Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim
Kwun Chung, or Koon Chung in early document, is an area of Hong Kong, southwest of Yau Ma Tei located in the Yau Tsim Mong District of western Kowloon Peninsula. South of the area, across Austin Road, is Tsim Sha Tsui by Victoria Harbour; the area contains one of few Nepalese communities in Hong Kong. In 1979, the MTR station running through Kwun Chung was named Jordan since it intersected Jordan Road and nearby bus stops were relabeled Jordan; this resulted in the area being called Jordan by residents, since most MTR stations are named after the district or area in which it serves. The issue of district and station naming confusion occurred with Waterloo Station just to the north, renamed Yau Ma Tei Station; the area is still Kwun Chung. The western half contains the Kwun Chung Municipal Services Building on Bowring Street, its Chinese name means "government creek", named for the pre-19th century presence of Imperial China's military in defence against pirates and foreigners. Since Hong Kong was sparsely populated during the time, this referenced name may have superseded any local name.
In early British maps, Kwun Chung was a river valley with a cultivation. The valley extended from the shore to the middle of the Kowloon Peninsula. In the middle of the valley was a hill where two rivers ran west to the sea; the area between Austin Road and Jordan Road was hilly when Kwun Chung Fort was built by the Chinese official Lin Tse-hsu to defend against the British. During the Battle of Kwun Chung in 1839, the fort, together with Tsim Sha Tsui Fort kept British incursions from Kowloon; the fort with the hill was demolished for development during the early British rule of Kowloon and its rock and sand were used for reclamation for the area northwest of Jordan Road. Due to its strategic position, the British Army chose the hill south of Austin Road for the Whitfield Barracks and battery. Battery Street was named after it. While the majority population is Cantonese and other ethnic Chinese, Kwun Chung contains Nepalese from ex-Gurkhas, other South Asian populations. Residents of Kwun Chung maintain practice of the Ghost Festival.
King George V Memorial Park, Kowloon Kwun Chung Market
Tai Kok Tsui
Tai Kok Tsui is an area west of Mong Kok in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The mixed land use of industrial and residential is present in the old area; the Cosmopolitan Dock and oil depots were located there. Blocks of high-rise residential buildings have been erected on the reclaimed area to the west, which marked the revitalization of the area with many restaurants and bars setting up shop. Many of the older residential buildings have been vacated and are set to be replaced by luxury high-rise buildings; until many of the residents in Tai Kok Tsui were senior citizens but there has been a more recent influx of younger people those returning to Hong Kong after time spent overseas. Traditionally the area has been known as one characterised by the presence of immigrants - described as'illegal immigrants' though this term is used rather intolerantly in Hong Kong and at times may describe people who are no such thing. Before any reclamation, Tai Kok Tsui was geographically a long island of Hong Kong of granite linked by an isthmus at its north to Kowloon Peninsula.
The long granite hill divided the reclamation in its east and dock area in the west in 1924. The tip of the cape hosted the Asia oil tanks; the area was for dock facilities at this period as reflected in present-day Anchor Street. The Cosmopolitan Dock survived till the 1960s, now Cosmopolitan Estate; the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong Express Rail Link will be built underneath Tai Kok Tsui. In January 2010, the local residents protested and said the railway would cause unbearable noise pollution to residents in some districts and could cause a number of old buildings with poor foundations to collapse; the Chinese character Tsui in Tai Kok Tsui implies that the area was an elongated cape on the west side of Kowloon Peninsula. The cove between the cape and Kowloon Peninsula was reclaimed during the period of 1867–1904. More reclamation along its shore took place during the period of 1904–1924 and more covered its tip during the period of 1924–1945. Minor reclamation was needed during the period 1964 -- 1982.
The launch of the Airport Core Programme in the 1990s gave rise to substantial reclamation as well as revitalisation of the district. Part of Tai Kok Tsui - the area newly reclaimed in the 1990s - is referred to as Olympic due to the nearby MTR Station opened in 1998, the Olympian City shopping centre. Island Harbourview, completed 1998-99, was the first private housing estate to be built in the newly reclaimed area, it was built by Sun Hung Kai Properties. There are 9 blocks in total. Blocks 1,2,3,5 and 6 faces East/West while Blocks 7,8,9 and 10 face North/South; the estate has a clubhouse with many facilities such as 2 badminton courts. It is located at 11 Hoi Fai Road Tai Kok Tsui. Central Park is a private housing estate located in the area, it is one of the projects of MTR Olympic Station Phase II and is built on the reclaimed land of the old Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter. Developed in 2001 by a consortium composed of MTR Corporation, Sino Land, Kerry Properties, Bank of China and China Overseas Land and Investment, it comprises 4 high-rise buildings with a total of 1,344 units.
Florient Rise Cherry Street Project is a private estate in Cherry Street. It was jointly developed by Nan Fung Group and Urban Renewal Authority in 2008, construction was completed in May 2009, it comprises three blocks with a total of 522 units. There is a residential block called "Hoi Ming Court" in the middle of the site, excluded from the redevelopment project due to its young age and high acquisition cost. Florient Rise was built around Hoi Ming Court. Harbour Green is a private part of the Olympic Station Phase III project, it comprises five 56 floors towers with a total of 1,514 units. It was jointly developed by Sun Hung Kai Properties and MTR Corporation and completed in 2007. One Silversea is a private estate located at the waterfront site of the former Tai Kok Tsui Temporary Bus Terminus, it was developed by Sino Land and completed in 2006. Shining Heights, at 83 Sycamore Street, was developed by Hong Kong Ferry Company Limited and its parent company, Henderson Land Development, it was Hong Kong Ferry Staff Quarters It comprises one tower with a total of 348 units, completed in 2009.
This is a private estate located above the newly developed Olympian City 3. PLK Vicwood KT Chong Sixth Form College St. Francis Xavier's College Lau Wong Fat Secondary School CCC Ming Kei College
Yau Tsim Mong District
Yau Tsim Mong District is one of 18 districts of Hong Kong, located on the western part of Kowloon Peninsula. It is the core urban area of Kowloon; the district has the second highest population density of all districts, at 49,115/km². The 2016 By-Census recorded the total population of Yau Tsim Mong District at 342,970. Two districts, the Yau Tsim District and Mong Kok District, it was combined in 1994 as an acronym of three of its major areas: Yau Ma Tei, Tsim Sha Tsui, Mong Kok; the district was once called Yau Ma Tei District. It was renamed Yau Tsim District from 1 April 1988 to "remove any misconception that Tsim Sha Tsui was an administrative district separate from Yau Ma Tei". Yau Tsim District and Mong Kok District were merged in 1994 to form the new Yau Tsim Mong District. Six MTR lines serve this district: the Tsuen Wan Line, Kwun Tong Line, Tung Chung Line, East Rail Line, West Rail Line and the Airport Express. Tsuen Wan Line and Kwun Tong Line converge from the north at Prince Edward Station Mong Kok and Yau Ma Tei the line's last station in the district and continue its journey to Whampoa.
Tsuen Wan Line continued to Jordan and Tsim Sha Tsui stations before crossing the harbour to Hong Kong Island. Tung Chung Line has two stations along the west coast: Kowloon near Jordan and Olympic near Tai Kok Tsui; the former station is served by the Airport Express. East Rail Line has a station in Mong Kok East, while Hung Hom is on the boundary between Yau Tsim Mong and Kowloon City districts; as for the West Rail Line, an extension has been opened to East Tsim Sha Tsui station, with a sub-surface passenger walkway to Tsim Sha Tsui Station on the Tsuen Wan Line. All three MTR stations in this district sees some trains terminating. East Tsim Sha Tsui used to be served by the East Rail Line until it was transferred to the West Rail Line in 2009. Now the West Rail Line and East Rail Line interchange at Hung Hom. Nathan Road Shanghai Street Austin Road Canton Road Cross-Harbour Tunnel West Kowloon Highway Western Harbour Crossing Salisbury Road Hong Kong Polytechnic University List of areas of Hong Kong Kowloon peninsula Yau Tsim Mong District Council List and map of electoral constituencies
Yau Ma Tei
Yau Ma Tei is an area in the Yau Tsim Mong District in the south of the Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. Yau Ma Tei is a phonetic transliteration of the name 油麻地 in Cantonese, it can be spelt as Yaumatei, Yau Ma Ti, Yaumati or Yau-ma-Tee. Yau means "oil", Ma can either refer to "sesame" or "jute", Tei means "field" or "open ground". Hence, Yau Ma Tei can be interpreted to mean either "oil-sesame field" or "oil and jute ground"; this dual-interpretation is the reason why there are two explanations for the origin of the place name. Dundas Street marks the north border of Yau Ma Tei with Mong Kok and Austin Road its south border with Tsim Sha Tsui. To its west is Victoria Harbour and its east the hilly region of Ho Man Tin. Southern Yau Ma Tei was traditionally known as Kwun Chung, but came to be called Jordan after the completion of Jordan MTR station at its heart. Yau Ma Tei was a village in Kowloon, it was mentioned that a Chinese burial ground was assigned at a mile northeast of a village of Yau-ma-Tee at 2 December 1871.
The name Yau Ma Tei is not thought to pre-date British rule. However, Kwun Chung is mentioned in many historic documents. Kwun Chung was a river valley with cultivation. On the hill south near the coast was Kwun Chung Fort built by Chinese official Lin Tse-hsu to defend against the British. During the Battle of Kwun Chung in 1839, the fort — together with Tsim Sha Tsui Fort — kept the British from Kowloon; the fort with the hill was demolished for development during early British rule of Kowloon. Before the ceding of Kowloon to the British in 1860, Yau Ma Tei was a beach and a bay gathering many Tanka fishermen, its water remains a harbour for fishermen after several times of reclamation by the Hong Kong Government. The Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter became an exotic water area where restaurants on boats offered dishes of indigenous seafood. These'typhoon shelter dishes' remain famous to this day and are offered on land; the typhoon shelter not only hosted fishermen, but was a port in Hong Kong. Numerous piers were built along its shore.
Ferry Point in the southern part of Yau Ma Tei was a transportation hub where many commuters took ferries to and from Hong Kong Island. The service was offered by Yaumati Ferry. Inland, the reclamation became the residential area for the ever-increasing Chinese population, with retail shops on the street level. Shanghai Street was the main street before being replaced by Nathan Road. Along Waterloo Road is the century-old Fruit Market; the Kwong Wah Hospital was the first hospital on the Kowloon peninsula, established in 1911. YMCA headquarters and its hostel in Hong Kong are located on the road. Kwong Wah Hospital, run by charity Tung Wah Group of Hospitals, is the first major hospital in the area. There was a small pox hospital at the hill northeast of Kwong Wah Hospital. Founded by Hong Kong Government, Queen Elizabeth Hospital is another major hospital in the area. Yaumatei Maternal & Child Health Centre is under Department of Health; the district is an area of mixed residential and retail. During day time, the Yau Ma Tei wet market and fruit market are the markets to visit, buying souvenirs like dried noodles and some fruits.
Every night there is a market selling many different kinds of products including clothes, decorations, VCD and toys in Temple Street, a street in the area where the famous Tin Hau Temple was built in 1876. The Temple is at Public Square Street; the square, known as Yung Shue Tau, was a night market. Jade Market and Jade Street, China’s most revered green stone is in abundance here, with around 400 registered stall owners ready to pitch jade amulets, ornaments and trinkets; the Hong Kong International Hobby and Toy Museum, located at No. 330 Shanghai Street, showcases models and pop culture memorabilia from around the world. Exhibits include toy vehicles, action figures, cartoon characters, science fiction collectibles, model rockets, Japanese anime, classic toys. Tung Wah Group of Hospitals Museum in Kwong Wah Hospital details the history of Tung Wah Group of Hospitals and its relation with Hong Kong people, is located in Yau Ma Tei. Tin Hau Temple Old Yau Ma Tei Police Station Yau Ma Tei Fruit Market Yaumati Theatre Engineer's Office of the Former Pumping Station Old South Kowloon District Court Kowloon Union Church Yau Ma Tei Public Library In the 1980s, the Government handed over the redevelopment project of Lee Tat Street and Cheung Shui Street in Yau Mei Tei to the Hong Kong Housing Society.
This became Prosperous Garden, an "Urban Improvement Scheme" estate in Public Square Street Phase 1, including Block 1, 2 and 5, was completed in the site in 1991. Block 1 and 2 were for sale, its Phase 2, including Block 3 and 4, was for sale. Hoi Fu Court is a mixed Home Ownership Scheme court and public estate built on reclaimed land of the old Yau Ma Tei Typhoon Shelter, it is the only public housing estate built by Hong Kong Housing Authority in the District. It comprises 6 blocks completed in 1999 and 2004. Charming Garden is an 18-block estate built under the Home Ownership Scheme and Private Sector Participation Scheme; the Wah Yan College, Kowloon is a boys' school. True Light Girls' College, a girls' EMI school, is adjacent to Wah Yan College; the Methodist College is located in 50 Gascoigne Road in Yau Ma Tei. It's an EMI school for both girls. There are a
Tsim Sha Tsui
Tsim Sha Tsui abbreviated as TST, is an urban area in southern Kowloon, Hong Kong. The area is administratively part of the Yau Tsim Mong District. Tsim Sha Tsui East is a piece of land reclaimed from the Hung Hom Bay now east of Tsim Sha Tsui; the area is bounded north by Austin Road and in the east by Cheong Wan Road. Geographically, Tsim Sha Tsui is a cape on the tip of the Kowloon Peninsula pointing towards Victoria Harbour, opposite Central. Several villages had been established in this location before Kowloon was ceded to the British Empire in 1860. Tsim Sha Tsui in Chinese means sharp sandspit, it was known as Heung Po Tau, i.e. a port for exporting incense tree. Tsim Sha Tsui is a major tourist hub in metropolitan Hong Kong, with many high-end shops and restaurants that cater to tourists. Many of Hong Kong's museums are located in the area; the name Tsim Sha Tsui means'sharp sandspit' in Cantonese. The traditional and archaic form of Tsim Sha Tsui in Chinese has the same pronunciation but is written differently.
Before any land reclamation, Tsim Sha Tsui consisted of two parallel capes with a bay in between in the south. The west cape, Kowloon Point, the proper Tsim Sha Tsui, coincided with the small hill where the Former Marine Police Headquarters is sited, while the east cape was the hill, today known as Blackhead Point; the bay between the capes extended as far north as the present-day Mody Road. Today, Canton Road marks the western edge of Tsim Sha Tsui, Chatham Road the eastern edge; the area is hilly. Historical maps in Ming or Qing Dynasty named the channel between Tsim Sha Tsui and Central as Chung Mun as it is located in the middle of the two other channels, Kap Shui Mun in the west and Lei Yue Mun in the east, in the harbour. Before Kowloon was ceded to Britain in 1860, many villages were present in the area. Incense trees from New Territories were gathered at some quays in Tsim Sha Tsui and transferred to Shek Pai Wan in southern Hong Kong Island to be exported to rest of the world, it was thus known as the fragrant quay.
Shortly after the land was ceded to Britain, construction began on the first section of Tsim Sha Tsui's major thoroughfare, Nathan Road. In 1888, the Star Ferry offered regular transport between Central and Tsim Sha Tsui, the area has flourished since; until the 20th century, Tsim Sha Tsui was a leafy suburb dominated by the people and facilities of the British military. Whitfield Barracks, converted into Kowloon Park in 1970, ran to the west of Nathan Road, Kowloon Naval Yard occupied the waterfront to the west of the army encampment. In the early 20th century, Chinese people were allowed to live in the area to attract more people to trade in the colony. Garden houses were replaced with crowded residential blocks. Wharves and godowns were built along the west shore. Major developers like Hormusjee Naorojee Mody and Catchick Paul Chater participated in the development of Tsim Sha Tsui; the Kowloon–Canton Railway commenced service on 1 October 1910. Kowloon Station in Tsim Sha Tsui was built on the new southern reclamation from 1913 to 1915.
The rails extended along the western reclamation parallel to Chatham Road, with old Hung Hom Station near the Gun Club Hill Barracks at the junction of Chatham Road and Austin Road. Another major road, Salisbury Road, was completed in the same period; the landmark Peninsula Hotel was built opposite to the station. The Kowloon Station was relocated to a new Hung Hom Station in 1978; the whole station and rails were demolished except the landmark Clock Tower. Hong Kong Space Museum and the Hong Kong Cultural Centre were erected on the site; the rails were replaced with other gardens in Tsim Sha Tsui East. In 2016 the Tsim Sha Tsui Waterfront Revitalisation Plan was shelved due to public controversy. Tsim Sha Tsui remains tertiary sector from colonial days to present. In early colonial days, transport and trading are main business of the area; as port and rail facilities moved out of the area, the major industry falls on the two. Tsim Sha Tsui, like Central, contains several centres of finance. After Kai Tak Airport closed, the height restrictions on buildings has dropped and now larger taller skyscrapers, parallel to those of Central, have been constructed.
There are a substantial number of African and Pakistani minorities in the area. In colonial days, many Indians set up their businesses or joined the army and police force in Hong Kong, their descendents continue to live in the territory. In recent years, Hong Kong has attracted African traders those of the Commonwealth, to trade in the territory. Most of them live in inns in the area. Tourist hospitality is a major industry in Tsim Sha Tsui; the area has the highest concentration of hotels in Hong Kong. Prominent and renowned hotels include The Peninsula, The Kowloon Hotel at Middle Road, Kowloon Shangri-La, the InterContinental Hong Kong, the Sheraton Hotel, three Marco Polo Hotels, The Langham Hong Kong, the Renaissance Kowloon Hotel, The Mira Hong Kong, Baden-Powell International House, Hotel Icon and the Hotel Panorama; the Hyatt Regency Hong Kong was closed on 1 January 2006 and the iSQUARE shopping mall was built at its former location. It has re-opened in October 2009 on Hanoi Road of Tsim Sha Tsui within the new The Masterpiece skyscraper.
Other hotels in every price range and level of luxury can be found throughout the area. Tsim Sha Tsui is one of m
Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon