Warner Bros. Records
Warner Bros. Records Inc. is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group and headquartered in Burbank, California. It was founded in 1958 as the recorded music division of the American film studio Warner Bros. and was one of a group of labels owned and operated by larger parent corporations for much of its existence. The sequence of companies that controlled Warner Bros. and its allied labels evolved through a convoluted series of corporate mergers and acquisitions from the early 1960s to the early 2000s. Over this period, Warner Bros. Records grew from a struggling minor player in the music industry to one of the top record labels in the world. In 2004, these music assets were divested by their owner Time Warner and purchased by a private equity group; this independent company traded as the Warner Music Group and was the world's last publicly traded major music company before being bought and privatized by Access Industries in 2011. Warner Music Group is the smallest of the three major international music conglomerates that include Universal Music Group and Sony Music Entertainment.
Max Lousada oversees recorded music operations of the company. Notable artists signed to Warner Bros. Records have included Prince, Kylie Minogue, Goo Goo Dolls, Sheryl Crow, Lil Pump, Green Day, Adam Lambert, Bette Midler, Duran Duran, Fleetwood Mac, Liam Gallagher, Fleet Foxes, Jason Derulo, Lily Allen and Sara, Dua Lipa, Linkin Park, Nile Rodgers, Red Hot Chili Peppers, the Black Keys, My Chemical Romance, Mr. Bungle, Regina Spektor, Van Halen. At the end of the silent movie period, Warner Bros. Pictures decided to expand into publishing and recording so that it could access low-cost music content for its films. In 1928, the studio acquired several smaller music publishing firms which included M. Witmark & Sons, Harms Inc. and a partial interest in New World Music Corp. and merged them to form the Music Publishers Holding Company. This new group controlled valuable copyrights on standards by George and Ira Gershwin and Jerome Kern and the new division was soon earning solid profits of up to US$2 million every year.
In 1930, MPHC paid US$28 million to acquire Brunswick Records, whose roster included Duke Ellington, Red Nichols, Nick Lucas, Al Jolson, Earl Burtnett, Ethel Waters, Abe Lyman, Leroy Carr, Tampa Red and Memphis Minnie, soon after the sale to Warner Bros. the label signed rising radio and recording stars Bing Crosby, Mills Brothers, Boswell Sisters. For Warner Bros. the dual impact of the Great Depression and the introduction of broadcast radio harmed the recording industry—sales crashed, dropping by around 90% from more than 100 million records in 1927 to fewer than 10 million by 1932 and major companies were forced to halve the price of records from 75c to 35c. In December 1931, Warner Bros. offloaded Brunswick to the American Record Corporation for a fraction of its former value, in a lease arrangement which did not include Brunswick's pressing plants. Technically, Warner maintained actual ownership of Brunswick, which with the sale of ARC to CBS in 1939 and their decision to discontinue Brunswick in favor of reviving the Columbia label, reverted to Warner Bros.
Warner Bros. sold Brunswick a second time, this time along with the old Brunswick pressing plants Warner owned, to Decca Records in exchange for a financial interest in Decca. The studio stayed out of the record business for more than 25 years, during this period it licensed its film music to other companies for release as soundtrack albums. Warner Bros. returned to the record business in 1958 with the establishment of its own recording division, Warner Bros. Records. By this time, the established Hollywood studios were reeling from multiple challenges to their former dominance—the most notable being the introduction of television in the late 1940s. Legal changes had a major impact on their business—lawsuits brought by major stars had overthrown the old studio contract system by the late 1940s. Pictures sold off much of its film library in 1948 and, beginning in 1949, anti-trust suits brought by the US government forced the five major studios to divest their cinema chains. In 1956, Harry Warner and Albert Warner sold their interest in the studio and the board was joined by new members who favoured a renewed expansion into the music business—Charles Allen of the investment bank Charles Allen & Company, Serge Semenenko of the First National Bank of Boston and investor David Baird.
Semenenko in particular had a strong professional interest in the entertainment business and he began to push Jack Warner on the issue of setting up an'in-house' record label. With the record business booming - sales had topped US$500 million by 1958 - Semnenko argued that it was foolish for Warner Bros. to make deals with other companies to release its soundtracks when, for less than the cost of one motion picture, they could establish their own label, creating a new income stream that could continue indefinitely and provide an additional means of exploiting and promoting its contract actors. Another impetus for the label's creation was the brief music career of Warner Bros. actor Tab Hunter. Although Hunter was signed to an exclusive acting contract with the studio, it did not prevent him from signing a recording contract, which he did with Dot Records, owned at the time by Paramount Pictures. Hunter scored several hits for Dot, including the US #1 single, "Young Love", to Warner Bros.' chagrin, reporters were asking about the hit record, rather than
Andy Statman is a noted American klezmer clarinetist and bluegrass/newgrass mandolinist. Andy Statman grew up in the borough of Queens. Beginning at age 12, he learned to play banjo and guitar, following the example of his older brother Jimmy, switched to mandolin, which he studied under lifelong-friend David Grisman, he learned to play R&B and jazz saxophone, for a time under the tutelage of Richard Grando, who played saxophone in Earth Opera. As a teenager Statman was performing in public in Washington Square Park and with local string bands. In 1969 he attended Franconia College in Franconia, New Hampshire, but dropped-out to pursue a musical career, he first gained acclaim as a mandolinist as a sideman with David Bromberg and Russ Barenberg, as well as in the pioneering bluegrass bands Country Cookin' and Breakfast Special. During the course of exploring a wide range of roots and ethnic music, Statman turned to klezmer music, traditional Eastern European Jewish instrumental music; this led Statman, who grew up in a traditional but secular Jewish home, to reconnect with his Jewish roots.
Statman studied klezmer clarinet during the 1970s with legendary klezmer clarinetist Dave Tarras, who bequeathed several of his clarinets to him. Statman produced Dave Tarras's last recording; as a clarinetist, he recorded several albums that were influential in the Klezmer revival of those years. Still forging ahead musically, he began playing Chassidic melodies, fusing bluegrass and jazz along the way. Given his apprenticeship with Tarras and his subsequent master classes at workshops such as KlezKamp as well as Statman became a renowned exponent of traditional Jewish and avant-garde clarinet styles; the Andy Statman Trio, which includes bassist Jim Whitney and percussionist Larry Eagle, plays at Derech Amuno Synagogue in Greenwich Village in New York City, tours nationally as schedules allow. In 1983, he performed on the Antilles Records release Swingrass'83, he has participated in a yearly klezmer concert series with Itzhak Perlman and other klezmer superstars. In 2007, he was a Grammy Awards nominee in the Best Country Instrumental Performance category for his version of Bill Monroe's "Rawhide" on Shefa CD East Flatbush Blues.
In 2008, Statman appeared as a guest on the Bela Fleck and the Flecktones holiday album Jingle All the Way, playing both clarinet and mandolin. The album won Best Pop Instrumental Album at the 51st Annual Grammy Awards, he joined the group in concert on December 10 at the University at Buffalo, Center for the Arts, December 16 at Philadelphia's Kimmel Center. Old Brooklyn, a multi-artist recording project, was released in October 2011 on Shefa Records; this double CD features the American roots, R&B, Chassidic and other sides of his music, performed with his trio, Jim Whitney on bass and Larry Eagle on drums and percussion, along with fiddler Byron Berline and guitarist Jon Sholle. Guest artists include Ricky Skaggs, Béla Fleck, Paul Shaffer, Bruce Molsky, Art Baron, Marty Rifkin, Bob Jones, Lew Soloff, Kristen Muller and John Goodman, his next album was Superstring Theory, released in November 2013, which hosts fiddler Michael Cleveland and guitarist Tim O'Brien. On June 19, 2012, the National Endowment for the Arts announced that Andy Statman would be awarded a National Heritage Fellowship, the nation's highest honor in the folk and traditional arts.
He performed with other recipients of this fellowship in Washington, DC, on October 4, 2012. Andy Statman plays a Will Kimble F-5 mandolin, after having played an early 1920s Gibson A2Z for more than 35 years, he plays several Albert-system clarinets. Andy Statman is married to an artist and teacher, they have 14 grandchildren. Andy is a baal teshuvah. 1979 Jewish Klezmer Music 1980 Flatbush Waltz 1983 Mandolin Abstractions - with David Grisman 1985 New Acoustic Music 1986 Nashville Mornings, New York Nights 1988 Rounder Bluegrass, Vol. 2 1992 Andy Statman Klezmer Orchestra 1994 Klezmer Suite 1994 Andy's Ramble 1995 Acoustic Disc: 100% Handmade Music, Vol. 2 1995 Doyres: Traditional Klezmer Recordings, 1979-1994 1995 Songs of Our Fathers - with David Grisman 1995 Holding On: Dreamers, Eccentrics & Other American Heroes 1996 American Fogies, Vol. 1 1996 Blue Ribbon Fiddle 1996 Klezmer Music: A Marriage of Heaven & Earth 1996 Rounder Bluegrass Guitar 1997 Between Heaven & Earth: Music of the Jewish Mystics 1998 The Hidden Light 1998 Holiday Tradition 1998 The Soul of Klezmer 2000 Klezmer: From Old World To Our World 2001 Bluegrass Mountain Style 2001 New York City: Global Beat of the Boroughs - Music From New York City's Ethnic....
2004 Wisdom, Knowledge 2005 On Air 2006 New Shabbos Waltz - with David Grisman 2005 Avodas Halevi 2006 East Flatbush Blues 2006 Awakening from Above 2011 Old Brooklyn 2013 Superstring Theory 2014 Hallel V'zimrah 2014 Songs of the Breslever Chassidim Statman, Teach Yourself Bluegrass Mandolin, Amsco Music Publishing Company, New York, 1978 Official website
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Grateful Dawg (soundtrack)
Grateful Dawg is the soundtrack to the 2000 film of the same name. It is a collaboration between David Grisman, it was released on the Acoustic Disc record label. "Intro" "Grateful Dawg" "Wayfaring Stranger" - Bill Monroe And His Blue Grass Boys "Sweet Sunny South" "Old and in the Way Intro" - Peter Rowan "Pig In A Pen" - Old & In the Way "Dawg's Waltz" "Sitting Here in Limbo" "Off to Sea Once More" - Ewan MacColl "Off to Sea Once More" "Jenny Jenkins" "Arabia" "The Thrill Is Gone" "Friend of the Devil" "Grateful Dawg" Joe Craven – percussion, violin Jerry Garcia – arranger, guitar, vocals David Grisman – arranger, mandola, vocals Jim Kerwin – bass, acoustic bassProduction: David Dennison – engineer, mixing David Gahr – photography D. Brent Hauseman – design, layout design Nobuharu Komoriya – photography Craig Miller – executive producer Susana Millman – photography Gary Nichols – photography Jon Sievert – photography Owsley Stanley – engineer Paul Stubblebine – mastering
Darol Anger is an American violinist and founding member of The David Grisman Quintet. Darol Anger entered popular music at the age of 21 as a founding member of The David Grisman Quintet. Anger played fiddle to David Grisman's mandolin in The David Grisman Quintet's 1977 debut, he co-founded and named the Turtle Island String Quartet with David Balakrishnan in 1985 and performed and arranged for the chamber jazz group. He collaborates with fellow DGQ alumnus Mike Marshall. Anger formed a musical partnership with her. Together they released an early record on Tideline. Two years they formed a group called The Darol Anger/Barbara Higbie Quintet with Mike Marshall, Todd Phillips, Andy Narell; this group performed at the 1984 Montreux Jazz Festival. The quintet took the name Montreux. After two studio releases, the band broke up in 1990, Anger continued with the Turtle Island String Quartet, founded in 1985, he still collaborates with Montreux and fellow Psychograss colleague, Mike Marshall, also collaborates with Barbara Higbie and Michael Manring.
Using classical and jazz music as springboards, he leads Republic of Strings, founded with Scott Nygaard. He co-founded The Duo, Fiddlers 4, Mr. Sun. Anger plays with pianist Phil Aaberg, he has performed or recorded with musicians ranging from Tony Rice, Stephane Grappelli and Mark O'Connor to Marin Alsop, Bill Evans, Nickel Creek, Chris Thile & Punch Brothers, Yonder Mountain String Band, Béla Fleck and Anonymous 4. He can be heard on the NPR's Car Talk theme song, he is a UCross Fellow. Anger lives in Portland, after moving from his long-time home in the San Francisco Bay Area, he has completed the construction of 2 violins under the guidance of luthier Jonathan Cooper and was in 2010 named Associate Professor at the Berklee College of Music. In June 2011 he began teaching online at the Online Fiddle School with Darol Anger, as part of the ArtistWorks Academy of Bluegrass, he was the Artist at Large at the 2018 John Hartford Memorial Festival. 1981 Fiddlistics 1982 Tideline – with Barbara Higbie 1983 The Duo – with Mike Marshall 1984 Live at Montreux'84 1985 Jazz Violin Celebration 1985 Chiaroscuro 1987 Sign Language 1989 Let Them Say 1993 Psychograss 1996 Heritage 1997 At Home and on the Range 1998 Christmas Heritage 1997 Like Minds 1999 Jam 1999 Diary of a Fiddler 2000 Brand New Can 2001 Now Hear This 2005 Republic of Strings 2007 Generation Nation 2007 Woodshop 2007 Mike Marshall and Darol Anger with Väsen 2008 Cross Time – with Philip Aaberg 2014 Eand'a 2004 Republic of Strings 2006 Generation Nation Darol Anger Online Fiddle School with Darol Anger ArtistWorks Academy of Bluegrass Compass Records: Darol Anger
Tony Rice is an American guitarist and bluegrass musician. He is the most influential living acoustic guitar player in bluegrass, progressive bluegrass and flattop acoustic jazz, he was inducted into the International Bluegrass Music Hall of Fame in 2013. Rice's music spans the range of acoustic from traditional bluegrass to jazz-influenced New Acoustic music to songwriter-oriented folk. Over the course of his career, he has played alongside J. D. Crowe and the New South, David Grisman and Jerry Garcia, led his own Tony Rice Unit, collaborated with Norman Blake, recorded with his brothers Wyatt and Larry, co-founded the Bluegrass Album Band, he has recorded with drums, soprano sax, as well as with traditional bluegrass instrumentation. Rice was born in Danville, Virginia but grew up in Los Angeles, where his father, Herb Rice, introduced him to bluegrass. Tony and his brothers learned the fundamentals of bluegrass and country music from L. A. musicians like the Kentucky Colonels, led by Clarence White.
Clarence White in particular became a huge influence on Rice. Crossing paths with fellow enthusiasts like Ry Cooder, Herb Pedersen and Chris Hillman reinforced the strength of the music he had learned from his father. In 1970, Rice had moved to Louisville, Kentucky where he played with the Bluegrass Alliance, shortly thereafter, J. D. Crowe's New South; the New South was known as one of the best and most progressive bluegrass groups—eventually adding drums and electric instruments. When Ricky Skaggs joined them in 1974, the band recorded J. D. Crowe & the New South, an acoustic album that became Rounder Records' top-seller up to that time. At this point, the group consisted of Rice on guitar and lead vocals, Crowe on banjo and vocals, Jerry Douglas on Dobro, Skaggs on fiddle and tenor vocals, Bobby Slone on bass and fiddle. Around this time, Rice met mandolinist David Grisman, who played with Red Allen during the 1960s and was now working on original material that blended jazz and classical styles.
Rice moved to California to join Grisman's all-instrumental group. As part of the David Grisman Quintet, in order to broaden his expertise and make himself more marketable, Rice began studying chord theory, learned to read charts, began to expand his playing beyond bluegrass. Renowned guitarist John Carlini came in to teach Rice music theory, Carlini helped him learn the intricacies of jazz playing and musical improvisation, in general; the David Grisman Quintet's 1977 debut recording is considered a landmark of acoustic string band music. In 1980, Crowe, Bobby Hicks, Doyle Lawson and Todd Phillips formed the Bluegrass Album Band and recorded from 1980 to 1996. With the Tony Rice Unit, he pursued experimental "spacegrass" music on Mar West, Still Inside, Backwaters. Members of the Unit included Jimmy Gaudreau, Wyatt Rice, Ronnie Simpkins, Rickie Simpkins. In the late 1980's Alison Krauss played with the group in concert for about a year but never appeared on the albums. Alison Brown guested with the group during that period.
In 1980, he recorded an album of bluegrass duets with Ricky Skaggs, called Rice. Two albums with traditional instrumentalist and songwriter Norman Blake garnered acclaim, as well as two Rice Brothers albums that featured him teamed with his late elder brother and younger brothers and Ronnie. Beginning in 1984, Rice has collaborated on four albums by Béla Fleck - Double Time, Tales from the Acoustic Planet, The Bluegrass Sessions: Tales from the Acoustic Planet, Vol. 2. He joined David Jerry Garcia in 1993, to record The Pizza Tapes. Year after and Grisman recorded Tone Poems, an original collection of material, where they used historical vintage mandolins and guitars, different for each track. In 1995, Rice recorded folk album featuring just two guitars with John Carlini, who worked for David Grisman Quintet. In 1997, his brother Larry, Chris Hillman and banjoist Herb Pedersen, founded the so-called "anti-supergroup" Rice, Hillman & Pedersen and produced three volumes of music between 1997 and 2001.
In 1979, Rice left Grisman's group to record Acoustics, a jazz-inspired album, Manzanita, a bluegrass and folk album. A similar combination was evident on Cold on the Shoulder, Native American, Me & My Guitar, albums which combined bluegrass, jazzy guitar work, the songwriting of Ian Tyson, Joni Mitchell, Phil Ochs, Tom Paxton, Bob Dylan, Gordon Lightfoot. Rice's singing voice was a distinctive baritone. In 1994 he was diagnosed with a disorder known as muscle tension dysphonia and as a result was forced to stop singing in live performance. A 2014 diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis made guitar playing painful and Rice's last performance playing guitar live was his induction into the International Bluegrass Music Hall of Fame in 2013. In 2015, Rice was quoted as saying "I am not going to go back out into the public eye until I can be the musician that I was, where I left off or better. I have been blessed with a devout audience all these years, I am not going to let anybody down. I am not going to risk going out there and performing in front of people again until I can entertain them in a way that takes away from them the rigors and the dust, the bumps in the road of everyday life."The authorized biography of Tony Rice, titled Still Inside: The Tony Rice Story, has been completed by Tim Stafford and Hawaii-based journalist Caroline Wright
Bluegrass music is a genre of American roots music that developed in the 1940s in the United States Appalachian region. The genre derives its name from the Blue Grass Boys. Bluegrass has roots in traditional English and Scottish ballads and dance tunes, by traditional African-American blues and jazz; the Blue Grass Boys played a Mountain Music style that Bill learned in Asheville, North Carolina from bands like Wade Mainer's and other popular acts on radio station WWNC. It was further developed by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt. Bluegrass pioneer Bill Monroe characterized the genre as: "Scottish bagpipes and ole-time fiddlin'. It's Holiness and Baptist. It's blues and jazz, it has a high lonesome sound."Bluegrass features acoustic string instruments and emphasizes the offbeat. Notes are anticipated in contrast to laid back blues where notes are behind the beat, which creates the higher energy characteristic of bluegrass. In bluegrass, as in some forms of jazz, one or more instruments each takes its turn playing the melody and improvising around it, while the others perform accompaniment.
This is in contrast to old-time music, in which all instruments play the melody together or one instrument carries the lead throughout while the others provide accompaniment. Breakdowns are characterized by rapid tempos and unusual instrumental dexterity and sometimes by complex chord changes. There are three major subgenres of bluegrass. Traditional bluegrass has musicians playing folk songs, tunes with traditional chord progressions, using only acoustic instruments, with an example being Bill Monroe. Progressive bluegrass groups may use electric instruments and import songs from other genres rock & roll. Examples include Cadillac Bearfoot. Another subgenre, bluegrass gospel, uses Christian lyrics, soulful three- or four-part harmony singing, sometimes the playing of instrumentals. A newer development in the bluegrass world is Neo-traditional bluegrass. Bluegrass music has attracted a diverse following worldwide. Unlike mainstream country music, bluegrass is traditionally played on acoustic stringed instruments.
The fiddle, five-string banjo, guitar and upright bass are joined by the resonator guitar and harmonica or Jew's harp. This instrumentation originated in rural dance bands and is the basis on which the earliest bluegrass bands were formed; the guitar is now most played with a style referred to as flatpicking, unlike the style of early bluegrass guitarists such as Lester Flatt, who used a thumb pick and finger pick. Banjo players use the three-finger picking style made popular by banjoists such as Earl Scruggs. Fiddlers play in thirds and fifths, producing a sound, characteristic to the bluegrass style. Bassists always play pizzicato adopting the "slap-style" to accentuate the beat. A bluegrass bass line is a rhythmic alternation between the root and fifth of each chord, with occasional walking bass excursions. Instrumentation has been a continuing topic of debate. Traditional bluegrass performers believe the "correct" instrumentation is that used by Bill Monroe's band, the Blue Grass Boys. Departures from the traditional instrumentation have included dobro, harmonica, autoharp, electric guitar, electric versions of other common bluegrass instruments, resulting in what has been referred to as "newgrass."
Apart from specific instrumentation, a distinguishing characteristic of bluegrass is vocal harmony featuring two, three, or four parts with a dissonant or modal sound in the highest voice, a style described as the "high, lonesome sound." The ordering and layering of vocal harmony is called the "stack". A standard stack has the lead in the middle and a tenor at the top. Alison Krauss and Union Station provide a good example of a different harmony stack with a baritone and tenor with a high lead, an octave above the standard melody line, sung by the female vocalist. However, by employing variants to the standard trio vocal arrangement, they were following a pattern existing since the early days of the genre; the Stanley Brothers utilized a high baritone part on several of their trios recorded for Columbia records during their time with that label. Mandolin player Pee Wee Lambert sang the high baritone above Ralph Stanley's tenor, both parts above Carter's lead vocal; this trio vocal arrangement was variously used by other groups as well.
In the 1960s Flatt and Scruggs added a fifth part to the traditional quartet parts on gospel songs, the extra part being a high baritone. The use of a high lead with the tenor and baritone below it was most famously employed by the Osborne Brothers who first employed it during their time with MGM records in the latter half of the 1950s; this vocal arrangement would be the home aspect of the Osbornes' sound with Bobby's high, clear voice at the top of the vocal stack. Bluegrass tunes can be described as narratives on the everyday lives of the people whence the music came. Aside from laments about loves lost, interpersonal tensions and unwanted changes to the region (e.g. the visible effects of moun