National University of Mongolia
The National University of Mongolia is the oldest university in Mongolia, established in 1942 and named in honour of Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan. It hosts twelve schools and faculties in Ulaanbaatar, runs branches in the Zavkhan and Orkhon Aimags, it has been estimated that one third of the academically educated Mongolians are affiliated with NUM. After Mongolia's first modern secondary school was established in 1921, it was necessary to bring in an academic institution at an higher level. In 1942, the Government put forth Mongolia's first university, the National University of Mongolia, with the first students graduating in 1946. During socialism, the University served as a training center for the party elite. Education was paid for and controlled by the state. After democratization, it changed into a more modern university. In 1995, it started to offer bachelor's, master's, PhD programs; as of 2018, there were over 18,000 students enrolled in various programs taught in Mongolian. The National University of Mongolia was established on October 5, 1942, as the first modern university in Mongolia.
The faculties were Pedagogy and Veterinarian Sciences. Agriculture, Natural Sciences, Mongolian Studies, Foreign Languages, as well as research activities were added shortly thereafter. Part of its operation were supported by staff and materials provided by the Soviet Union. Sir Mashlai T. who at the time was the Minister of Education was in the charge of supervising the architechture work. Some of these initial faculties spun off into separate universities, including the Agricultural University in 1958, the Medical University in 1961, as well as the Technical University and the University of Humanities in 1982. In 1942, 93 students and 53 students enrolled to the preparation course in the University, the first graduation was held in 1946, with 35 students. In 1959, the rectorate of the university was changed to the Mongolian party. Namsrain Sodnom, a graduate of the university, was appointed as the first Mongolian president, while Ts. Sürenkhorloo was appointed as the vice-president for academic affairs.
In 1947, a postgraduate faculty was founded in order to prepare university scientists. In 1994, 13 students were awarded master's degrees. In 1997, the department of postgraduate affairs was established with the purpose to increase the number of postgraduate students. School of Business School of International Relations and Public Administration School of Law School of Engineering and Applied Sciences School of Arts and Sciences Foreign Language School in Orkhon Province Economics College in Zavkhan Province NUM is a member of the following organizations: Consortium of Mongolian Universities and Colleges International Association of Universities University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific Council on International Educational Exchange Euro-Asian University Network It has cooperation agreements with more than 242 academic and research centers all over the world. Galsan Tschinag Altangerel Perle Tumen Dashtseveg Official website
Sri Lanka Scout Association
The Sri Lanka Scout Association, is a Scouting organization in Sri Lanka operated by the Ceylon Scout Council. The Ceylon Scout Council is a corporation formed by Act No 13 of 1957; the association became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1953. The coeducational Sri Lanka Scout Association has 33,709 members as of 2014. in 2016 the year that the National Organization reached 104 years the Scouting Population in Sri Lanka had increased to 55,078 the growth taking place against the year 2015 was 29%, a great achievement by the SLSA. There are various community development projects carried out in cooperation with the government organizations, United Nations and other service organizations. Scouting has been introduced into the prisons, it has spread to other institutions such as certified schools. There are Scout units for handicapped boys such as the blind and deaf and for boys in leprosy hospitals. 1912 - In 1912, the first recorded troop of Boy Scouts in Sri Lanka was formed at Christ Church College, Matale by District Civil Engineer, Francis George Stevens.
1913 - The second Scout troop in the country, the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, was established at Dharmaraja College, Kandy 1914 - the first Colombo Scout troop was established. It was the first open Scout troop and the third Scout troop in Sri Lanka 1914 - The 1st Galle Mahinda Scout Group, was established at Mahinda College, Galle by Francis George Stevens 1914 - Scouting was introduced to Trinity College, Kandy by J. N. Thomas. 1916 - Creation of the 10th Colombo Ananda College Scout Troop at Ananda College, Colombo 1916 - Creation of the 4th Galle Aloysius' Scout Group at St. Aloysius' College, Galle by Fr. Murphy 1916 - Western Province Rally at Havelock Park, Colombo. 1917 - Scouting was introduced to Wesley College, Colombo by Rev. P. T. Cash, 1916 - The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom formed its Ceylon Branch. 1917 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the first time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1917 - First all Ceylon Rally at Havelock Race Course, Colombo.
1917 - A. B. Rambukwella of the 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, won the King's Scout Badge as the first Ceylonese King Scout. 1918 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the second time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1919 - King's Flag was won by 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scouts for the third time in Ceylon Scouting history. 1921 - 1921 - B. P.'s visit to Sri Lanka with Lady Olave Baden-Powell. 1925 - Vernon Grenier becomes Chief Commissioner. 1930 - Scout HQ moves to an old guardroom at Galle Face, Colombo. 1930 - J. H. De Saram become the first native Chief Commissioner. 1932 - All Ceylon Scout Craft exhibition at Katugastota, Kandy. 1934 - Lord and Lady Baden-Powell visit Sri Lanka 1942 - K. Somasundaram becomes Chief Commissioner. 1948 - Col. C. P. Jayawardene becomes the Chief Commissioner. New Buildings of National Headquarters. Pedru Camp-site at Nuwera-Eliya. Job Week scheme started. Sinhala and Tamil edition of Scouting for Boys published. 1952 - Ceylon Jamboree at Koombi Kele, Colombo.
1953 - The Boy Scouts Association Ceylon Branch is succeeded by the Ceylon Boy Scouts Association. 1954 - E. W. Kannangara becomes Chief Commissioner. 1957 - Participation in Jubilee Jamboree in England. 1957 - Ceylon Boy Scouts Council Act passed by the parliament nationalizing the former Ceylon branch of The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom under the control of the Ceylon Boy Scouts Council. 1962 - Golden Jubilee Jamboree at Race Course, Colombo. 1965 November 25th -'Cub Scout Tattoo' a Unique Performance in Police ground. 1965 - Mr. Vincent Perera, a Mayor Of Colombo renamed the Lower lake road to "BALADAKSHA MAWATHA" 1965 - "BALADAKSHA HANDA" Special Sinhala Radio Program Started with SLBC. 1966 - The Cub Scout Golden Jubilee Celebrations in Sri Lanka and World. 1967 - Fitzroy H. Gunesekera becomes Chief Commissioner. 1972 - C. M. P. Wanigatunga becomes Chief Commissioner. 1977 - H. Ratnasuriya becomes Chief Commissioner. National HQ shifted to Chitthampalan Gardiner Mawatha, Colombo 02.
1978 - Old Rajans Scouts Association, the first South Asian old Scout association formed by the old Scouts of 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group, Dharmaraja College, Kandy. 1982 - Theodore Seneviratne becomes Chief Commissioner. Special Commemorative Stamp in honour of B. P. on 125th Birth Anniversary. 1983 - 3rd National Jamboree at Walisinghe Harischandra Ground Anuradhapura. 1984 - 2nd National Cubboree. 1987 - Rex Jayasinghe becomes Chief Commissioner. 1990 - 1st SAARC Jamboree at Vihara Maha Devi Park, Colombo. Chief Commissioner Rex Jayasinghe dies just before Jamboree. J. Lionel Silva becomes Chief Commissioner. 1992 - 4th National Jamboree in Kurunegala. M. Mazzahim Mohideen becomes Chief Commissioner. 1997 - K. H. Camillus Fernando becomes Chief Commissioner. 1998 - 5th National Jamboree, Kandy. 1998 - First Asia- Pacific Workshop on Information Technology - Colombo, First Web page hosted by University of Morotuwa. 2002 - H. S. Weerakoon becomes Chief Commissioner. 6th National Scout Jamboree, Balapitiya.
2006 - 7th National Scout Jamboree, Nuwara Eliya. 2007 - C. Batuwangala becomes Chief Commissioner. 2009 - First female Cub Scouts invested on 23 January 2009 - Chathura Deshapriya Mataraarachchi of 1st Kandy Dharmaraja Scout Group was awarded the Outstanding Asia-Pacific Scout Award. 2009 - The initiation of Sri Lanka Old Scouts and Old Guides Association and the Kandy District President Scouts and President Guides Association was done 2010 - 8th National Scout Jamboree, Angun
The Mongols are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and to China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. They live as minorities in other regions of China, as well as in Russia. Mongolian people belonging to the Buryat and Kalmyk subgroups live predominantly in the Russian federal subjects of Buryatia and Kalmykia; the Mongols are bound together by ethnic identity. Their indigenous dialects are collectively known as the Mongolian language; the ancestors of the modern-day Mongols are referred to as Proto-Mongols. Broadly defined, the term includes the Mongols proper, Oirats, the Kalmyk people and the Southern Mongols; the latter comprises the Abaga Mongols, Aohans, Gorlos Mongols, Jaruud, Khuuchid and Onnigud. The designation "Mongol" appeared in 8th century records of Tang China to describe a tribe of Shiwei, it resurfaced in the late 11th century during the Khitan-ruled Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao in 1125, the Khamag Mongols became a leading tribe on the Mongolian Plateau.
However, their wars with the Jurchen-ruled Jin dynasty and the Tatar confederation had weakened them. In the thirteenth century, the word Mongol grew into an umbrella term for a large group of Mongolic-speaking tribes united under the rule of Genghis Khan. In various times Mongolic peoples have been equated with the Scythians, the Magog, the Tungusic peoples. Based on Chinese historical texts the ancestry of the Mongolic peoples can be traced back to the Donghu, a nomadic confederation occupying eastern Mongolia and Manchuria; the identity of the Xiongnu is still debated today. Although some scholars maintain that they were proto-Mongols, they were more a multi-ethnic group of Mongolic and Turkic tribes, it has been suggested that the language of the Huns was related to the Hünnü. The Donghu, can be much more labeled proto-Mongol since the Chinese histories trace only Mongolic tribes and kingdoms from them, although some historical texts claim a mixed Xiongnu-Donghu ancestry for some tribes. See Genetic history of East Asians The Donghu are mentioned by Sima Qian as existing in Inner Mongolia north of Yan in 699–632 BCE along with the Shanrong.
Mentions in the Yi Zhou Shu and the Classic of Mountains and Seas indicate the Donghu were active during the Shang dynasty. The Xianbei formed part of the Donghu confederation, but had earlier times of independence, as evidenced by a mention in the Guoyu, which states that during the reign of King Cheng of Zhou they came to participate at a meeting of Zhou subject-lords at Qiyang but were only allowed to perform the fire ceremony under the supervision of Chu since they were not vassals by covenant; the Xianbei chieftain was appointed joint guardian of the ritual torch along with Xiong Yi. These early Xianbei came from the nearby Zhukaigou culture in the Ordos Desert, where maternal DNA corresponds to the Mongol Daur people and the Tungusic Evenks; the Zhukaigou Xianbei had trade relations with the Shang. In the late 2nd century, the Han dynasty scholar Fu Qian wrote in his commentary "Jixie" that "Shanrong and Beidi are ancestors of the present-day Xianbei". Again in Inner Mongolia another connected core Mongolic Xianbei region was the Upper Xiajiadian culture where the Donghu confederation was centered.
After the Donghu were defeated by Xiongnu king Modu Chanyu, the Xianbei and Wuhuan survived as the main remnants of the confederation. Tadun Khan of the Wuhuan was the ancestor of the proto-Mongolic Kumo Xi; the Wuhuan are of the direct Donghu royal line and the New Book of Tang says that in 209 BCE, Modu Chanyu defeated the Wuhuan instead of using the word Donghu. The Xianbei, were of the lateral Donghu line and had a somewhat separate identity, although they shared the same language with the Wuhuan. In 49 CE the Xianbei ruler Bianhe raided and defeated the Xiongnu, killing 2000, after having received generous gifts from Emperor Guangwu of Han; the Xianbei reached their peak under Tanshihuai Khan who expanded the vast, but short lived, Xianbei state. Three prominent groups split from the Xianbei state as recorded by the Chinese histories: the Rouran, the Khitan people and the Shiwei. Besides these three Xianbei groups, there were others such as the Murong and Tuoba, their culture was nomadic, their religion shamanism or Buddhism and their military strength formidable.
There is still no direct evidence that the Rouran spoke Mongolic languages, although most scholars agree that they were Proto-Mongolic. The Khitan, had two scripts of their own and many Mongolic words are found in their half-deciphered writings. Geographically, the Tuoba Xianbei ruled the southern part of Inner Mongolia and northern China, the Rouran ruled eastern Mongolia, western Mongolia, the northern part of Inner Mongolia and northern Mongolia, the Khitan were concentrated in eastern part of Inner Mongolia north of Korea and the Shiwei were located to the north of the Khitan; these tribes and kingdoms were soon overshadowed by the rise of the Turkic Khaganate in 555, the Uyghur Khaganate in 745 and the Yenisei Kirghiz states in 840. The Tuoba were absorbed into China; the Rouran
The Bharat Scouts and Guides
The Bharat Scouts and Guides is the national Scouting and Guiding association of India. The national headquarters of BSG is recognised by the Government of India. Scouting was founded in India in 1909 as an overseas branch of the Scout Association and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1938. Guiding in India started in 1911 and was amongst the founder members of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts in 1928 covering present-day Bangladesh and Pakistan at that time; the BSG serves 1,286,161 Guides. Scouting was founded in British India in 1909, first starting at the Bishop Cotton Boys' School in Bangalore. Scouting for native Indians was started by Justice Vivian Bose, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Pandit Hridayanath Kunzru, Girija Shankar Bajpai, Annie Besant and George Arundale, in 1913. Prior to this date, Scouting was open only for foreign Scouts. In 1916, a Cub section was started, followed by the Rover section in 1918. In 1916, Calcutta's Senior Deputy Commissioner of Police J. S. Wilson introduced Scouting for Boys as a textbook in the Calcutta Police Training School.
Colonel Wilson volunteered his services to the District Scout Commissioner, Alfred Pickford, in 1917 became Assistant Scoutmaster of the Old Mission Church Troop. Together the two struggled for the admission of Indian boys into the Boy Scouts Association, which had not been admitted due to a Government of India order against it because "Scouting might train them to become revolutionaries". Shortly Wilson was acting as Cubmaster and Scoutmaster, succeeded Pickford as District Commissioner in May 1919 when Pickford was promoted to Chief Scout Commissioner for India; as a way of getting around the Government Order, the Boy Scouts of Bengal was founded, with identical aims and methods. Many separate Scout organizations began to spring up, the Indian Boy Scouts Association, founded in 1916, based in Madras and headed by Annie Besant and George Arundale. A conference was held in Calcutta in August 1920 in which Wilson staged a Scout Rally, as a result the Viceroy of India sent an invitation to Lord Baden-Powell, by Chief Scout of the World, to visit India.
Lord and Lady Baden-Powell arrived in Bombay in late January 1921 for a short tour of the subcontinent before leaving Calcutta for Rangoon. Alfred Pickford became one of their closest friends; the result of this visit was a union of all of the Scout organizations except the Seva Samiti Scout Association into The Boy Scouts Association in India. In 1922 Pickford returned to England and was appointed Overseas Commissioner of The Boy Scouts Association at their headquarters in London, but his dream of allowance of local boys into the program had been fulfilled. In 1938, a number of members left the Boy Scouts Association in India after a wave of nationalism, they formed – together with the Seva Samiti Scout Association and the newly founded India National Scout Association – the Hindustan Scout Association, the first coeducational Scouting and Guiding organisation in India. In the same year, the Boy Scouts Association in India became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement; the first Girl Guides company was founded in Jabalpur in 1911 at Christ Church School The movement grew: In 1915, more than fifty companies existed with a membership of over 1,200, all of them directly registered with the Girl Guide Association and all restricted to girls of European descent.
These companies formed the All India Girl Guides Association in 1916. In the same year the organisation opened for Indian girls. J. S. Wilson provided transportation for Girl Guide rallies; the girls themselves were never quite sure whether they preferred to ride in police vans or in the riot truck. The former concealed them from public view, but were hot. In 1928, the All India Girl Guides Association joined the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts as one of its founder members; this membership was renewed in 1948 after the independence of its partition. In the first years after India's independence leading politicians, including Jawaharlal Nehru, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Mangal Das Pakvasa, as well as Scout leaders tried to unify India's Scouts and Guides. A first success was the merger of the Boy Scouts Association in India and the Hindustan Scout Association forming the Bharat Scouts and Guides on 7 November 1950. About a year on 15 August 1951, the All India Girl Guides Association joined this new organisation.
In 1959, the 17th World Scout Conference in New Delhi was hosted by the BSG. The Sangam World Girl Guide/Girl Scout Center in Pune, India, opened in 1966; the idea for this fourth world centre dates back to 1956 when it was developed during a WAGGGS International commissioners' meeting in New Delhi. The United Nations selected the Bharat Scouts and Guides as honorary "Peace Messengers" for their significant and concrete contributions to the International Year of Peace in 1986. Sethna's 18th West Bombay Scout Group is the oldest continuously running Scout Group in India, it was established in 1914, when Rustomji Edulji Sethna came across the book Scouting for Boys, written by Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of the Scout movement. He was formed one of India's first Scout groups for native boys. Prior to that, there existed some Scou
Scouting or the Scout Movement is a movement that aims to support young people in their physical and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society, with a strong focus on the outdoors and survival skills. During the first half of the twentieth century, the movement grew to encompass three major age groups for boys and, in 1910, a new organization, Girl Guides, was created for girls, it is one of several worldwide youth organizations. In 1906 and 1907 Robert Baden-Powell, a lieutenant general in the British Army, wrote a book for boys about reconnaissance and scouting. Baden-Powell wrote Scouting for Boys, based on his earlier books about military scouting, with influence and support of Frederick Russell Burnham, Ernest Thompson Seton of the Woodcraft Indians, William Alexander Smith of the Boys' Brigade, his publisher Pearson. In the summer of 1907 Baden-Powell held a camp on Brownsea Island in England to test ideas for his book; this camp and the publication of Scouting for Boys are regarded as the start of the Scout movement.
The movement employs the Scout method, a programme of informal education with an emphasis on practical outdoor activities, including camping, aquatics, hiking and sports. Another recognized movement characteristic is the Scout uniform, by intent hiding all differences of social standing in a country and making for equality, with neckerchief and campaign hat or comparable headwear. Distinctive uniform insignia include the fleur-de-lis and the trefoil, as well as badges and other patches; the two largest umbrella organizations are the World Organization of the Scout Movement, for boys-only and co-educational organizations, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts for girls-only organizations but accepting co-educational organizations. The year 2007 marked the centenary of Scouting worldwide, member organizations planned events to celebrate the occasion. Scouting started itself, but the trigger that set it going was the 1908 publication of Scouting for Boys written by Robert Baden-Powell.
At Charterhouse, one of England's most famous public schools, Baden-Powell had an interest in the outdoors. As a military officer, Baden-Powell was stationed in British India in the 1880s where he took an interest in military scouting and in 1884 he published Reconnaissance and Scouting. In 1896, Baden-Powell was assigned to the Matabeleland region in Southern Rhodesia as Chief of Staff to Gen. Frederick Carrington during the Second Matabele War. In June 1896 he met here and began a lifelong friendship with Frederick Russell Burnham, the American-born Chief of Scouts for the British Army in Africa; this was a formative experience for Baden-Powell not only because he had the time of his life commanding reconnaissance missions into enemy territory, but because many of his Boy Scout ideas originated here. During their joint scouting patrols into the Matobo Hills, Burnham augmented Baden-Powell's woodcraft skills, inspiring him and sowing seeds for both the programme and for the code of honour published in Scouting for Boys.
Practised by frontiersmen of the American Old West and indigenous peoples of the Americas, woodcraft was little known to the British Army but well-known to the American scout Burnham. These skills formed the basis of what is now called scoutcraft, the fundamentals of Scouting. Both men recognised that wars in Africa were the British Army needed to adapt. During this time in the Matobo Hills Baden-Powell first started to wear his signature campaign hat like the one worn by Burnham, acquired his kudu horn, the Ndebele war instrument he used every morning at Brownsea Island to wake the first Boy Scouts and to call them together in training courses. Three years in South Africa during the Second Boer War, Baden-Powell was besieged in the small town of Mafikeng by a much larger Boer army; the Mafeking Cadet Corps was a group of youths that supported the troops by carrying messages, which freed the men for military duties and kept the boys occupied during the long siege. The Cadet Corps performed well, helping in the defence of the town, were one of the many factors that inspired Baden-Powell to form the Scouting movement.
Each member received a badge that illustrated spearhead. The badge's logo was similar to the fleur-de-lis shaped arrowhead that Scouting adopted as its international symbol; the Siege of Mafeking was the first time since his own childhood that Baden-Powell, a regular serving soldier, had come into the same orbit as "civilians"—women and children—and discovered for himself the usefulness of well-trained boys. In the United Kingdom, the public, through newspapers, followed Baden-Powell's struggle to hold Mafeking, when the siege was broken he had become a national hero; this rise to fame fuelled the sales of the small instruction book he had written in 1899 about military scouting and wilderness survival, Aids to Scouting, that owed much to what he had learned from discussions with Burnham. On his return to England, Baden-Powell noticed that boys showed considerable interest in Aids to Scouting, unexpectedly used by teachers and youth organizations as their first Scouting handbook, he was urged to rewrite this book for boys during an inspection of the Boys' Brigade, a large youth movement drille
The United Nations Children's Fund known as the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, was created by the United Nations General Assembly on 11 December 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries, devastated by World War II. The Polish physician Ludwik Rajchman is regarded as the founder of UNICEF and served as its first chairman from 1946. On Rajchman's suggestion, the American Maurice Pate was appointed its first executive director, serving from 1947 until his death in 1965. In 1950, UNICEF's mandate was extended to address the long-term needs of children and women in developing countries everywhere. In 1953 it became a permanent part of the United Nations System, the words "international" and "emergency" were dropped from the organization's name, though it retained the original acronym, "UNICEF". UNICEF relies on contributions from private donors. UNICEF's total income for 2015 was US$5,009,557,471. Governments contribute two-thirds of the organization's resources.
Private groups and individuals contribute the rest through national committees. It is estimated. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children. UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006. Most of UNICEF's work is with a presence in 190 countries and territories. UNICEF's network of over 150 country offices and other offices, 34 National Committees carry out UNICEF's mission through programs developed with host governments. Seven regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. UNICEF's Supply Division is based in Copenhagen and serves as the primary point of distribution for such essential items as vaccines, antiretroviral medicines for children and mothers with HIV, nutritional supplements, emergency shelters, family reunification, educational supplies. A 36-member executive board establishes policies, approves programs and oversees administrative and financial plans.
The executive board is made up of government representatives who are elected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council for three-year terms. Each country office carries out UNICEF's mission through a unique program of cooperation developed with the host government; this five-year program focuses on practical ways to realize the rights of women. Regional offices provide technical assistance to country offices as needed. Overall management and administration of the organization takes place at headquarters, where global policy on children is shaped. Guiding and monitoring all of UNICEF's work is an Executive Board made up of 36 members who are government representatives, they establish policies, approve programs and decide on administrative and financial plans and budgets. Executive Board's work is coordinated by the Bureau, comprising the President and four Vice-Presidents, each officer representing one of the five regional groups; these five officers, each one representing one of the five regional groups, are elected by the Executive Board each year from among its members, with the presidency rotating among the regional groups on an annual basis.
As a matter of custom, permanent members of the Security Council do not serve as officers of the Executive Board. Office of the Secretary of the Executive Board services the Executive Board, it is responsible for maintaining an effective relationship between the Executive Board and the UNICEF secretariat, helps to organize the field visits of the Executive Board. There are national committees in 38 countries, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization; the national committees raise funds from the public sector. UNICEF is funded by voluntary contributions, the National Committees collectively raise around one-third of UNICEF's annual income; this comes through contributions from corporations, civil society organizations around six million individual donors worldwide. In the United States and some other countries, UNICEF is known for its "Trick-Or-Treat for UNICEF" program in which children collect money for UNICEF from the houses they trick-or-treat on Halloween night, sometimes instead of candy.
UNICEF is present in 191 countries and territories around the world, but not involved in nine others. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of one of the 36 National Committees for UNICEF; these non-governmental organizations are responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children's rights, providing other support. The US Fund for UNICEF is the oldest of the national committees, founded in 1947. On 19 April 2007, Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg was appointed UNICEF Eminent Advocate for Children, in which role she has visited Brazil and Burundi. In 2009, the British retailer Tesco used "Change for Good" as advertising, trademarked by UNICEF for charity usage but not for commercial or retail use; this prompted the agency to say, "it is the first time in Unicef's history that a commercial entity has purposely set out to capitalise on one of our campaigns and subsequently damage an income stream which several of our programs for children are dependent on".
They went on to call on the public "who have children’s welfare at heart, to consider who they support when making consumer choices". In 2013 William Armstrong was the first British m
Solomon Islands branch of The Scout Association
The Solomon Islands branch of The Scout Association, founded in 1928, is a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association for historical reasons and because the number of Scouts in the Solomon Islands is rather small. As of 2007, the branch was working towards recognition as a National Scout Organisation by the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Chief Scout of the branch is Nathaniel Waena. Scouts from the Solomon Islands participated in the 19th World Jamboree in Chile in 1998; the membership badge of the Solomon Islands branch of The Scout Association features the national flag. The older variant shows a palm tree, a symbol in use since the Solomon Islands was a colonial branch of British Scouting; the Girl Guides Association of Solomon Islands