SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Indicator organism

Indicator organisms are used as a proxy to monitor conditions in a particular environment, area, habitat, or consumer product. Certain bacteria and helminth eggs are being used for various purposes. Certain bacteria can be used as indicator organisms in particular situations; the presence of bacteria found in human feces, termed coliform bacteria, in surface water is a common indicator of faecal contamination. For this reason, sanitation programs test water for the presence of these organisms to ensure that drinking water systems are not contaminated with feces; this testing can be done using several methods which involve taking samples of water, or passing large amounts of water through a filter to sample bacteria testing to see if bacteria from that water grow on selective media such as MacConkey agar. Alternatively, the sample can be tested to see if it utilizes various nutrients in ways characteristic of coliform bacteria. Coliform bacteria selected as indicators of faecal contamination must not persist in the environment for long periods of time following efflux from the intestine, their presence must be correlated with contamination by other faecal organisms.

Indicator organisms need not be pathogenic. Non-coliform bacteria, such as Streptococcus bovis and certain clostridia may be used as an index of faecal contamination. Penicillium species, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans are used in the pharmaceutical industry for microbial limit testing, bioburden assessment, method validation, antimicrobial challenge tests, quality control testing; when used in this capacity, Penicillium and A. niger are compendial mold indicator organisms. Molds such as Trichoderma, Stachybotrys, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Fusarium and certain yeasts are used as indicators of indoor air quality. Helminth eggs are a good indicator organism to assess the safety of sanitation and wastewater reuse systems for resource recovery because they are the most environmentally resistant pathogens of all pathogens and can in extreme cases survive for several years in soil. Coliform bacteria Coliform index E. coli Indicator species

Diving at the 2015 Pan American Games – Men's 3 metre springboard

The men's 3 metre springboard competition of the diving events at the 2015 Pan American Games was held between the 10 and 11 of July at the CIBC Pan Am/Parapan Am Aquatics Centre and Field House in Toronto, Canada. The winner of the competition qualified his country a quota place for the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. If the host nation of the Games wins the event, the runner up will qualify instead; the individual diving competitions all consist of two rounds. In the first, the divers each perform five dives; the best 12 divers in the preliminaries advance to the final. In the final round, the divers perform a final set of five dives, with the scores from those dives used to determine final ranking. Seven judges evaluate each dive, giving the diver a score between 0 and 10 with increments of 0.5. The two highest and two lowest scores from each judge are dropped; the remaining three scores are summed, multiplied by the degree of difficulty of the dive to give the total score for the dive.

Scores from each dive in the round are summed to give the round score. Green denotes finalists