Harper's Weekly, A Journal of Civilization was an American political magazine based in New York City. Published by Harper & Brothers from 1857 until 1916, it featured foreign and domestic news, essays on many subjects, humor, alongside illustrations, it carried extensive coverage of the American Civil War, including many illustrations of events from the war. During its most influential period, it was the forum of the political cartoonist Thomas Nast. Along with his brothers James and Wesley, Fletcher Harper began the publishing company Harper & Brothers in 1825. Following the successful example of The Illustrated London News, Harper started publishing Harper's Magazine in 1850; the monthly publication featured established authors such as Charles Dickens and William Makepeace Thackeray, within several years, its circulation and interest grew enough to sustain a weekly edition. In 1857, his company began publishing Harper's Weekly in New York City. By 1860 the circulation of the Weekly had reached 200,000.
Illustrations were an important part of the Weekly's content, it developed a reputation for using some of the most renowned illustrators of the time, notably Winslow Homer, Granville Perkins and Livingston Hopkins. Among the recurring features were the political cartoons of Thomas Nast, recruited in 1862 and worked with the Weekly for more than 20 years. Nast was a feared caricaturist, is called the father of American political cartooning, he was the first to use an elephant as the symbol of the Republican Party. He drew the legendary character of Santa Claus. Harper's Weekly was the most read journal in the United States throughout the period of the Civil War. So as not to upset its wide readership in the South, Harper's took a moderate editorial position on the issue of slavery prior to the outbreak of the war. Publications that supported abolition referred to it as "Harper's Weakly"; the Weekly had supported the Stephen A. Douglas presidential campaign against Abraham Lincoln, but as the American Civil War broke out, it supported Lincoln and the Union.
A July 1863 article on the escaped slave Gordon included a photograph of his back scarred from whippings. The photograph inspired many free blacks in the North to enlist; some of the most important articles and illustrations of the time were Harper's reporting on the war. Besides renderings by Homer and Nast, the magazine published illustrations by Theodore R. Davis, Henry Mosler, the brothers Alfred and William Waud. In 1863, George William Curtis, one of the founders of the Republican Party, became the political editor of the magazine, remained in that capacity until his death in 1892, his editorials advocated civil service reform, low tariffs, adherence to the gold standard. After the war, Harper's Weekly more supported the Republican Party in its editorial positions, contributed to the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 and 1872, it supported the Radical Republican position on Reconstruction. In the 1870s, the cartoonist Thomas Nast began an aggressive campaign in the journal against the corrupt New York political leader William "Boss" Tweed.
Nast turned down a $500,000 bribe to end his attack. Tweed was convicted of fraud. Nast and Harper's played an important part in securing Rutherford B. Hayes' 1876 presidential election. On Hayes remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid had". After the election, Nast's role in the magazine diminished considerably. Since the late 1860s, Nast and George W. Curtis had differed on political matters and on the role of cartoons in political discourse. Curtis believed that mockery by caricature should be reserved for Democrats, did not approve of Nast's cartoons assailing Republicans such as Carl Schurz and Charles Sumner, who opposed policies of the Grant administration. Harper's publisher Fletcher Harper supported Nast in his disputes with Curtis. In 1877, Harper died, his nephews, Joseph W. Harper Jr. and John Henry Harper, assumed control of the magazine. They were more sympathetic to Curtis' arguments for rejecting cartoons that contradicted his editorial positions. In 1884, however and Nast agreed that they could not support the Republican candidate James G. Blaine, whose association with corruption was anathema to them.
Instead they supported Grover Cleveland. Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected president since 1856. In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected. In his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact,'made a president.'"Nast's final contribution to Harper's Weekly was his Christmas illustration in December 1886. Journalist Henry Watterson said that "in quitting Harper's Weekly, Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance." Nast's biographer Fiona Deans Halloran says "the former is true to a certain extent, the latter unlikely. Readers may have missed Nast's cartoons, but Harper's Weekly remained influential." After 1900, Harper's Weekly devoted more print to political and social issues, featured articles by some of the more prominent political figures of the time, such as Theodore Roosevelt. Harper's editor George Harvey was an early supporter of Woodrow Wilson's candidacy, proposing him for the Presidency at a Lotos Club dinner in 1906.
After that dinner, Harvey would make sure that he "emblazoned each issue of Harper's We
James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, born James Orchard Halliwell, was an English Shakespearean scholar, a collector of English nursery rhymes and fairy tales. The son of Thomas Halliwell, he was born in London and was educated and at Jesus College, Cambridge, he devoted himself to antiquarian research of early English literature. Beginning at the age of only 16, between 1836 and 1837, he contributed 47 articles to The Parthenon. A Weekly Journal of English and Foreign Literature, the Arts, Sciences. In 1841, while at Cambridge, Halliwell dedicated his book Reliquae Antiquae to Sir Thomas Phillipps, the noted bibliomaniac. Phillipps invited Halliwell to stay at Middle Hill. There Halliwell met Henrietta, to whom he soon proposed marriage; however around this time, Halliwell was accused of stealing manuscripts from Trinity College, Cambridge. Although never prosecuted, Phillipps's suspicions were aroused and he refused to consent to the marriage; this led to the couple's elopement in 1842. William A. Jackson and Harvard professor argues that Halliwell stole an exceedingly rare 1603 quarto Hamlet from Phillipps, removed the title page and sold it.
Phillipps refused to see his daughter or Halliwell again. In 1842, Halliwell published the first edition of Nursery Rhymes of England followed by Nursery Rhymes and Nursery Tales, containing the first printed version of the Three Little Pigs. and a version of the Christmas carol The Twelve Days of Christmas. From 1845 Halliwell was excluded from the library of the British Museum on account of the suspicion concerning his possession of some manuscripts, removed from the library of Trinity College, Cambridge, he published an explanation of the matter in 1845. Halliwell had a habit, detested by bibliophiles, of cutting up seventeenth-century books and pasting parts he liked into scrapbooks. During his life he made 3,600 scraps. In 1848 he published his Life of Shakespeare, illustrated by John Thomas Blight, which had several editions. After 1870 he gave up textual criticism, devoted his attention to elucidating the particulars of Shakespeare's life, he collated all the available facts and documents in relation to it, exhausted the information to be found in local records in his Outlines of the Life of Shakespeare.
He was instrumental in the purchase of New Place for the corporation of Stratford-on-Avon, in the formation there of the Shakespeare museum. He assumed the name of Phillipps in 1872, under the will of the grandfather of his first wife, Henrietta Phillipps, he took an active interest in the Camden Society, the Percy Society and the Shakespeare Society, for which he edited many early English and Elizabethan works. He died on 3 January 1889, was buried in Patcham churchyard, near Hollingbury in East Sussex, his house, Hollingbury Copse, near Brighton, was full of rare and curious works, he generously gave many of them to Chetham's Library, Manchester, to the Morrab Library of Penzance, to the Smithsonian Institution, to the library of the University of Edinburgh. His publications in all numbered more than sixty volumes, including:. Shakesperiana. J. R. Smith. Cambridge Jokes: From the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Century. Thomas Stevenson and Bogue A Dictionary of Archaic & Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs & Ancient Customs, Form the Fourteenth Century, Volume I A-I A Dictionary of Archaic & Provincial Words, Obsolete Phrases, Proverbs & Ancient Customs, Form the Fourteenth Century, Volume II J-Z A Calendar of the Records at Stratford-on-Avon A History of New Place An Historical Account of the New Place, Stratford-Upon-Avon, the Last Residence of Shakespeare.
A Hand-Book Index to the Works of Shakespeare: Including References to the Phrases, Customs, Songs, Particles, &c. Which Are Alluded to by the Great Dramatist. J. E. Adlard Spevack, James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps: The Life and Works, Oak Knoll Press. Justin Winsor Halliwelliana: A Bibliography of the Publications of James Orchard Halliwell-Phillipps, Harvard University Press Works written by or about James Halliwell-Phillipps at WikisourceWorks by James Halliwell-Phillipps at Project Gutenberg Works by or about James Halliwell-Phillipps at Internet Archive Works by James Halliwell-Phillipps at Open Library Full texts by James Halliwell-Phillipps Letters of the kings of England, now first collected from royal archives Cornell University Library Historical Monographs Collection. Cornell University Library Digital Collections
Roud Folk Song Index
The Roud Folk Song Index is a database of around 250,000 references to nearly 25,000 songs collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. It is compiled by a former librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. Roud's Index is a "field-recording index" compiled by Roud, it subsumes all the previous printed sources known to Francis James Child and includes recordings from 1900 to 1975. Until early 2006 the index was available by a CD subscription. A partial list is available at List of folk songs by Roud number; the primary function of the Roud Folk Song Index is as a research aid correlating versions of traditional English-language folk song lyrics independently documented over past centuries by many different collectors across the UK and North America. It is possible by searching the database, for example by title, by first line, or subject matter to locate each of the numerous variants of a particular song. Comprehensive details of those songs are available, including details of the original collected source, a reference to where to find the text of the song within a published volume in the EFDSS archive.
A related index, the Roud Broadside Index, includes references to songs which appeared on broadsides and other cheap print publications, up to about 1920. In addition, there are many entries for music hall songs, pre-World War II radio performers' song folios, sheet music, etc; the index may be searched by title, first line etc. and the result includes details of the original imprint and where a copy may be located. The Roud number – "Roud num" – field may be used as a cross-reference to the Roud Folk Song Index itself in order to establish the traditional origin of the work; the database is recognised as a "significant index" by the EFDSS and was one of the first items to be published on its web site after the launch of the online version of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library in 2006. The purpose of the index is to give each song a unique identifier; the numbers were assigned on a more or less arbitrary basis, are not intended to carry any significance in themselves. However, because of the practicalities of compiling the index it is true as a general rule that older and better-known songs tend to occupy low numbers, while songs which are obscure have higher numbers.
Related songs are grouped under the same Roud number. If a trusted authority gives the name of a song but not the words it is assigned Roud number 000; the Index cross references to the Child Ballad number, if one is available for the particular song in question. It includes, where appropriate, the Laws number, a reference to a system of classification of folk songs, using one letter of the alphabet and up to two numeric digits, developed by George Malcolm Laws in the 1950s; the Index was compiled and is maintained by Steve Roud the Local Studies Librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. He was Honorary Librarian of the Folklore Society, he began it in around 1970 as a personal project, listing the source singer, their locality, the date of noting the song, the publisher, plus other fields, crucially assigning a number to each song, including all variants to overcome the problem of songs in which the titles were not consistent across versions. The system used 3x5-inch filing cards in shoeboxes.
In 1993, Roud implemented his record system on a computer database, which he continues to expand and maintain and, now hosted on the website of the Vaughan Williams Memorial Library. In the past few years the numbers have been accepted in academic circles; the Traditional Ballad Index at the California State University at Fresno includes Roud numbers up to number 5000 with comments on the songs, but draws on fewer sources. The Folk Song Index is a collaborative project between the Oberlin College Library and the folk music journal Sing Out!. It is an index to traditional folk songs of the world, with an emphasis on English-language songs, containing over 62,000 entries and including over 2,400 anthologies. Max Hunter's collection lists 1,600 songs. James Madison Carpenter's collection has 6,200 transcriptions and 1000 recorded cylinders made between 1927 and 1955; the index gives first line and the name of the source singer. When appropriate, the Child number is given, it is still a unexploited resource, with none of the recordings available.
The Essen folk song database is another collection that includes songs from non English-speaking countries Germany and China. A similar index of Latvian folk songs and chants, the "Dainu skapis", was created by Latvian scholar Krišjānis Barons at the beginning of the 20th century. List of folk songs by Roud number Iona and Peter Opie Official website
John Milford Rutter is an English composer, editor and record producer of choral music. Born in London, the son of an industrial chemist and his wife, Rutter grew up living over the Globe pub on London's Marylebone Road, he was educated at Highgate School where fellow pupils included John Tavener, Howard Shelley, Brian Chapple and Nicholas Snowman, as a chorister there took part in the first recording of Britten's War Requiem under the composer's baton. He read music at Clare College, where he was a member of the choir. While still an undergraduate he had his first compositions published, including the "Shepherd's Pipe Carol" which he had written aged 18, he served as director of music at Clare College from 1975 to 1979 and led the choir to international prominence. In 1981, Rutter founded his own choir, the Cambridge Singers, which he conducts and with which he has made many recordings of sacred choral repertoire under his own label Collegium Records, he resides at Hemingford Abbots in Cambridgeshire and conducts many choirs and orchestras around the world.
In 1980, he was made an honorary Fellow of Westminster Choir College, in 1988 a Fellow of the Guild of Church Musicians. In 1996, the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred a Lambeth Doctorate of Music upon him in recognition of his contribution to church music. In 2008, he was made an honorary Bencher of the Middle Temple while playing a significant role in the 2008 Temple Festival. From 1985 to 1992, Rutter suffered from myalgic encephalomyelitis, which restricted his output. Rutter works as an arranger and editor; as a young man he collaborated with Sir David Willcocks on five volumes of the extraordinarily successful Carols for Choirs anthology series. He was inducted as a National Patron of Delta Omicron, an international professional music fraternity in 1985. Rutter is a Vice President of the Joyful Company of Singers, President of The Bach Choir, President of the Association of British Choral Directors. Rutter's compositions are chiefly choral, include Christmas carols and extended works such as the Gloria, the Requiem and the Magnificat.
The world premiere of Rutter's Requiem, of his authoritative edition of Fauré's Requiem, took place with the Fox Valley Festival Chorus, in Illinois. In 2002, his setting of Psalm 150, commissioned for the Queen's Golden Jubilee, was performed at the Jubilee thanksgiving service in St Paul's Cathedral, London, he was commissioned to write a new anthem, "This is the day", for the Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton in 2011, performed at Westminster Abbey during the service. Rutter's work is published by Oxford University Press, it has been recorded by many choirs, but he conducts his own recordings principally on his label Collegium Records. Rutter's music is eclectic, showing the influences of the French and English choral traditions of the early 20th century as well as of light music and American classic songwriting; every choral anthem and hymn that he writes has a subsequent orchestral accompaniment in addition to the standard piano/organ accompaniment, using various different instrumentations such as strings only and woodwinds or full orchestra with brass and percussion.
Many of his works have been arranged for concert band with optional chorus. Despite composing and conducting much religious music, Rutter told the US television programme 60 Minutes in 2003 that he was not a religious man yet still spiritual and inspired by the spirituality of sacred verses and prayers; the main topics considered in the 60 Minutes programme, broadcast a week before Christmas 2003, were Rutter's popularity with choral groups in the United States and other parts of the world and his composition Mass of the Children, written after the sudden death of his son Christopher while a student at Clare College, where Rutter himself had studied. In a 2009 interview Rutter discussed his understanding of "genius" and its unique ability to transform lives – whether that genius is communicated in the form of music or other media, he likened the purity of music to that of mathematics and connected the two with a reference to the discovery made by the early Greeks that frequencies of harmonic pitches are related by whole-number ratios.
Rutter's music is popular in the US. In the UK many hold him in high regard, as illustrated by the following quotation from a review in the London Evening Standard: "For the infectiousness of his melodic invention and consummate craftsmanship, Rutter has few peers". Sue Lawley referred to Rutter as "the most celebrated and successful composer of carols alive today" and Sean Rafferty heralded Rutter as "a creator of not just carols, but wonderfully great things for the human voice." One British composer, David Arditti, did not regard him as a sufficiently "serious" composer, saying that Rutter is "hard to take because of the way in which his sheer technical facility or versatility leads to a superficial, unstable crossover style, neither quite classical nor pop, which tends towards mawkish sentimentality in his sugarily-harmonised and orchestrated melodies." The Guardian remarked that "it is as a writer of carols that he has made his mark... His larger-scale works – the Gloria and Magnificat – are well established in the choral repertoire."
David Willcocks considered Rutter "the most gifted composer of his generation." Suite for Strings Gloria
St. Nicholas Magazine
St. Nicholas Magazine was a popular monthly American children's magazine, founded by Scribner's in 1873; the first editor was Mary Mapes Dodge, who continued her association with the magazine until her death in 1905. Dodge published work by the country's best writers, including Louisa May Alcott, Frances Hodgson Burnett, Mark Twain, Laura E. Richards and Joel Chandler Harris. Many famous writers were first published in St. Nicholas League, a department that offered awards and cash prizes to the best work submitted by its juvenile readers. Edna St. Vincent Millay, F. Scott Fitzgerald, E. B. White, Stephen Vincent Benet were all St. Nicholas League winners. St. Nicholas Magazine ceased publication in 1940. A revival was attempted in 1943, but only a few issues were published before St. Nicholas folded once more. In 1870 Roswell Smith, cofounder of the magazine publishing company Scribner & Company, contacted Mary Mapes Dodge to inquire if she would be interested in working for a projected new children's magazine.
At the time Dodge was an associate editor of the weekly periodical Hearth and Home, as well as the author of children's novels, including the best-seller Hans Brinker, or the Silver Skates. Dodge had specific ideas about what a children's magazine shouldn't be, she felt. In fact, it needs to be stronger, bolder, more uncompromising than the other.... Most children...attend school. Their heads are taxed with the day's lessons, they do not want to be bothered nor petted. They just want to have their own way over their own magazine."The first issue of St. Nicholas: Scribner's Illustrated Magazine for Girls and Boys was dated November, 1873, it had a press run of 40,000 copies. Although St. Nicholas never reached the high circulation numbers of some other magazines, within a few years it had acquired numerous competing children's periodicals. Magazines that merged with St. Nicholas were Our Young Folks and The Children's Hour in 1874, The Schoolday Magazine and The Little Corporal in 1875, Wide Awake in 1878.
From the start, St. Nicholas was beautifully printed with illustrations from a consistent group of artists and wood engravers, such as Walter James Fenn, used by Scribner & Company's other magazine, Scribner's Monthly. In 1899 St. Nicholas League began, it was one of the magazine's most important departments, had the motto of "Live to learn and learn to live." Each month contests were held for the best poems, essays, drawings and puzzles submitted by the magazine's young readers. Winners received gold badges, runners-up received silver badges, "honor members", winners of both gold and silver badges, were sent cash prizes.”There is no doubt about it,” E. B. White wrote. “The fierce desire to write and paint that burns in our land today, the incredible amount of writing and painting that still goes on in the face of heavy odds, are directly traceable to St Nicholas.”Many St. Nicholas League winners went on to achieve prominence; the most prolific poetry contest winner was Edna St. Vincent Millay, who had seven poems published in the League.
E. B. White and Bennett Cerf won essay contests. William Faulkner made the honor roll for his drawings, F. Scott Fitzgerald was honored for a photograph. From 1873 until 1881, Mary Mapes Dodge was involved with the day-to-day operations of all aspects of St. Nicholas, she created the magazine departments, wrote the monthly column Jack-in-the-Pulpit, contributed many stories and poems. In the first issue she explained why she chose St. Nicholas for the name of the magazine: Is he not the boys' and girls' own Saint, the especial friend of young Americans?... And what is more, isn't he the kindest and jolliest old dear, known?... He has attended so many heart-warmings in his long, long day that he glows without knowing it, coming as he does, at a holy time, casts a light upon the children's faces that lasts from year to year.... Never to dim this light, young friends, by word or token, to make it brighter, when we can, in good, pleasant helpful ways, to clear away clouds that sometimes shut it out, is our aim and prayer.
In order to retain her juvenile readers for many years, Dodge created departments for different age groups. For Very Little Folks was a page of simple stories printed in large type; the Puzzle Box contained riddles and word games. Young Contributors Department encouraged the writing skills of older children; the Agassiz Association was begun in 1885 to develop the awareness of nature, the importance of conservation. Hundreds of Agassiz chapters were organized across the nation, reports of activities were printed in the department. Dodge knew many famous writers, was able to persuade them to submit their work to her magazine. Frances Hodgson Burnett's novel Little Lord Fauntleroy first appeared as a St. Nicholas serial, beginning in the November 1885 issue, her novella Sara Crewe appeared in the December 1887 issue. Other novels to be serialized in St. Nicholas were Louisa May Alcott's Eight Cousins and Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer Abroad. Dodge asked Rudyard Kipling to do a fiction series, he sent her the Jungle Book stories.
Within a few years, St. Nicholas increased in size to 96 pages, reached a circulation of 70,000 subscribers. In 1881, the Scribner publishing house withdrew from ownership of its two magazines, they were purchased by The Century Company. Scribner's Monthly became Century Magazine, St. Nicholas: Scribner's Illustrated Magazine for Girls and Boys became St. Nicholas: An Illustrated Magazine for Young Folks; the printing and art facilities of the
A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata, accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style. In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot. Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal, up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez. The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. 16th century a cappella polyphony, continued to influence church composers throughout this period and to the present day. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina, such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor. Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in 1610, Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style.
Learning from the preceding two composeres, Heinrich Schütz utilized the a cappella style in numerous pieces, chief among these were the pieces in the oratorio style, which were traditionally performed during the Easter week and dealt with the religious subject matter of that week, such as Christ's suffering and the Passion. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant. In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir... In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found."
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms 150, which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. In keeping with this philosophy, early Russian musika which started appearing in the late 17th century, in what was known as khorovïye kontsertï made a cappella adaptations of Venetian-styled pieces, such as the treatise, Grammatika musikiyskaya, by Nikolai Diletsky. Divine Liturgies and Western Rite masses composed by famous composers such as Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alexander Arkhangelsky, Mykola Leontovych are fine examples of this. Present-day Christian religious bodies known for conducting their worship services without musical accompaniment include some Presbyterian churches devoted to the regulative principle of worship, Old Regular Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Churches of Christ, Church of God, the Old German Baptist Brethren, Doukhobors the Byzantine Rite and the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Mennonites.
Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times. Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp, a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew 26:30. There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament, or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries. Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
They believe that if God
Suffolk is an East Anglian county of historic origin in England. It has borders with Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south; the North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; the county is low-lying with few hills, is arable land with the wetlands of the Broads in the north. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. By the fifth century, the Angles had established control of the region; the Angles became the "north folk" and the "south folk", from which developed the names "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk and several adjacent areas became the kingdom of East Anglia, which merged with Mercia and Wessex. Suffolk was divided into four separate Quarter Sessions divisions. In 1860, the number of divisions was reduced to two; the eastern division was administered from the western from Bury St Edmunds. Under the Local Government Act 1888, the two divisions were made the separate administrative counties of East Suffolk and West Suffolk. A few Essex parishes were added to Suffolk: Ballingdon-with-Brundon and parts of Haverhill and Kedington.
On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, East Suffolk, West Suffolk, Ipswich were merged to form the unified county of Suffolk. The county was divided into several local government districts: Babergh, Forest Heath, Mid Suffolk, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk Coastal, Waveney; this act transferred some land near Great Yarmouth to Norfolk. As introduced in Parliament, the Local Government Act would have transferred Newmarket and Haverhill to Cambridgeshire and Colchester from Essex. In 2007, the Department for Communities and Local Government referred Ipswich Borough Council's bid to become a new unitary authority to the Boundary Committee; the Boundary Committee reported in favour of the proposal. It was not, approved by the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government. Beginning in February 2008, the Boundary Committee again reviewed local government in the county, with two possible options emerging. One was that of splitting Suffolk into two unitary authorities – Ipswich and Felixstowe and Rural Suffolk.
In February 2010, the then-Minister Rosie Winterton announced that no changes would be imposed on the structure of local government in the county as a result of the review, but that the government would be: "asking Suffolk councils and MPs to reach a consensus on what unitary solution they want through a countywide constitutional convention". Following the May 2010 general election, all further moves towards any of the suggested unitary solutions ceased on the instructions of the incoming Coalition government. In 2018 it was determined that Forest Heath and St Edmundsbury would be merged to form a new West Suffolk district, while Waveney and Suffolk Coastal would form a new East Suffolk district; these changes took effect on 1 April 2019. West Suffolk, like nearby East Cambridgeshire, is renowned for archaeological finds from the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Bronze Age artefacts have been found in the area between Mildenhall and West Row, in Eriswell and in Lakenheath. Many bronze objects, such as swords, arrows, palstaves, daggers, armour, decorative equipment, fragments of sheet bronze, are entrusted to St. Edmundsbury heritage service, housed at West Stow just outside Bury St. Edmunds.
Other finds include traces of barrows. In the east of the county is Sutton Hoo, the site of one of England's most significant Anglo-Saxon archaeological finds, a ship burial containing a collection of treasures including a Sword of State and silver bowls, jewellery and a lyre; the majority of agriculture in Suffolk is either mixed. Farm sizes vary from anything around 80 acres to over 8,000. Soil types vary from heavy clays to light sands. Crops grown include:winter wheat, winter barley, sugar beet, oilseed rape and spring beans and linseed, although smaller areas of rye and oats can be found growing in areas with lighter soils along with a variety of vegetables; the continuing importance of agriculture in the county is reflected in the Suffolk Show, held annually in May at Ipswich. Although latterly somewhat changed in nature, this remains an agricultural show. Below is a chart of regional gross value added of Suffolk at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Well-known companies in Suffolk include Greene Branston Pickle in Bury St Edmunds. Birds Eye has its largest UK factory in Lowestoft, where all its meat products and frozen vegetables are processed. Huntley & Palmers biscuit company has a base in Sudbury; the UK horse racing industry is based in Newmarket. There are two USAF bases in the west of the county close to the A11. Sizewell B nuclear power station is at Sizewell on the coast near Leiston. Bernard Matthews Farms have some processing units in the county Holton. Southwold is the home of Adnams Brewery; the Port of Felixstowe is the largest container port in the United Kingdom. Other ports are at Ipswich, run by Associated British Ports. BT has its main development facility at Martlesham Heath. There are several towns in the county with Ipswich being most populous. At the time