Susquehannock people called the Conestoga by the English, were Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans who lived in areas adjacent to the Susquehanna River and its tributaries ranging from its upper reaches in the southern part of what is now New York, through eastern and central Pennsylvania West of the Poconos and the upper Delaware River, with lands extending beyond the mouth of the Susquehanna in Maryland along the west bank of the Potomac at the north end of the Chesapeake Bay. Evidence of their habitation has been found in northern West Virginia and portions of southwestern Pennsylvania, which could be reached via the gaps of the Allegheny or several counties to the south, via the Cumberland Narrows pass which held the Nemacolin Trail. Both passes abutted their range and could be reached through connecting valleys from the West Branch Susquehanna and their large settlement at Conestoga, Pennsylvania. Susquehannock were an Iroquoian-speaking people and little of the Susquehannock language has been preserved, but this fact alone announces they were at odds with the Algonquian-speaking Delaware peoples to the east.
The chief source is a Vocabula Mahakuassica compiled by the Swedish missionary Johannes Campanius during the 1640s. Campanius' vocabulary contains about 100 words, is sufficient to show that Susquehannock was a northern Iroquoian language related to those of the Five Nations. Peace with the Iroquois was as elusive to the tribe as it was with the Delaware. Europeans penetrated the interior from the coastal areas dominated by Algonquian-speaking tribes, they learned the names of new tribes by what the first groups called them; this is true for the Susquehannock, who lived amidst rival peoples who were hostile after a brief period of contact with Europeans, fell drastically from history's stage to overwhelming depopulation due to epidemic disease—a reality which affected the indigenous peoples of what are now known as "the Americas". The Europeans adapted or transliterated these names according to their own languages and spelling systems, trying to capture the sounds of the names. Huron, another Iroquoian-speaking people, called these people Andastoerrhonon, meaning "people of the blackened ridge pole", related to their building practices.).
The Dutch and Swedes derived their term of Minquas for the people from this term. The Lenape used the term Sisawehak Hanna Len or "Oyster River People." The Powhatan-speaking peoples of coastal Virginia called the tribe the Sasquesahanough. The English of Maryland and Virginia transliterated the Powhatan term, referring to the people as the Susquehannock; the English of Pennsylvania in the late eighteenth century called them the Conestoga, derived from one of their few remaining villages in Pennsylvania known as Conestoga Town. Its name was based on the Iroquoian term, Kanastoge meaning "place of the upright pole." Early English and Dutch traders heard and spelled the people's main settlement, fort, or castle, as "Quanestaqua." According to recorded histories, the Susquehannocks told Europeans that they came from a large river valley to the west. Europeans who wrote this down seemed to assume that the Mississippi River was meant, however no Iroquoian people have been found in the Archaeological records of the region.
Iroquoian peoples were, believed to have held a much larger region of Ohio at some point between the 13th & 16th centuries, when European colonization began. They however, claimed to have joined with other peoples once east of Appalachia to form their nation. Studying the linguistics of recorded examples of the Susquehannock language, it appears to have been related to that of the Onondaga, it is most that both are correct. Similar to how the Iroquois Confederacy was organized, there were said to be several distinct tribes of the Susquehannock. Capital towns were named by John Smith as Attock, Tesinigh & Utehowig; the original population of the Susquehannock is uncertain due to lack of contact with the Europeans, whose records provide such data. The Europeans' best guesses are that the tribe numbered from 5000-7000 in 1600, that the Susquehannock were a regional power capable of holding off the Iroquois Confederacy in the first seven decades of the 17th century, including after the Iroquois began systematic warfare against neighboring ethnic groups in pursuit of acquiring firearms during fur trading.
Before that time, it was the inland Susquehannock who had allied themselves to Dutch and Swedish traders and Swedish settlers in New Sweden around-1640 who had a monopoly on European flintlock firearms, increasing the tribe's power. These firearms were not traded to Iroquois or Delaware until the defeats of the Dutch imposed British traders, who favored the Iroquois, into the North American Amerindian tribal rivalries and kept firearms away from the more coastally located Delaware peoples; the Susquehannock, who were all but extinct by the time the British asserted any significant local control, had early on allied with the Swedes, who traded them firearms for furs as early as the 1610s but now found themselves often at odds with the new European managers of Maryland and Pennsylvania. The nation fought a war declared by the Province of Maryland from 1642-50s and won it, albeit with help from their long-time allies the Swedes; when they found the English
The Erie people were a Native American people living on the south shore of Lake Erie. An Iroquoian group, they lived in what is now western New York, northwestern Pennsylvania, northern Ohio before 1658, they were destroyed in the mid-17th century by five years of prolonged warfare with the powerful neighboring Iroquois for helping the Huron in the Beaver Wars for control of the fur trade."Their villages were burned as a lesson to those who dared oppose the Iroquois. This destroyed their stored maize and other foods, added to their loss of life, threatened their future, as they had no way to survive the winter; the attacks forced their emigration. The Iroquois League was known for adopting refugees into their tribes; the surviving Erie are believed to have been absorbed by other Iroquoian tribes families of the Seneca, the westernmost of the Five Nations. Susquehannock families may have adopted some Erie, as the tribes had shared the hunting grounds of the Allegheny Plateau and Amerindian paths that passed through the gaps of the Allegheny.
The members of remnant tribes living among the Iroquois assimilated to the majority cultures, losing their independent tribal identities. The Erie were called the Chat or "Long Tail". Like all the Iroquoian stock, they lived in multi-family long houses in villages enclosed in palisades; these defensive works encompassed their fields for crops. They cultivated the "Three Sisters": varieties of corn and squash, during the warm season. In winter, tribal members lived off the stored animals taken in hunts. While indigenous peoples lived along the Great Lakes for thousands of years in succeeding cultures, historic tribes known at the time of European encounter began to coalesce by the 15th and 16th centuries; the Erie were among the several Iroquoian peoples sharing a similar culture, tribal organization, speaking an Iroquoian language which emerged around the Great Lakes, but with elements that may have originated in the south. Traditional rivalries and habitual competition among Amerindian tribes for resources and power was escalated by the lucrative returns of the fur trade with French and Dutch colonists beginning settlements in the greater area before 1611.
Violence to control the fur-bearing territories, the beginnings of the long-running Beaver Wars, began early in the 17th century so the normal peace and trading activity decreased between the tribes, who had responded to demand for beaver and other furs by over-hunting some areas. The Erie encroached on territory. During 1651, they'd angered their eastern neighbors, the Iroquois League, by accepting Huron refugees from villages, destroyed by the Iroquois. Though reported as using poison-tipped arrows, the Erie were disadvantaged in armed conflict with the Iroquois because they had few firearms. By the mid-1650s, the Erie became a broken tribe— beginning in 1653 the Erie launched a preemptive attack on western tribes of the Iroquois, did well in the first year of a five-year war. In 1654 the whole Iroquois Confederacy went to war against the Erie and neighboring tribes such as the Neutral people along the northern shores of Lake Erie and across the Niagara River, the Tabacco people between the Erie and Iroquois, neighbors to all three groups.
As a result, over five years of war they destroyed the Erie confederacy, the Neutrals, the Tobacco, with the tribes surviving in remnants. Dispersed groups survived a few more decades before being absorbed into the Iroquois the westernmost Seneca nation. Anthropologist Marvin T. Smith theorized that some Erie fled to Virginia and South Carolina, where they became known as the Westo; some were said to flee to Canada. Members of other tribes claimed to be descended from refugees of this defunct culture, who intermarried with other peoples. Among those are members of the Seneca people in Oklahoma and Kansas; because the Erie were located further from the coastal areas of early European exploration, they had little direct contact with Europeans. Only the Dutch fur traders from Fort Orange and Jesuit missionaries in Canada referred to them in historic records; the Jesuits learned more about them during the Beaver Wars, but most of what they learned, aside from a single in-person encounter, was learned from the Huron who suffered much reduction before the Erie did.
What little is known about them has been derived from oral history of other Native American tribes and comparisons with other Iroquoian peoples. The Erie spoke. Neutral Nation Wenrohronon Shawnee Susquehannock people Bowne, Eric E.. The Westo Indians: slave traders of the early colonial South. Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-1454-7. OCLC 56214192. Bowne, Eric E. "Westo Indians", The New Georgia Encyclopedia, Georgia Humanities Council and the University of Georgia Press Engelbrecht, William E. "Erie", The Bulletin: Journal of the New York State Archaeological Association: 2–12, OCLC 17823564 Engelbrecht, William E.. "Cultural context". In Lynne P. Sullivan. Reanalyzing the Ripley Site: earthworks and late prehistory on the Lake Erie Plain. New York State Museum Bulletin 489. Albany: University of the State of New York, the State Education Department. Pp. 14–27. ISBN 1-55557-202-2. OCLC 38565296. CS1 main
The Susquehanna River is a major river located in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic United States. At 464 miles long, it is the longest river on the East Coast of the United States that drains into the Atlantic Ocean. With its watershed, it is the 16th-largest river in the United States, the longest river in the early 21st-century continental United States without commercial boat traffic; the Susquehanna River forms from two main branches: the "North Branch", which rises in Cooperstown, New York, is regarded by federal mapmakers as the main branch or headwaters, the West Branch, which rises in western Pennsylvania and joins the main branch near Northumberland in central Pennsylvania. The river drains 27,500 square miles, including nearly half of the land area of Pennsylvania; the drainage basin includes portions of the Allegheny Plateau region of the Appalachian Mountains, cutting through a succession of water gaps in a broad zigzag course to flow across the rural heartland of southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland in the lateral near-parallel array of mountain ridges.
The river empties into the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay at Perryville and Havre de Grace, providing half of the Bay's freshwater inflow. The Chesapeake Bay is the ria of the Susquehanna; the Susquehanna River is one of the oldest existing rivers in the world, being dated as 320-340 Mya, older than the mountain ridges through which it flows. These ridges resulted from the Alleghenian orogeny uplift events, when Africa slammed into the Northern part of EurAmerica); the Susquehanna basin reaches its ultimate outflow in the Chesapeake Bay. It was well established in the flat tidelands of eastern North America during the Mesozoic era about 252 to 66 million years ago; this is the same period when the Hudson and Potomac rivers were established. Both branches and the lower Susquehanna were part of important regional transportation corridors; the river was extensively used for muscle-powered ferries and canal boat shipping of bulk goods in the brief decades before the Pennsylvania Canal System was eclipsed by the coming of age of steam-powered railways.
While the railroad industry has been less prevalent since the closures and mergers of the 1950s–1960s, a wide-ranging rail transportation infrastructure still operates along the river's shores. Called the Main Branch Susquehanna, the longer branch of the river rises at the outlet of Otsego Lake in Cooperstown, New York. From there, the north branch of the river runs west-southwest through rural farmland and dairy country, receiving the Unadilla River at Sidney, it dips south into Pennsylvania to turn north at Great Bend hooking back into New York. It receives the Chenango in downtown Binghamton. After meandering westwards, it turns south crossing the line again through the twin-towns of Waverly, NY–Sayre and their large right bank railyard, once holding the largest building in the world. A couple miles south, just across the New York state line, in Athens Township in northern Pennsylvania it receives the Chemung from the northwest, it makes a right-angle curve between Sayre and Towanda to cut through the Endless Mountains in the Allegheny Plateau of Pennsylvania.
It receives the Lackawanna River southwest of Scranton and turns to the southwest, flowing through the former anthracite industrial heartland in the mountain ridges of northeastern Pennsylvania, past Pittston City, Wilkes-Barre, Shickshinny, Berwick and Danville. The origin of the official West Branch is near northern Cambria County, Pennsylvania near the contemporary junction of Mitchel Road and US Route 219, it travels northeasterly through Curwensville and through Clearfield, where it's joined by the Clearfield Creek right bank tributary. The Clearfield Creek tributary rises in a Loretto woodlands source spring outflow running northerly while draining the north-face and eastern slopes of the drainage divide crossing athwart the greater pass — the irregular rolling terrain of the several local gaps of the Allegheny—several of which end in the hilly pass around Gallitzin Borough, Gallitzin Township, Cresson area — all above and within the greater Altoona, Pennsylvania area. Clearfield Creek passes through Cresson Lake and bends to flow northeast or north-northeast, passing through other tarns and receiving tributary waters along its descending meanders.
Outside the pass flats, it is paralleled by PA Route 53, built in the river valley, passing through small towns such as Ashville, Glen Hope and others that developed along its banks. It makes its way north and east to the confluence in Clearfield—this valley is exploited as a railroad corridor from Clearfield, climbing to end in a wye within Cresson in the same broad saddle pass as did the upper works of the Allegheny Portage Railroad; the railroad joins the railroad mainline, climbing a nearby incline through the famous Horseshoe Curve. The West Branch turns to the southeast and passes through Lock Haven and Williamsport before turning south; the West Branch joins the North Branch flowing from the northwest at Northumberland, just above Sunbury. Downstream from the confluence of its branches in Northumberland, the river flows south past Selinsgrove, where it is joined by its Penns Creek tributary, cuts through a water gap at the western end of Mahantongo Mountain, it receives the Juniata River from the northwest at Duncannon passes through it
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
The Moneton were a historical Native American tribe from West Virginia. In the late seventeenth century they lived near the Kanawha and New Rivers. What the Monetons called themselves is unknown. In the 1670s, Abraham Wood wrote their name "Moneton" and as another variant, "Monyton." The eastern slopes of the southern Allegheny Mountains in Virginia are traditionally known as the Mahock. The Monetans are on the western rim of Tutelo and "Monasuccapanough" Siouan language groups, as well as Iroquois dialects Researchers have speculated that the Moneton language was part of the Siouan family, close to Tutelo. James Mooney declared the Moneton lived in the western part of Colonial Virginia and said their name was an eastern Siouan word; some scholars suggest Monetons were part of the Monacan, with the different names being a consequence of variable colonial spelling. The word Monetons is Siouan; the Mohetan told Batts and Fallam that their villages were about halfway between Peters' Mountain and the Ohio River.
Hale and Mooney defines Siouan "Mon", "Ma" and "Man" as meaning a people's land. "Mone" has been defined to mean water, "ton" means large. Doctor Rankin observed that the Tutelo of Virginia have closer linguistic ties to the Crows of Montana than to the Catawbans of Carolina. A recent study of nine thousand pottery shards from Fort Ancient sites in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys showed that thirty seven percent of them bore corncob impressions similar to those produced in the Siouan villages of Virginia between 1400 and 1600. Doctor Rankin concluded at the 2009 West Virginia Archaeology Annual Meeting that Siouan was spoken in the Kanawha Valley. Using topographic maps, geographic landmarks and travel distances, Briceland demonstrates that Batts and Fallam reached Matewan on the Tug Fork; the islands near Logan resembles the falls of the James River near Wood's Fort in Virginia, though the gravel bar near Matewan, West Virginia does not resemble these early descriptions of the village's location of Batts and Fallam.
Another tribe known as the Tomahittons has been been reported in the Ohio Valley. The reports from the Mohetan given to Batts and Fallam regarding this tribe correspond with reports from the Moneton to Arthur. Batts and Falla are credited as having discovered Kanawha Falls. Ouabano was a band of Mohicans or Eastern Lenape. Earlier scholars have this site as found to be on Campbells Creek near West Virginia; the Iroquois League, Huron Confederacy, Andaste are well reported as blocking the Nation du Chat from attaining fire arms. The Andaste served as middlemen to the French and Dutch trade, the Dutch provided Andaste with fire arms, their neighbor to the east, in the Allegheny Mountains, were the Conestoga, earlier called Susquehannocks. The Susquehannocks are first mentioned in the Voyages of Samuel Champlain for 1615, he calls one of their some twenty villages "Carantouan". Carantouan was close to the New York and Pennsylvania border on the tributaries of the Susquehanna River on his map approaching towards the region from the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
Grant County, West Virginia, Hampshire County, West Virginia and Hardy County, West Virginia and Allegany County, Maryland possess archaeological sites having Susquehannock Ceramics. A Susquehanna site is located at Moorefield, West Virginia; the tribes on the south eastern Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia in a region of the Blue Stone and Greenbrier river tributaries can be found in Batts and Fallows' September, 1671 Expedition. The records the arrival of the Les Tionontatacaga or Guyandotte, named for the Guyandotte River in Cabell County; this journal does not identify the "Salt Village" on the Kanawha, that the Mehetan were associated with these sites, may not have been associated with sites further down the Ohio River. Anthropologist James B. Griffin concluded in 1942 that no historical evidence existed to indicate that Siouan speaking tribes resided there. On the other hand, James Mooney, in a monograph surveying "The Siouan Tribes of the East," lists Mohetan as one of at least nine groups Siouan.
"Calicuas" were reported at Cherokee Falls in 1705. Indian trader Charles Poke's trading post dates from 1731 with the remnant Calicuas of Cherokee Falls still in the region from the previous century; the Monetons may be a distant Cherokee branch evidenced by their antipathy for the Shawnees,), who were located on both sides of the Ohio in the vicinity of the mouth of the Scioto River. Akenatsi Catawba Cheraw Mosopelea Saponi Sewee Tutelo Waccamaw History of West Virginia Prehistory of West Virginia Protohistory of West Virginia West Virginia Waterways Demallie, Raymond J. "Tutelo and Neighboring Groups." Sturtevant, William C. general ed. Raymond D. Fogelson, volume ed. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0
The Ohio River is a 981-mile long river in the midwestern United States that flows southwesterly from western Pennsylvania south of Lake Erie to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois. It is the second largest river by discharge volume in the United States and the largest tributary by volume of the north-south flowing Mississippi River that divides the eastern from western United States; the river flows through or along the border of six states, its drainage basin includes parts of 15 states. Through its largest tributary, the Tennessee River, the basin includes several states of the southeastern U. S, it is the source of drinking water for three million people. The lower Ohio River just below Louisville is obstructed by rapids known as the Falls of the Ohio where the water level falls 26ft. in 2 miles and is impassible for navigation. The McAlpine Locks and Dam, a shipping canal bypassing the rapids, now allows commercial navigation from the Forks of the Ohio at Pittsburgh to the Port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi on the Gulf of Mexico.
The name "Ohio" comes from the Ohi: yo', lit. "Good River". Discovery of the Ohio River may be attributed to English explorers from Virginia in the latter half of the 17th century. In his Notes on the State of Virginia published in 1781–82, Thomas Jefferson stated: "The Ohio is the most beautiful river on earth, its current gentle, waters clear, bosom smooth and unbroken by rocks and rapids, a single instance only excepted." In the late 18th century, the river was the southern boundary of the Northwest Territory. It became a primary transportation route for pioneers during the westward expansion of the early U. S; the river is sometimes considered as the western extension of the Mason–Dixon Line that divided Pennsylvania from Maryland, thus part of the border between free and slave territory, between the Northern and Southern United States or Upper South. Where the river was narrow, it was the way to freedom for thousands of slaves escaping to the North, many helped by free blacks and whites of the Underground Railroad resistance movement.
The Ohio River is a climatic transition area, as its water runs along the periphery of the humid subtropical and humid continental climate areas. It is inhabited by flora of both climates. In winter, it freezes over at Pittsburgh but farther south toward Cincinnati and Louisville. At Paducah, Kentucky, in the south, near the Ohio's confluence with the Mississippi, it is ice-free year-round; the name "Ohio" comes from the Seneca language, Ohi:yo', a proper name derived from ohiːyoːh, therefore translating to "Good River". "Great river" and "large creek" have been given as translations. Native Americans, including the Lenni Lenape and Iroquois, considered the Ohio and Allegheny rivers as the same, as is suggested by a New York State road sign on Interstate 86 that refers to the Allegheny River as Ohi:yo'. An earlier Miami-Illinois language name was applied to the Ohio River, Mosopeleacipi. Shortened in the Shawnee language to pelewa thiipi, spelewathiipi or peleewa thiipiiki, the name evolved through variant forms such as "Polesipi", "Peleson", "Pele Sipi" and "Pere Sipi", stabilized to the variant spellings "Pelisipi", "Pelisippi" and "Pellissippi".
Applied just to the Ohio River, the "Pelisipi" name was variously applied back and forth between the Ohio River and the Clinch River in Virginia and Tennessee. In his original draft of the Land Ordinance of 1784, Thomas Jefferson proposed a new state called "Pelisipia", to the south of the Ohio River, which would have included parts of present-day Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia; the river had great significance in the history of the Native Americans, as numerous civilizations formed along its valley. For thousands of years, Native Americans used the river as a major trading route, its waters connected communities. In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley, such as Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana, as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast; the Osage, Omaha and Kaw lived in the Ohio Valley, but under pressure from the Iroquois to the northeast, migrated west of the Mississippi River in the 17th century to territory now defined as Missouri and Oklahoma.
The discovery and traversal of the Ohio River by Europeans admits of several possibilities, all in the latter half of the 17th century. Virginian Englishman Abraham Wood's trans-Appalachian expeditions between 1654 and 1664; the first person to traverse the length of the river, from the headwaters of the Allegheny to its mouth on the Mississippi, was a Dutch trader from New York, Arnout Viele, in 1692. In 1749, Great Britain established the Ohio Company to trade in the area. Exploration of the territory and trade with the Indians in the region near the Forks brought British colonials from both Pennsylvania and Virginia across the mountains, both colonies claimed the territory; the movement across the Allegheny Mountains of British settlers and the claims of the area near modern day Pittsburgh led to conflict with the French, who had forts in the Ohio River Valley. This conflict was called the Indian War. In 17