A mondegreen is a mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase as a result of near-homophony, in a way that gives it a new meaning. Mondegreens are most created by a person listening to a poem or a song. American writer Sylvia Wright coined the term in 1954, writing that as a girl, when her mother read to her from Percy's Reliques, she had misheard the lyric "And hae layd him on the green" in the fourth line of the Scottish ballad "The Bonny Earl of Murray," as "And Lady Mondegreen"."Mondegreen" was included in the 2000 edition of the Random House Webster's College Dictionary, in the Oxford English Dictionary in 2002. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary added the word in 2008. In a 1954 essay in Harper's Magazine, Wright described how, as a young girl, she misheard the last line of the first stanza from the seventeenth-century ballad The Bonnie Earl O' Moray, she wrote: When I was a child, my mother used to read aloud to me from Percy's Reliques, one of my favorite poems began, as I remember: Ye Highlands and ye Lowlands, Oh, where hae ye been?
They hae slain the Earl o' Moray. The correct fourth line is, "And laid him on the green". Wright explained the need for a new term: "The point about what I shall hereafter call mondegreens, since no one else has thought up a word for them, is that they are better than the original." People are more to notice what they expect than things not part of their everyday experiences. One may mistake an unfamiliar stimulus for a familiar and more plausible version. For example, to consider a well-known mondegreen in the song "Purple Haze", one would be more to hear Jimi Hendrix singing that he is about to kiss this guy than that he is about to kiss the sky. If a lyric uses words or phrases that the listener is unfamiliar with, they may be misheard as using more familiar terms; the creation of mondegreens may be driven in part by cognitive dissonance, as the listener finds it psychologically uncomfortable to listen to a song and not make out the words. Steven Connor suggests that mondegreens are the result of the brain's constant attempts to make sense of the world by making assumptions to fill in the gaps when it cannot determine what it is hearing.
Connor sees mondegreens as the "wrenchings of nonsense into sense". This dissonance will be most acute. On the other hand, Steven Pinker has observed that mondegreen mishearings tend to be less plausible than the original lyrics, that once a listener has "locked in" to a particular misheard interpretation of a song's lyrics, it can remain unquestioned when that plausibility becomes strained. Pinker gives the example of a student "stubbornly" mishearing the chorus to "Venus" as "I'm your penis," and being surprised that the song was allowed on the radio; the phenomenon may, in some cases, be triggered by people hearing "what they want to hear", as in the case of the song "Louie Louie": parents heard obscenities in the Kingsmen recording where none existed. James Gleick claims. Without the improved communication and language standardization brought about by radio, he believes there would have been no way to recognize and discuss this shared experience. Just as mondegreens transform songs based on experience, a folk song learned by repetition is transformed over time when sung by people in a region where some of the song's references have become obscure.
A classic example is "The Golden Vanity", which contains the line "As she sailed upon the lowland sea". British immigrants carried the song to Appalachia, where singers, not knowing what the term lowland sea refers to, transformed it over generations from "lowland" to "lonesome". Classicist and Linguist Steve Reece has collected examples of English mondegreens in song lyrics, religious creeds and liturgies and advertisements, jokes and riddles, he has used this collection to shed light on the process of "junctural metanalysis" during the oral transmission of the ancient Greek epics, the Iliad and Odyssey. The top three mondegreens submitted to mondegreen expert Jon Carroll are: Gladly, the cross-eyed bear. Carroll and many others quote it as "Gladly the cross I'd bear". There's a bathroom on the right.'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Both Creedence's John Fogerty and Hendrix acknowledged these mishearings by deliberately singing the "mondegreen" versions of their songs in concert; the national anthem of the United States is susceptible to the creation of mondegreens, two in the first line.
Francis Scott Key's Star-Spangled Banner begins with the line "O say can you see, by the dawn's early light." This has been accidentally and deliberately misinterpreted as "Jose, can you see," another example of the Hobson-Jobson effect, countless times. The second half of the line has been misheard as well, as "by the donzerly light," or other variants; this has led to many people believing that "donzerly" is an actual word."Blinded by
Pedro Manuel Dias de Jesus Marques is a Portuguese politician of the Socialist Party, serving as Member of the European Parliament since 2019. He served as Minister of Planning and Infrastructure in the government of Prime Minister António Costa since 26 November 2015. From March 2005 to June 2011, Marques served as the Secretary of State for Social Security. In his capacity as Minister of Planning and Infrastructure, he renegotiated Portugal's structural and cohesion funds as part of an multiannual program — called Portugal 2020 — and started discussions on the following period between 2021 and 2027. In 2019, the PS put Marques at the head of its list for the European elections. In Parliament, he has since been serving on the Committee on Regional Development. In addition to his committee assignments, he is a member of the Parliament’s delegation for relations with the Maghreb countries and the Arab Maghreb Union
The American College Counseling Association is a division of the American Counseling Association for individuals whose professional identity is in counseling, whose work setting is higher education, whose purpose is fostering students’ development. The dual focus on a professional identity and on student development as a foundation for college counseling is a distinctive characteristic of the association. From its founding, ACCA has sought to include professionals across various areas who provide services to colleges and universities, because of its commitment to student development, has involved graduate students in significant ways including representation and leadership. ACCA has a strong commitment to diversity and social justice. ACCA's members work in higher education settings including colleges and community and technical colleges. ACCA strives to support and enhance the practice of college counseling, to promote ethical and responsible professional practice, to promote communication and exchange among college counselors across service areas and institutional settings, to encourage cooperation with other organizations related to higher education and college student development, to provide leadership and advocacy for the profession of counseling in higher education.
ACCA was created in 1991, in response to the disaffiliation of the American College Personnel Association, to ensure a continued place within ACA for those working in colleges and universities. ACPA’s decision reflected the “intent to serve those with a primary identity in student affairs. Individuals working in higher education who had a primary professional identity in counseling had to reevaluate their professional affiliations”. Gene Meadows served as the first president of ACCA, membership had grown to 2000 in that time. Since its inception, ACCA has grown into a active organization. Visions, the organization’s newsletter, is published three times per year and is now disseminated electronically; the Journal of College Counseling was initiated in 1998 and has developed a strong reputation as a scholarly journal, with an orientation to the work of practitioners. The ACCA-L listserv, open to anyone interested in college counseling, provides an electronic forum for discussion of issues. Since 2002, ACCA has sponsored a biennial national conference, co-hosted with one of its state divisions, in addition to its annual business meeting and other activities held at the ACA conference.
Other professional development opportunities include 23 state divisions, public policy and legislation activities, on-line courses providing continuing professional education, research grants, professional awards, emerging leader grants to support graduate student participation at ACA and ACCA conferences. One of the major, sustained initiatives within ACCA has been advocacy for college counseling ACCA in 2001 published the second edition of the College Counseling Advocacy Booklet to support members in their advocacy efforts in response to the trends of outsourcing and budget constraints within higher education and the need to educate the general public, students and administrators about the value of counseling services on college campuses; as an association, ACCA advocates for professional standards and accreditation. ACCA archives: National Student Affairs Archives, Bowling Green State University, https://web.archive.org/web/20070606210439/http://www.bgsu.edu/colleges/library/cac/nsaaintro.html ACCA website: www.collegecounseling.org Davis, D. C.
& Humphrey, K. M... College counseling: Issues and strategies for a new millennium. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Davis, D. C.. The American College Counseling Association: A historical view. Journal of College Counseling, 1, 7-9. Dean, L. A. & Meadows, M. E.. College counseling: Union and intersection. Journal of Counseling & Development, 74, 139-142
Paula is a common female given name. It is used in German, Finnish, Portuguese, Romanian, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Croatian languages. Notable people with this name include: PAULA BIG BAD Saint Paula and follower of St Jerome Paula Abdul, American pop singer and television personality Paula Acker, German correspondent, communist activist Paula Barker, British Labour politician Paula Berry, American javelin thrower Paula Byrne, English author Paula Cole, American singer-songwriter Paula Creamer, American golfer Paula Nicho Cumez, Mayan-Guatemalan artist Paula Davis, American state legislator Paula DeAnda, American R&B singer Paula Deen, American cook, writer, TV personality Paula Dei Mansi, Italian scribe Paula Echevarría, Spanish model and actress Paula Fernandes, Brazilian singer Paula Forteza, French politician Paula Fudge, English long-distance runner Paula Green, New Zealand poet and children's author Paula Gunn Allen, Native American author and activist Paula Hawkins, American politician Paula Hertwig, German biologist, politician Paula Kelley, American indie singer-songwriter Paula Kelly, American actress and dancer Paula Kelly, American big band singer Paula Nickolds, British businesswoman Paula Patton, American actress Paula Poundstone, American comedian Paula Radcliffe, English long distance runner and Olympian Paula Rego, Portuguese painter and visual artist Paula Roberson, American biostatistician Paula Scher, American artist Paula Seling, Romanian singer Paula Taylor Thai actress and model Paula Thebert, known as Lacey Wildd, American model Paula Tsui, Hong Kong singer Paula Weishoff, American volleyball player Paula White, American pastor and televangelist Paula Wilcox, English actress Paula Vicente, Portuguese artist and writer Paula Yates, English television presenter Paula Zahn, American newscaster Doctor Paula Hutchison, a character from the animated series Rocko's Modern Life Paula Jones, a lead character in the Super Nintendo videogame, EarthBound Paul Paula Paulina Pauline Paola
The Pacific parrotlet known as Lesson's parrotlet or the celestial parrotlet, is a species of small parrot in the family Psittacidae. Pacific parrotlets are small, olive green parrotlets, they are 11–14 centimetres long and weigh 1.1–1.12 ounces. Wild Pacific parrotlets have olive green and grey bodies with blue streaks behind the eyes, just above their ear covert feathers and around the back of the head. Eyes are dark brown, beaks and feet are light peach; this species demonstrates sexual dimorphism: males have a bright cobalt rump with blue patches on the tail and undersides of their wings as well as lighter, yellow-green faces. Females are green with much duller blue patches behind the eyes and no cobalt rump or blue in their wings; these dimorphic color variations are true of most color mutations as well. Like all parrots, Pacific parrotlets exhibit zygodactyly, meaning two toes face forward and two face backward. In captivity there are many color mutations of Pacific parrotlets; these mutations include: blue, American yellow, American white, European yellow, white and albino, as well as other, rarer colors.
There are dilute, freckled, marbled and fallow versions of many these mutations as well. Wild Pacific parrotlets are native to northwestern Peru, it has been suggested that the spread of populations into northwestern Ecuador is a result of the continuing deforestation of the Chocó rainforest. Pacific parrotlets have been reported in the middle Marañón valley. In 2014 a small flock of Pacific parrotlets was reported near the Rio Mataje in Nariño, southwestern Colombia, they are abundant across their range. Pacific parrotlets live in subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, degraded former forest. Pacific parrotlets are non-migratory, they gather in flocks of more than 100 birds to socialize and feed. The Pacific parrotlet is listed as Least Concern by the IUCN Red List; the number of mature individuals in the wild is not known. Like all other species of the genus Forpus, Pacific parrotlets are gregarious, they are always seen in flocks of up to 100 individuals.
Pacific parrotlets are protective of their eggs and chicks. Each clutch has 4-6 white eggs. In the wild they nest on fence posts, they have been observed to nest in abandoned nests of necklaced spinetails and pale-legged horneros. Pacific parrotlets are not picky in their feeding. In captivity, parrotlets eat many fruits, seeds and herbs; this species is not common in pet stores and is valued by breeders. Its normal price range is $150–200 USD. Since 1930 the U. S. has had an established breeding population in captivity, before CITES laws preventing importing wildlife from foreign countries. Captive Pacific parrotlets can be expected to live up to 25 years with good care and regular veterinary examinations, although individuals may have shorter or longer life spans. Pacific parrotlets, like many larger parrot species, can learn to "speak," or mimic, though their "voices" are not as clear as larger birds, their vocabulary is limited compared to larger parrots. The species is well known among parrotlet breeders and owners as being feisty and curious despite their small size
Moment of Truth: Why My Daughter? is a 1993 made-for-television drama film directed by Chuck Bowman. It is based on the true story of Diana Moffit, a teenage girl lured into prostitution, the efforts of her mother, Gayle Moffit, to convict the man responsible for Diana's death; the film is a part of the Moment of Truth franchise and premiered on NBC on April 28, 1993. Set in the 1980s, the story focuses on a likable 17-year-old from Portland, Oregon. Trouble starts when her parents decide to file for divorce, as well as being dumped by her boyfriend, she takes it hard and begins a relationship with a 23-year-old man named A. J. Treace though her mother, senses that A. J. is bad news. As it turns out, he is a pimp who abuses Diana and lures her into the world of prostitution, which results in her dropping out of school, quitting her job and estrangement from her family. Gayle is devastated by this news and goes as far as confronting Diana in a strip club where she is working. Desperate to save her daughter, she confronts her and starts looking for ways to do something about it.
Diana sometimes shows interest in her old life, but has trouble breaking out of the dark world she is living in. At one point, Diana disassociates herself from A. J. after a violent confrontation and returns home with her mother agreeing to press charges against him, but drops the charges after A. J. promises to change. Diana is mysteriously murdered, much to the distress of Gayle, who feels that A. J. is responsible. Determined to get A. J. behind bars, she notifies the police, who put her in contact with Sgt. Jack Powell, but they are unable to charge A. J. because he claims to have played no part in Diana's death though Gayle knows the truth. Looking for another related charge, she meets April, another one of A. J.'s prostitutes, a friend of Diana's from the strip club that they once worked at. After gaining April's trust, Gayle begins to get information from her which could enable her to charge him with the murder of her daughter. A. J. is arrested by Jack on charges of racketeering and promoting prostitution, despite once again pleading ignorance, Jack is able to make the charges stick, A.
J. is found guilty in his subsequent trial. The film's epilogue reveals that A. J. was sentenced to 17 years for his crimes, as well as the fact that Diana's murder was never solved. Linda Gray as Gayle Moffitt Jamie Luner as Diana Moffitt James Eckhouse as Sergeant Jack Powell Alanna Ubach as April Antonio Sabàto, Jr. as A. J. Treece The movie received negative reviews, being called'melodramatic','formulaic' and with'weak performances'. Filming took place in Oregon. Linda Gray accepted the lead role because she saw it as an opportunity to "educate other women"; the real Gayle Moffit was on the set during production, but Gray decided not to talk with her, because she wanted to act out of her own maternal instincts. For Antonio Sabàto, Jr. who landed the role because of his sex appeal, the movie marked his first appearance on primetime television. Moment of Truth: Why My Daughter? on IMDb