The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Livestock is defined as domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, milk, fur and wool. The term is sometimes used to refer to those that are bred for consumption, while other times it refers only to farmed ruminants, such as cattle and goats. Horses are considered livestock in the United States; the USDA uses livestock to some uses of the term “red meat”, in which it refers to all the mammal animals kept in this setting to be used as commodities. The USDA mentions pork, veal and lamb are all classified as livestock and all livestock is considered to be red meats. Poultry and fish are not included in the category; the breeding and slaughter of livestock, known as animal husbandry, is a component of modern agriculture, practiced in many cultures since humanity's transition to farming from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animal husbandry practices have varied across cultures and time periods. Livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have shifted to intensive animal farming, sometimes referred to as "factory farming".
Now, over 99% of livestock are raised on factory farms. These practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to negative impacts on animal welfare and the environment. Livestock production continues to play a major economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the words "live" and "stock". In some periods, "cattle" and "livestock" have been used interchangeably. Today, the modern meaning of cattle is domesticated bovines. United States federal legislation defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities eligible or ineligible for a program or activity. For example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep, while the 1988 disaster assistance legislation defined the term as "cattle, goats, poultry, equine animals used for food or in the production of food, fish used for food, other animals designated by the Secretary."Deadstock is defined in contradistinction to livestock as "animals that have died before slaughter, sometimes from illness".
It is illegal in many countries, such as Canada, to sell or process meat from dead animals for human consumption. Animal-rearing originated during the cultural transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their living conditions are controlled by humans. Over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild; the dog was domesticated early. Goats and sheep were domesticated in multiple events sometime between 11,000 and 5,000 years ago in Southwest Asia. Pigs were domesticated by 8,500 BC in the Near 6,000 BC in China. Domestication of the horse dates to around 4000 BC. Cattle have been domesticated since 10,500 years ago. Chickens and other poultry may have been domesticated around 7000 BC; the term "livestock" is may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful, commercial purpose.
This can mean semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only domesticated or of disputed status; these populations may be in the process of domestication. Traditionally, animal husbandry was part of the subsistence farmer's way of life, producing not only the food needed by the family but the fuel, clothing and draught power. Killing the animal for food was a secondary consideration, wherever possible its products, such as wool, eggs and blood were harvested while the animal was still alive. In the traditional system of transhumance and livestock moved seasonally between fixed summer and winter pastures. Animals can be kept intensively. Extensive systems involve animals roaming at will, or under the supervision of a herdsman for their protection from predators. Ranching in the Western United States involves large herds of cattle grazing over public and private lands. Similar cattle stations are found in South America and other places with large areas of land and low rainfall.
Ranching systems have been used for sheep, ostrich, emu and alpaca. In the uplands of the United Kingdom, sheep are turned out on the fells in spring and graze the abundant mountain grasses untended, being brought to lower altitudes late in the year, with supplementary feeding being provided in winter. In rural locations and poultry can obtain much of their nutrition from scavenging, in African communities, hens may live for months without being fed, still produce one or two eggs a week. At the other extreme, in the more developed parts of the world, animals are intensively managed. In between these two extremes are semi-intensive family run farms where livestock graze outside for much of the year, silage or hay is made to cove
A field ration, combat ration or ration pack is a canned or pre-packaged meal prepared and eaten, transported by military troops on the battlefield. They are distinguished from regular military rations by virtue of being designed for minimal preparation in the field, using canned, pre-cooked or freeze-dried foods, powdered beverage mixes and concentrated food bars, as well as for long shelf life; such meals prove invaluable for disaster relief operations, where large stocks of these can be ferried and distributed and provide basic nutritional support to victims before kitchens can be set up to produce fresh food. Most armies in the world today now field some form of pre-packaged combat ration, suitably tailored to meet national or ethnic tastes. Traditionally Hexamine has been the preferred solid fuel for cooking rations. An alternative is gelatinised ethanol; the Ración de Combate was introduced in 2003, consisting of a gray plastic-foil laminate pouch containing a mix of canned and dehydrated foods, plus minimal supplements, for 1 soldier for 1 day.
All products in the RC are domestically produced, commercially available items. Each ration contains: canned meat, small can of meat spread, instant soup, cereal bar with fruit, a chocolate bar with nuts or caramels, instant coffee, orange juice powder, salt, a heating kit with disposable stove and alcohol-based fuel tablets, disposable butane lighter, resealable plastic bag, cooked rice and a pack of paper tissues. Menu #1 contains: corned beef, meat pate, crisp water crackers, instant soup with fideo pasta. Menu #2 contains: roasted beef in gravy, meat pate, whole wheat crackers, quick-cooking polenta in cheese sauce; the Ração Operacional de Combate - R2 is the current field & combat ration for the Brazilian Army. It is based on the earlier, but similar, RAC developed by the Brazilian Navy for use by Naval Infantry units, it contains supplemental items needed by 1 soldier for 24 hours. It is to be used in situations. All foods are packed inside 4-ply plastic & aluminum polylaminate retort pouches and are ready to eat without further preparation.
The ration is packed inside a heavy-duty matte green or olive drab polyethylene bag measuring 300 mm wide by 400 mm long. It is printed with the logo of the Brazilian Army, "Ração de Combate R2" and Menu information. Inside are 5 thinner semi-transparent plastic bags, one for each meal and one for the accessories; each bag is printed with meal information and contents. Bag #1: Desjejum * Bag #2: Almoço Bag #3: Jantar Bag #4: Ceia Bag #5: Acessórios *also called "Café da Manhã" - eg "Morning Coffee", Each breakfast consists of: 40 g instant coffee w/milk & sugar; each lunch consists of: 250 g retort pouched main meal, 150 g pouch of precooked rice, 40 g pouch of cassava pudding, 10 g instant coffee, 2 x 6 g packets of refined sugar, a 25 g bar of pressed raw brown sugar or banana or fruit-flavored sugar, 45 g of fruit juice powder. Each dinner consists of: 250 g retort pouched main meal, 100 g can or pouch of precooked sausages, 10 g instant coffee, 2 x 6 g packets refined sugar, 50 g jelly beans or hard candy, 45 g of fruit drink powder.
Each supper consists of: 40 g of chocolate milk powder, 25 g cereal bar, 2 slices of toast, 15 g tub of jelly. The accessory packet contains: disposable ration heater, 120 g can of alcohol-based fuel, 1 box or folder of moisture-resistant matches, a strip of 5 water purification tablets, 55 g envelope of electrolyte replacement beverage powder, 6 sheets of multipurpose paper; the 250 g main meal pouches differ by menu, two provided for each menu as follows: Menu #1: shredded beef in gravy, spaghetti w/meat sauce Menu #2: chicken w/vegetables, rice w/black beans & beef Menu #3: black bean stew, ground beef w/potatoes Menu #4: dried beef w/pumpkin, chicken w/mixed vegetables and pasta Menu #5: white beans w/sausage, risotto w/meat & vegetables Brazil fields the Ração Operacional de Emergência - R3. This is a 12-hour ration to be used in situations where cooked foods cannot be provided for all meals; the ration uses the same components, but contains less food. The bag is printed with the emblem of the Brazilian Army, "Ração de Emergência R3" and Menu information.
Inside are 3 thin plastic bags: 1 accessory packet. Information from Mreinfo.com. Canada provides each soldier with a complete pre-cooked meal known as the IMP, packaged inside a heavy-duty folding paper bag. There are 5 breakfast menus, 6 lunch menus, 6 supper menus. Canadian rations provide generous portions and contain a large number of commercially available items. Like the US ration, the main meal is precooked and ready-to-eat, packed in heavy-duty plastic-foil retort pouches boxed with cardboard; the ration contains a meal item, wet-packed fruit in a boxed retort pouch, depending on the meal a combination of instant soup or cereal, fruit drink crystals, jam or cheese spread, peanut butter, crackers, bread compressed into a retort pouch and tea, commercially available chocolate bars and hard candy, a long plastic spoon, paper towels and wet wipes. Canada makes limited
Nagano is the capital city of Nagano Prefecture in the Chūbu region of Japan. As of October 1, 2016, the city had an estimated population of 375,234, a population density of 449 persons per km², its total area is 834.81 square kilometres. Nagano is located in former Shinano Province and developed from the Nara period as a temple town at the gate of the famous Zenkō-ji, a 7th-century Buddhist temple, relocated to this location in 642 AD, as a post station on the Hokkoku Kaidō highway connecting Edo with the Sea of Japan coast. During the Sengoku period, the area was hotly contested between the forces of the Uesugi clan based in Echigo Province and the Takeda clan based in Kai Province; the several Battles of Kawanakajima between Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen were fought near here. During the Edo period, much of the area came under the control of the Sanada clan based at Matsushiro Domain; the area suffered from flooding in 1742, from a destructive earthquake in 1847. Following the Meiji restoration and the creation of the municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the modern town of Nagano was established.
Nagano was elevated to city status on April 1, 1897. It was the first city founded in the 43rd city in Japan; the city borders expanded on July 1, 1923, with the annexation of the neighbouring town of Yoshida and villages of Sarita and Komaki. During World War II, construction of the Matsushiro Underground Imperial Headquarters as the last redoubt for the Japanese government following the projected American invasion of Japan was started in 1944, but was aborted in 1945 due to the end of war; the city again expanded on April 1, 1954 by annexing neighbouring villages of Asahi, Yanagihara, Asakawa, Amori, Odagiri and Mamejima. In 1959, due to the flooding of Chikuma River, 71 people died or were missing and 20,000 homes were flooded. On October 16, 1966, the city again expanded by annexing the neighbouring towns of Kawanakajima and Wakaho, villages of Shinonoi, Kohoku and Naniai. During the 1985 Matsushiro earthquake, 27 people died and 60 homes were destroyed or badly damaged due to landslides.
In 1998, Nagano hosted the Paralympics. It was elevated to a core city with increased local autonomy in 1999. Nagano continued to expand on January 1, 2005, by absorbing the municipalities of Toyono, the village of Togakushi, Kinasa, the village of Ōoka. Nagano hosted the 2005 Special Olympics World Winter Games. On January 1, 2010, Nagano absorbed the town of Shinshūshinmachi and the village of Nakajō from Kamiminochi District. Nagano hosted the 1998 Winter Olympics and Paralympics, the third Olympic Games and second winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the Tokyo 1964 Summer Olympics and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo; as of 2018, Nagano was the southernmost host of the Winter Olympic Games. The Nagano Olympic Commemorative Marathon is held annually to commemorate the occasion. Nagano is located in north-central Nagano Prefecture, near the confluence of the Chikuma River and the Sai River. Nagano Prefecture Shinano Nakano Suzaka Obuse Ueda Chikuma Ōmachi Omi Chikuhoku Ikusaka Ogawa Hakuba Otari Niigata Prefecture Myōkō Nagano has a hot-summer humid continental climate that borders on a humid subtropical climate.
Its location in a sheltered inland valley means it receives less precipitation than any part of Japan except Hokkaidō. The city receives heavy winter snow totaling 2.57 metres from December to March, but it is less gloomy during these cold months than the coast from Hagi to Wakkanai. Nagano is home to several public universities. Four of the ten universities recognized as major universities in the prefecture have campuses in the city, including the newest prefectural university, The University of Nagano. Shinshu University Seisen Jogakuin College Nagano Prefectural College Seisen Jogakuin College Nagano Women's Junior College Nagano College of Economics Nagano University of Health and Medicine National Institute of Technology, Nagano College The University of Nagano Nagano has 55 public elementary schools and 24 public middle schools operated by the city government, along with one public middle school operated by the national government and four private middle schools; the city has 12 public high schools operated by the Nagano Prefectural Board of Education, one public high school operated by the city government, five private high schools.
In addition, the city has four special education schools. The city's main railway hub, Nagano Station, the smaller Shinonoi Station, were expanded for the Olympics; the Hokuriku Shinkansen opened in 1997, connecting Nagano to Gunma. JR East - Hokuriku Shinkansen Nagano JR East - Shin'etsu Main Line Shinonoi - Imai - Kawanakajima - Amori - Nagano JR East - Shinonoi Line Inariyama - Shinonoi JR East - Iiyama Line Toyono - Shinano-Asano - Tategahana Shinano Railway - Kita-Shinano Line Nagano - Kita-Nagano - Sansai - Toyono Shinano Railway - Shinano Railway Line Shinonoi Nagano Electric Railway Nagano - Shiyakushomae - Gondo - Zenkojishita - Hongō - Kirihara - Shinano-Yoshida - Asahi - Fuzokuchugakumae - Yanagihara Buses for Kawanaka-jima Bus and the Nagano Dentetsu Bus Co. service the city, departing both Nagano Station and the Nagano Bus Terminal just west of the station. Local bus provider, Alpico Kōtsū, departs from a dedicated office across the street from the Zenkō-ji Exit of Nagano Station.
Long-distance highway bus services depart from the East Exit of Nagano Station. T
Meat is animal flesh, eaten as food. Humans have killed animals for meat since prehistoric times; the advent of civilization allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, rabbits and cattle. This led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses. Meat is composed of water and fat, it is edible raw, but is eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned or processed in a variety of ways. Unprocessed meat will spoil or rot within hours or days as a result of infection with and decomposition by bacteria and fungi. Meat is important in economy and culture though its mass production and consumption has been determined to pose risks for human health and the environment. Many religions have rules about which meat may not be eaten. Vegetarians may abstain from eating meat because of concerns about the ethics of eating meat, environmental effects of meat production or nutritional effects of consumption; the word meat comes from the Old English word mete. The term is related to mad in Danish, mat in Swedish and Norwegian, matur in Icelandic and Faroese, which mean'food'.
The word mete exists in Old Frisian to denote important food, differentiating it from swiets and dierfied. Most meat refers to skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may describe other edible tissues such as offal. Meat is sometimes used in a more restrictive sense to mean the flesh of mammalian species raised and prepared for human consumption, to the exclusion of fish, other seafood, poultry, or other animals. In the context of food, meat can refer to "the edible part of something as distinguished from its covering", for example, coconut meat. Paleontological evidence suggests that meat constituted a substantial proportion of the diet of the earliest humans. Early hunter-gatherers depended on the organized hunting of large animals such as bison and deer; the domestication of animals, of which we have evidence dating back to the end of the last glacial period, allowed the systematic production of meat and the breeding of animals with a view to improving meat production.
Animals that are now principal sources of meat were domesticated in conjunction with the development of early civilizations: Sheep, originating from western Asia, were domesticated with the help of dogs prior to the establishment of settled agriculture as early as the 8th millennium BCE. Several breeds of sheep were established in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt by 3500–3000 BCE. Today, more than 200 sheep-breeds exist. Cattle were domesticated in Mesopotamia after settled agriculture was established about 5000 BCE, several breeds were established by 2500 BCE. Modern domesticated cattle fall into the groups Bos taurus and Bos taurus indicus, both descended from the now-extinct aurochs; the breeding of beef cattle, cattle optimized for meat production as opposed to animals best suited for work or dairy purposes, began in the middle of the 18th century. Domestic pigs, which are descended from wild boars, are known to have existed about 2500 BCE in modern-day Hungary and in Troy. Pork sausages and hams were of great commercial importance in Greco-Roman times.
Pigs continue to be bred intensively as they are being optimized to produce meat best suited for specific meat products. Other animals have been raised or hunted for their flesh; the type of meat consumed varies much between different cultures, changes over time, depending on factors such as tradition and the availability of the animals. The amount and kind of meat consumed varies by income, both between countries and within a given country. Horses are eaten in France, Italy and Japan, among other countries. Horses and other large mammals such as reindeer were hunted during the late Paleolithic in western Europe. Dogs are consumed in South Korea and Vietnam. Dogs are occasionally eaten in the Arctic regions. Dog meat has been consumed in various parts of the world, such as Hawaii, Japan and Mexico. Cats are consumed in Southern China and sometimes in Northern Italy. Guinea pigs are raised for their flesh in the Andes. Whales and dolphins are hunted for their flesh, in Japan, Siberia, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and by two small communities in Indonesia.
Modern agriculture employs a number of techniques, such as progeny testing, to speed artificial selection by breeding animals to acquire the qualities desired by meat producers. For instance, in the wake of well-publicised health concerns associated with saturated fats in the 1980s, the fat content of United Kingdom beef and lamb fell from 20–26 percent to 4–8 percent within a few decades, due to both selective breeding for leanness and changed methods of butchery. Methods of genetic engineering aimed at improving the meat production qualities of animals are now becoming available. Though it is a old industry, meat production continues to be shaped by the evolving demands of customers; the trend towards selling meat in pre-packaged cuts has increased the demand for larger breeds of cattle, which are better suited to producing such cuts. More animals not exploited for their meat are now being farmed the more agile and mobile species, whose muscles tend to be developed better than those of cattle, sheep or pigs.
Examples are the various antelope species, the zebra, water buffalo and camel, as well as non-
Los Tuxtlas is a region in the south of the Mexican state of Veracruz. Politically it refers to four municipalities: Catemaco, San Andrés Tuxtla, Santiago Tuxtla and Hueyapan de Ocampo, it refers to a high complex natural ecosystem, an isolated volcanic mountain range next to the Gulf of Mexico, home to the northern edge of tropical rainforest in the Americas. Although deforested, most of it is under protection as the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, which stretches over eight municipalities, centering on the four mentioned above; the area's early history had its own trajectory. In the colonial period, the population became a mix of indigenous and European. For all its history until the present, it has been agricultural. Today one of its notable crops is tobacco. However, conservation efforts since the 1970s have promoted ecotourism in Catemaco; the Sierra de Los Tuxtlas is a coastal volcanic mountain range that runs parallel with the Gulf of Mexico, eighty km long and fifty km at its widest, covering an area of 3,300km2.
It is isolated from any other mountain range, surrounded by the Papaloapan and Coatzacoalcos River basins. It is the easternmost point of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and has high geological and ecological complexity, subject to volcanic forces as well as erosion from wind and rain off the Gulf of Mexico; the area is still volcanically active, with evidence of activity dating back at least 800,000 years, with the oldest volcano being Santa Marta. The most active are San Martín Tuxtla, Santa Marta, San Martín Pajapan, Cerro de Campanario, Cerro Mono Blanco, Cerro de Vigía or Cerro Tuxtla and Cerro Blanco; the last recorded eruptions were of San Martín Tuxtla in 1664 and 1793. There are many other volcanic cones with forty containing crater lakes; the volcanic activity has shaped the mountain range as well as water flow. The mountain range ends abruptly at the sea, which makes for low cliffs and small beaches, the latter at the mouths of rivers and streams; the main beaches include the Barra de Sontecomapan, a strip of land that separates the Gulf from the Sontecomapan Lagoon and Monte Pío, where two rivers empty into the sea.
Biologically speaking, Los Tuxtlas is one of the most important regions in Mexico, a complex mixture of vegetation covering mountains and sea coast and includes the northern limit of tropical rainforest in the Americas. The dominant ecosystem is tropical rainforest but it is mixed with other vegetation. In general, the region has eleven kinds of vegetation: high perennial rainforest, medium perennial rainforest, low perennial rainforest, cloud forest, holm oak forest, pine forest, dunes, areas of tall grass and grassland. An important part of its flora and fauna are shared with areas to the south into Central America and South America. However, the natural vegetation has been depleted with estimates of what is left down as far a 5.4%. Despite this, the region is still home to 3,356 species of vascular plants, half the total of the state of Veracruz, includes 400 species of trees; the wild vegetation is found at the higher elevations, on the volcanos near the coast. Endangered species of fauna include Chironectes minimus, Vampyrum spectrum, Alouatta palliate, Ateles geoffroyii, Cyclopes didactylus.
There are fifteen plant species. Los Tuxtlas is one of the rainiest areas of Mexico. Average annual rainfall is between 1,500 and 4,500mm and average annual temperature is between 8 and 36C; the frequent rain support numerous rivers and stream and creates lakes in dormant volcano cones, with 2.8% of the region covered by surface water. Fresh water flow in the region accounts for 14.8% of the entire state of Veracruz. The rugged terrain and water flow makes for numerous waterfalls, with the largest and best known being Eyipantla and the tallest being Cola de Caballo; the region is part of the Papaloapan River Basin, with major rivers including the Papalopapan, San Juan Grande de Catemaco, Coetzala, Hueyapan, el Carrizal, La Palma, Yohualtapan, Arroyo de Liza, Arroyo Rejon, Cold-Maquina, Gachapa, La Palma, Prieto and Toro Prieto. The best known lake is Lake Catemaco, about ten km across and contains twelve islands; the other major lakes and lagoons includes the Sotecomapan Lagoon, Esmeralda Lake, Pizatal Lake and Laguna Grande.
Wildlife consists of 851 species of vertebrates, 45 of amphibians, 117 of reptiles, 128 mammal and 561 bird species. It has 32 % of all known vertebrate species in Mexico. About 180 species are considered rare, threatened or in danger of extinction; the 128 mammal species account for 28.3% of all such species in Mexico, with one endemic to the region. Eleven are twelve in danger of extinction and seven under special protection. Four of the forty five species of amphibian species are endemic, eleven of the 117 reptile species are; these species account for 14.8% of the amphibians an d16.5% of the reptiles in Mexico. The region is an important breeding area for many species of birds. Of the 565 bird species, two are endemic as well as three subspecies. Thirty one species 63 under special protection and 16 in danger of extinction. 223 of the bird species of the region migrate here in the winter from farther north. Los Tuxtlas is home to 861 species of butterfly, 23 species of bee, 133 species of dragonfly, 272 species of beetle and over fifty species of aquatic insects.
The effects of human activity in the area are complex, but most of the damage comes from deforestation, creating pasture land and fragmenting forest. The defor
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr