campaigns of 1455 and 1458 developed into a war of attrition based on punitive raids and avoiding pitched battles. It was not popular with the people. Juan Pacheco, the Marquis of Villena, his brother Pedro Girón were put in charge of government decisions. King Henry took other advisors, such as Beltrán de la Cueva, Miguel Lucas de Iranzo, Gómez de Cáceres to balance against their influence. In 1458, King Alfonso V of Aragon was succeeded by his brother, John II of Navarre. King John II resumed his interference in Castillian politics, supporting the aristocratic opposition to Juan Pacheco's ambitions.
With the support of the King Henry, Pacheco moved to seize Álvaro de Luna's assets, but his widow allied herself with the Mendoza family, causing a division among the aristocracy. This process resulted in the formation of a League of Nobles in March 1460, they raised a large number of noblemen, took control of expenditure, gained the acceptance of Alfonso of Castille, the King Henry's half-brother and Prince of Asturias. To counteract King John II's politicking, Henry IV reacted by invading Navarre in support of Charles, Prince of Viana. Charles was the heir to Navarre, he revolted against his father John II in 1450 when he refused to cede the throne of Navarre; the campaign was a military success, but King Henry made peace with the League of Nobles in August 1461 to ward off the power of the Mendozas, which had allowed John II to intervene in Castille. King John II was in conflict with the Principality of Catalonia, on the death of his eldest son, Charles of Viana, the principality elected Henry IV to be Count of Barcelona on August 11, 1462.
King Henry's intervention was framed as a rivalry between him and John II, making Catalonia an unstable point in the Crown of Aragon. But he was unsuccessful, the Castillian economy would suffer from an enmity with France, who had supported John II with the Treaty of Bayonne. Henry IV therefore agreed to a settlement in the Judgment of Bayonne, resulting in the abandonment of the Catalans. During his reign as king, Henry IV spent a lot of time at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid where he would stay there for long periods of time; the Royal Alcazar was replaced with the Royal Palace of Madrid by the rulers of Spain. Prince Henry celebrated his marriage to Blanche of Navarre in 1440; the cardinal Juan de Cervantes presided over the official ceremony. Her parents were John II of Navarre; the marriage had been agreed in 1436 as part of the peace negotiations between Navarre. The dowry included territories and villas that had belonged to Navarre but had been won by the Castillian side during the war, the Castillians agreed to hand the lands back provided they would be given them back again as part of this dowry.
In May 1453, the bishop of Segovia Luis Vázquez de Acuña annulled the marriage of Henry and Blanche, on the grounds of Henry's sexual impotence due to a curse. This neatly reflected the recent political changes: Castille had supported Charles, Prince of Viana in his fight against John II of Aragon for the Navarrese throne since 1451, Álvaro de Luna, Duke of Trujillo had been executed in May 1453, leaving Henry with greater control of Castille. Henry alleged that he had been incapable of sexually consummating the marriage, despite having tried for over three years, the minimum period required by the church. Other women, prostitutes from Segovia, testified that they had had sexual relations with Henry, why he blamed his inability to consummate the marriage on a spell. Henry's alleged. Blanche and Henry were cousins, he was a cousin of Joan of Portugal, whom he wanted to marry instead. Therefore, the reason he used to seek the annulment was the sort of spell that only affected his ability to consummate this one marriage, would not cause any problems for him with other women.
Pope Nicholas V corroborated the d
The Fountain of Life (painting)
The Fountain of Life or The Fountain of Grace and the Triumph of the Church over the Synagogue are names given to an oil on panel painting completed c 1432. For most of its history the painting has been in Spain, where it is features in a special exhibition in the Museo del Prado, Madrid. Stylistically and thematically, the painting is related to the work of Jan van Eyck, but it is unsigned and there have been competing theories as to whether it is by van Eyck himself; the subject matter of the painting would have been of particular interest in 15th century Spain which had the world´s largest Jewish community. There has been recent speculation that it was painted by van Eyck himself while he was on a diplomatic mission to the Iberian peninsula. However, technical analysis suggests that it was painted in the Netherlands, albeit in response to a commission from Spain, in van Eyck's workshop; the Fountain of Life resembles passages in the 1432 Ghent Altarpiece by Jan and his brother Hubert. Although there is consensus among specialists that it is the product of a workshop, some attribute The Fountain of Life to a youthful Jan, his brother Hubert, or much and less Petrus Christus.
The painting is structured into three levels. The top terrace shows a Deësis of the Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist; the middle section shows four groups of angels. These two groups represent true believers and non true believers in Christ as the messiah respectively; the Fountain of Life is a symbol referring to eucharist. The water that flows from the top to the lower terrace, is intended as a symbol of "the Grace that illuminates the Triumphant Church and blinds the Synagogue"; the painting is organised into three horizontal levels or planes, each showing a terrace on which the figures are positioned. The top level shows a Deësis scene, with God the Father in the center, flanked by the Virgin Mary and St. John the Evangelist; this passage resembles a similar scene in the Ghent Altarpiece. All three figures are seated in front of hanging oriental style carpets. God holds a staff in his right hand, holds up his left up in the act of blessing, he is enthroned within a elaborate Gothic architectural setting.
His throne contains symbols of the Evangelists, while the baldachin around and above him is decorated with illusionistic painted reliefs of Old Testament prophets intended to look like sculptures. The lamb sits on a pedestal before God, on a structure through which the water of grace, symbolising the rite of baptism, flows before reaching the fountain of life in the lowest terrace. Mary is seated and reading a red book a book of hours, she wears a blue gown, the folds and cloth of which are detailed. She has blond hair, unbranded and falls over her shoulders. In contrast to her depiction in the Ghent Altarpiece, here her dress is plain, lacks any embroidery or gilded lining, while her book is not girdled. John is dressed in a green robe has blond hair and sits writing in a holy book; the middle level shows two groups of musical angels sitting on grass. Choirs of singing angels are positioned in towers on either side of them; this section is again similar to a panel in the Ghent Altarpiece. The instruments include a type of viol and a lute.
The lower section represents the triumph of the Church over the Jewish Synagogue, through the depiction of the Christians as collect as serene, the Jews as chaotic and resistant. The fountain of life is positioned in the center, with a group of Christians to its left, including a Pope, members of his service, an emperor and various princes. To the right is a grouping of "despairing Jews" who seem to be fleeing from the scene; the figure on the far left of this group is a high priest, blindfolded, symbolising his blinding to the true significance of Jesus. A rabbi in the immediate foreground holds a Torah scroll with, according to historian Norman Roth, "gibberish Hebrew writing", while another "Jew shows a scroll to a figure Christian, who tears his clothing at the sight". In contrast to the Christians, the Jews do not wear ceremonious hats or badges, they carry a variety of banners and parchments, which contains texts that while illegible, can be recognised as written in Hebrew, with some lettering, nonsensical.
The texts are arranged across the passage in a haphazard way, reflecting the disorder of the figures, more within the Synagogue. This placement must be contrasted with those on the two level, where the books held by Mary and John rest stably on their laps; the painting's first documentary record is in the Libro becerro of the Monastery of the Parral outside Segovia, which recorded it as the gift of King Henry IV of Castile in 1454. That year marked the beginning of Henry's reign, as well as a building programme at the monastery, he may have inherited the painting from his father John II. It was secured to the wall of the vestry, being painted into the wall as the vestry was redecorated down the centuries, until it was removed in 1838 as part of the secularisation of the monasteries: parts of the border were lost in the removal but the painting is in good condition; the painting was moved to the Trinidade monastery opposite the Atocha station in Madrid, used as a general store for the religious wealth collected.
The painting was photographed in 1859 by Jean Laurent. Its first formal attribution was in 1870 when it was transferred to the Prado, dating it as 1454 on the strength of th
Atocha is a central ward of Madrid belonging to the district of Arganzuela. Located in the middle of Madrid, the ward is formed by a strip between the avenue Calle de Méndez Álvaro, the north-eastern area of Madrid Atocha railway station, that occupies great part of its territory; the northern border is at the square Plaza del Emperador Carlos V and the southern one in the avenue Calle de Pedro Bosch. Atocha borders with the districts of Centro, Puente de Vallecas and with the Arganzuelan wards of Palos de Moguer, Las Delicias and Legazpi. Home of Madrid Atocha, the main railway station of the city, the ward is served by the Metro lines 1, 6 and by several lines of a commuter rail network named Cercanías Madrid. Media related to Atocha neighborhood, Madrid at Wikimedia Commons Atocha at WikiMadrid
National monuments of Spain
The current legislation regarding historical monuments in Spain dates from 1985. However, Monumentos nacionales were first designated in the nineteenth century, it was a broad category for national heritage sites protecting, for example, the Alhambra. The overarching category for Spanish heritage sites is now Bien de Interés Cultural. Now there are some 13,000 monuments registered by the Ministry of Culture within the wider category of Bien de Interés Cultural; as well as monuments, the category of Bien de Interés Cultural includes the following sub-categories of non-movable heritage: Conjunto histórico, a type of conservation area. Jardín histórico, historic garden Sitio histórico, which includes cultural landscapes Zona arqueológica, archaeological zone Some Spanish sites are protected under more than one sub-category. For example, the Alhambra and Generalife receive protection as monument and conjunto histórico. A few of numerous articles at Wikipedia covering Spanish monuments are: Numantia Castle of La Mota Cuéllar Castle San Sebastian Church, Madrid San Cayetano Church, Madrid Bien de Interés Cultural
A retable is a structure or element placed either on or behind and above the altar or communion table of a church. At the minimum it may be a simple shelf for candles behind an altar, but it can be a large and elaborate structure. A retable which incorporates sculptures or painting is referred to as an altarpiece. According to the Getty Art & Architecture Thesaurus Online, "A'retable' is distinct from a'reredos'. Many altars have both a reredos and a retable." This distinction is not always upheld in common use, the terms are confused or used as synonyms. In several foreign languages, such as French, the usage is different equating the word with the English'reredos' or'altarpiece', this leads to confusion, incorrect usage in translated texts; the Medieval Latin retrotabulum was applied to an architectural feature set up at the back of an altar, taking the form of a screen framing a picture, carved or sculptured work in wood or stone, or mosaic, or of a movable feature such as the Pala d'Oro in St Mark's Basilica, Venice, of gold and enamels.
The non-English word "retable" therefore refers to what should in English be called a reredos. The situation is further complicated by the frequent modern addition of free-standing altars in front of the old integrated altar, to allow the celebrant to face the congregation, or be closer to it. Dossal' is another term that may overlap with reredos; the cognate Spanish term, refers to a reredos or retrotabulum, although in the specific context of Mexican folk art it may refer to any two-dimensional depiction of a saint or other Christian religious figure, as contrasted with a bulto, a three-dimensional statue of same. The retable may hold the altar cross in Protestant churches, as well as candles and other things
Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe
The Royal Monastery of Santa María of Guadalupe is a Roman Catholic monastic establishment in Guadalupe, in Extremadura, Spain. It is located at the foot of the eastern side of the Sierra de las Villuercas and was one of the most important and fine monasteries in the country for more than four centuries. UNESCO declared it a World Heritage Site in 1993; the monastery had its origins in the late 13th century, when a shepherd from Cáceres, named Gil Cordero, discovered on the bank of the Guadalupe River a statue of the Blessed Virgin, hidden by local inhabitants from Moorish invaders in 714. On the site of his discovery a chapel was built, dedicated under the title of Our Lady of Guadalupe. King Alfonso XI, who visited the chapel more than once, invoked Santa Maria de Guadalupe in the Battle of Rio Salado. After gaining the victory, he ascribed it to the Madonna's intercession, declared the church at Guadalupe a royal sanctuary and undertook an extensive rebuilding program. In 1389, the Hieronymite monks made it their principal house.
Construction works continued under the auspices of the order's first prior, in 1474 Henry IV of Castile was entombed in Guadalupe, next to his mother. King Ferdinand II of Aragon issued the Sentencia Arbitral de Guadalupe at the monastery on 21 April 1486, thus ending the onerous evil customs allowing medieval nobles in Catalonia to maltreat the remensa peasants and tie them to their lands; the monastery has rich associations with the New World, including the Guadeloupe island in the Caribbean. It was here in Extremadura where Christopher Columbus made his first pilgrimage after discovering America in 1492 and where he first thanked heaven for his discovery. After the monks from Guadalupe founded the famous monastery of Escorial, much closer to the royal capital, Santa Maria de Guadalupe retained the royal patronage, it remained the most important cloister in Spain until the Confiscation of monasteries in 1835. In the 20th century, the monastery was revived by the Franciscan Order and Pope Pius XII declared the shrine a "Minor Papal Basilica" in 1955.
The monastery, whose architecture evolved throughout many centuries, is still dominated by the templo mayor, or the main church, built by Alfonso XI and his immediate successors in the 14th and 15th centuries. The square chapel of Santa Catalina is of the 15th century; the 16th-century reliquaries chapel connects Santa Catalina with the baroque sacristy, lavishly decorated and boasting a series of paintings by Zurbarán. Behind the basilica is Camarin de la Virgen, an octagonal baroque structure with the impressive stuccoed Chamber of the Virgin and nine paintings by Luca Giordano; the jewel of this profusely ornamented hall is a throne containing the statue of the Madonna which gave the monastery its name. Other notable structures include the Mudéjar cloister, with the magnificent Plateresque portal. Regrettably, the palace of Isabella I of Castile was pulled down in 1856; the sanctuary is divided into: Stewardship or portería Basilica Temple Mudéjar cloister Gothic cloister and Welcomer Temple of the Holy Trinity Embroidery Museum: liturgical vestments made in its embroidery workshop and includes pieces that cover the period between 15th and 19th centuries Museum of Books and Cantonals: more than ninety examples are exhibited, gigantic cantonals and two 15th century passionaries.
Museum of sculpture and painting: include paintings by Goya and El Greco, along with Anequín carvings by Egas Cueman or a crucified ivory Christ attributed to Michelangelo. The canvases of Zurbarán are in the old sacristy. Denis, Lord of Cifuentes Materials from the World Heritage website
Museo del Prado
The Prado Museum is the main Spanish national art museum, located in central Madrid. It is considered to have one of the world's finest collections of European art, dating from the 12th century to the early 20th century, based on the former Spanish Royal Collection, the single best collection of Spanish art. Founded as a museum of paintings and sculpture in 1819, it contains important collections of other types of works. El Prado is one of the most visited sites in the world, it is considered one of the greatest art museums in the world; the numerous works by Francisco Goya, the single most extensively represented artist, as well as by Hieronymus Bosch, El Greco, Peter Paul Rubens and Diego Velázquez, are some of the highlights of the collection. The collection comprises around 8,200 drawings, 7,600 paintings, 4,800 prints, 1,000 sculptures, in addition to a large number of other works of art and historic documents; as of 2012, the museum displayed about 1,300 works in the main buildings, while around 3,100 works were on temporary loan to various museums and official institutions.
The remainder were in storage. The museum received 2.8 million visitors in 2012. It is one of the largest museums in Spain; the best-known work on display at the museum is Las Meninas by Velázquez. Velázquez and his keen eye and sensibility were responsible for bringing much of the museum's fine collection of Italian masters to Spain, now the largest outside Italy; the museum is planning a 16% extension in the nearby Salón de Reinos, to be opened in 2019. The building, now the home of the Museo Nacional del Prado was designed in 1785 by architect of the Enlightenment in Spain Juan de Villanueva on the orders of Charles III to house the Natural History Cabinet. Nonetheless, the building's final function was not decided until the monarch's grandson, Ferdinand VII, encouraged by his wife, Queen María Isabel de Braganza, decided to use it as a new Royal Museum of Paintings and Sculptures; the Royal Museum, which would soon become known as the National Museum of Painting and Sculpture, subsequently the Museo Nacional del Prado, opened to the public for the first time in November 1819.
It was created with the double aim of showing the works of art belonging to the Spanish Crown and to demonstrate to the rest of Europe that Spanish art was of equal merit to any other national school. The first catalogue of the Museum, published in 1819 and devoted to Spanish painting, included 311 paintings, although at that time the Museum housed 1,510 from the various royal residences, the Reales Sitios, including works from other schools; the exceptionally important royal collection, which forms the nucleus of the present-day Museo del Prado, started to increase in the 16th century during the time of Charles V and continued under the succeeding Habsburg and Bourbon monarchs. Their efforts and determination led to the Royal Collection being enriched by some of the masterpieces now to be seen in the Prado; these include The Descent from the Cross by Rogier van der Weyden, The Garden of Earthly Delights by Hieronymous Bosch, Knight with his Hand on his Breast by El Greco, The Death of the Virgin by Mantegna, The Holy Family, known as "La Perla", by Raphael, Charles V at Mülhberg by Titian, Christ Washing the Disciples’ Feet by Tintoretto, Dürer's Self-portrait, Las Meninas by Velázquez, The Three Graces by Rubens, The Family of Charles IV by Goya.
In addition to works from the Spanish royal collection, other holdings increased and enriched the Museum with further masterpieces, such as the two Majas by Goya. Among the now closed museums whose collections have been added to that of the Prado were the Museo de la Trinidad in 1872, the Museo de Arte Moderno in 1971. In addition, numerous legacies and purchases have been of crucial importance for the growth of the collection. Various works entered the Prado from the Museo de la Trinidad, including The Fountain of Grace by the School of Van Eyck, the Santo Domingo and San Pedro Martír altarpieces painted for the monastery of Santo Tomás in Ávila by Pedro Berruguete, the five canvases by El Greco executed for the Colegio de doña María de Aragón. Most of the Museum's 19th-century paintings come from the former Museo de Arte Moderno, including works by the Madrazos, José de Madrazo y Agudo and Federico de Madrazo, Vicente López, Carlos de Haes, Eduardo Rosales and Sorolla. Upon the deposition of Isabella II in 1868, the museum was nationalized and acquired the new name of "Museo del Prado".
The building housed the royal collection of arts, it proved too small. The first enlargement to the museum took place in 1918. Since the creation of the Museo del Prado more than 2,300 paintings have been incorporated into its collection, as well as a large number of sculptures, prints and works of art through bequests and purchases, which account for most of the New Acquisitions. Numerous bequests have enriched the Museum's holdings, such as the outstanding collection of medals left to the Museum by Pablo Bosch. Important donations include Barón Emile d'Erlanger's gift of Goya's Black Paintings in 1881. Among the numerous works that have entered the collection through purchase are some outstanding ones acquired in recent years including two works by El Greco, The Fable and The Flight into Egypt acquired in 1993 and 2001, Goya's Countess of Chinchón bought in 2000, Velázquez's portrait of The Pope's Barber, acquired in 2003 and Fra Angelico's Madonna of the Pomegranate purchased in 2016. Between 1873