Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect bipedal locomotion. Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 years ago. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago, in several waves of migration, they ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world; the spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, problem solving and culture through social learning.
Humans use tools better than any other animal. Humans uniquely use such systems of symbolic communication as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an wide variety of values, social norms, rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, mythology, religion and numerous other fields of knowledge. Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization; these human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, unifying people within regions to form states and empires.
The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of fuel-driven technologies and increased lifespans, causing the human population to rise exponentially. The global human population was estimated to be near 7.7 billion in 2015. In common usage, the word "human" refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans; the clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. There is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species; the English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man."
The word's use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex; the species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō "man," "earthly being"; the species-name "sapiens" means "wise" or "sapient". Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, that "sapiens" is the singular form; the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas. With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated; the gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the line leading to the h
Midwestern United States
The Midwestern United States referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States, it was named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south; the Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin. The region lies on the broad Interior Plain between the states occupying the Appalachian Mountain range and the states occupying the Rocky Mountain range. Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, the Missouri River. A 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684; the Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions.
The East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. The West North Central Division includes Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota and South Dakota, several of which are located, at least within the Great Plains region. Chicago is the most populous city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country. Other large Midwestern cities include: Columbus, Detroit, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Cleveland, St. Louis, St. Paul, Cincinnati and Des Moines. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan statistical area with 9.9 million people, followed by Metro Detroit, Minneapolis–St. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, the Kansas City metro area, the Columbus metro area; the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States. A variant term, Middle West, has been used since the 19th century and remains common. Another term sometimes applied to the same general region is the heartland.
Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest and Mid-America. The Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and the upper-Mississippi; the upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country and the Ohio Country. Economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming important, its central location makes it a transportation crossroads for river boats, autos and airplanes. Politically, the region swings back and forth between the parties, thus is contested and decisive in elections. After the sociological study Middletown, based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as "typical" of the nation. Earlier, the rhetorical question, "Will it play in Peoria?", had become a stock phrase using Peoria, Illinois to signal whether something would appeal to mainstream America.
The region has a higher employment-to-population ratio than the Northeast, the West, the South, or the Sun Belt states as of 2011. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states and many states that were part of the Louisiana Purchase; the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the southeastern section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states, where the Missouri River is a major waterway joining with the Mississippi; the Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the dividing line between future slave and non-slave states. The Midwest Region is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as these 12 states: Illinois: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Indiana: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state Iowa: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River state Kansas: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Michigan: Old Northwest and Great Lakes state Minnesota: Old Northwest, Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Lakes state Missouri: Louisiana Purchase, Mississippi River, Missouri River, border state Nebraska: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state North Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, part of Red River Colony before 1818, Great Plains, Missouri River state Ohio: Old Northwest, Ohio River, Great Lakes state.
The southeastern part of the state is part of northern Appalachia South Dakota: Louisiana Purchase, Great Plains, Missouri River state Wisconsin: Old Northwest, Mississippi River, Great Lakes stateVarious organizations define the Midwest with different groups of states. For example, the Council of State Governments, an organization for communication and coordination among state governments, includes in its Midwe
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Preben von Magnus
Preben Christian Alexander von Magnus was a Danish virologist, known for his research on influenza, polio vaccination and monkeypox. He gave his name to the Von Magnus phenomenon. In the 1950s, together with his wife the virologist Herdis von Magnus, he directed the first Danish vaccination programme against polio. In 1958, he was the first to confirm the identity of the monkeypox virus and to describe monkeypox in laboratory crab-eating Macaques during two outbreaks of the disease in the summer and autumn of that year. In 1959 he was appointed director of the Statens Serum Institut, he represented Denmark at the 1959 Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs where he explained that respiratory viruses such as influenza and the common cold were unsuitable as biological weapons. He became a Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1965. Preben von Magnus was born in Copenhagen on 25 February 1912 to the Livonian landowner Constantin Woldemar von Magnus and physician Rigmor von Magnus, he graduated from the Gammel Hellerup Gymnasium in 1931 and became a graduate of law and a Candidate of Medicine from the University of Copenhagen in 1939.
Following his junior hospital posts in 1943, he worked at the Statens Serum Institut, in 1944 published, with his wife Herdis von Magnus, the initial study that led to the discovery of what today is known as the Von Magnus phenomenon. Von Magnus became Doctor of Medical Science in 1952, after defending his doctoral dissertation Propagation of the PR8 strain of influenza A virus in chick embryos, he was director of the Danish Influenza Centre and in 1959 was appointed director of the Statens Serum Institut. In 1951, he was a member of the UNRRA aid to South Korean civilians, he served on the Danish hospital ship MS Jutlandia and he became a member of the Advisory Panel on Virus Disease of the World Health Organization. In addition, in 1960, he became an advisor to the Danish National Health Service on bacteriology and serology. In 1965, he was appointed to the Danish Science Advisory Council, where he served as its vice-chairman and chairman. Three years he became a member and co-founder of the Danish Royal Scientific Society.
Despite the inability to isolate them, von Magnus discovered defective interfering particles using the "influenza virus system". He called them "incomplete" or "immature", he found that when viruses were expanded at high doses, "incomplete viruses" or "particles" were produced and that these interfered with viral replication. This resulted in a reduction in the infectivity of influenza; the physiological interaction between DIPs and the host, the effect of DIPs on the replication of infectious standard virus, have since been studied. Following Jonas Salk's discovery of a polio vaccine in the early 1950s, the United States State Department sent details of polio vaccine manufacturing to those that requested it, with the permission of President Eisenhower. Von Magnus and his wife Herdis were not only Salk's lifelong friends, but were appointed by the Danish government to direct the vaccination of all 7 to 12 year olds; the Statens Serum Institut produced its own modified polio vaccine using techniques based on what the von Magnus's had learnt in the spring of 1953, when they accepted an invitation to visit Salk's laboratory.
Due to the limited supply of inactivated virus, the Danish institute administered the vaccine subcutaneously, requiring smaller doses. Occurring pox infections in non-human primates were first reported by Rijk Gispen in 1949. Due to the similar clinical appearances, some of these cases may have been due to monkeypox rather than smallpox. In 1958, von Magnus was the first to confirm the identity of the monkeypox virus and to describe monkeypox in laboratory crab-eating Macaques during two outbreaks of the disease in the summer and autumn of that year. A little more than thirty cases of monkeys with monkeypox were reported, more than fifty days after their arrival by ship from Singapore. There were no monkey-to-human transmission. Not all the exposed monkeys exhibited the illness, he isolated the virus from monkey kidney tissue cell culture and from the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos. The characteristic appearance of the virus led von Magnus to elucidate that it belonged to the smallpox-vaccinia group of Poxviridae.
In 1968, the WHO reported that it was not infrequent to observe outbreaks of suspected smallpox and monkeypox in laboratory monkeys at more than twenty-five biological institutions around the world and that further research was warranted to assess susceptibity in humans. It was not until 1970, more than ten years after von Magnus identified the virus, that monkeypox was first identified in humans. In 1959, von Magnus represented Denmark at the 1959 Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, where he explained that respiratory viruses such as influenza and the common cold were unsuitable as biological weapons as they produced severe effects and were common among human populations, resulting in some level of immunity, he warned however, that such viruses were stable and cultured and therefore the emergence of a new virus with a more serious impact, through mutation or deliberate cultivation, could not be ruled out. He was a member of the Akademiet for de Tekniske Videnskaber from 1960, of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters from 1968, became Knight of the Order of the Dannebrog in 1965.
He received a Doctor honoris causa from Glasgow University in 1971. Von Magnus died on 9 August 1973. At the time, his wife was in a senior position in epidemiology at the Statens Serum Instut, they had two children. "The influenza virus, its morphology and kinetics of multiplication", Bull World Health Organ. 1953, PMID 13094499, pp. 647–660. "A pox‐
Lymph is the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system, a system composed of lymph vessels and intervening lymph nodes whose function, like the venous system, is to return fluid from the tissues to the central circulation. Interstitial fluid - the fluid, between the cells in all body tissues - enters the lymph capillaries; this lymphatic fluid is transported via progressively larger lymphatic vessels through lymph nodes, where substances are removed by tissue lymphocytes and circulating lymphocytes are added to the fluid, before emptying into the right or the left subclavian vein, where it mixes with central venous blood. Since the lymph is derived from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes as the blood and the surrounding cells continually exchange substances with the interstitial fluid, it is similar to blood plasma, the fluid component of blood. Lymph returns excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph transports fats from the digestive system to the blood via chylomicrons.
Bacteria may be transported to lymph nodes, where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can be transported via lymph; the word lymph is derived from the name of the ancient Roman deity of Lympha. Lymph has a not identical to that of blood plasma. Lymph that leaves a lymph node is richer in lymphocytes; the lymph formed in the human digestive system called chyle is rich in triglycerides, looks milky white because of its lipid content. Blood supplies nutrients and important metabolites to the cells of a tissue and collects back the waste products they produce, which requires exchange of respective constituents between the blood and tissue cells; this exchange is not direct, but instead occurs through an intermediary called interstitial fluid, which occupies the spaces between cells. As the blood and the surrounding cells continually add and remove substances from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes. Water and solutes can pass between the interstitial fluid and blood via diffusion across gaps in capillary walls called intercellular clefts.
Interstitial fluid forms at the arterial end of capillaries because of the higher pressure of blood compared to veins, most of it returns to its venous ends and venules. Thus, lymph when formed is a watery clear liquid with the same composition as the interstitial fluid. However, as it flows through the lymph nodes it comes in contact with blood, tends to accumulate more cells and proteins. Lymph returns excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph may bring them to lymph nodes, where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can be transported via lymph. Lymph transports fats from the digestive system to the blood via chylomicrons. Tubular vessels transport lymph back to the blood replacing the volume lost during the formation of the interstitial fluid; these channels are the lymphatic channels, or lymphatics. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not closed and has no central pump, or lymph heart. Lymph transport, therefore, is sporadic. Despite low pressure, lymph movement occurs due to peristalsis and compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle and arterial pulsation.
Lymph that enters the lymph vessels from the interstitial spaces does not flow backwards along the vessels because of the presence of valves. If excessive hydrostatic pressure develops within the lymph vessels, some fluid can leak back into the interstitial spaces and contribute to formation of oedema. Flow of the lymph in the thoracic duct in an average resting person approximates 100ml per hour. Accompanied by another ~25ml per hour in other lymph vessels, total lymph flow in the body is about 4 to 5 liters per day; this can be elevated several fold while exercising. It is estimated. In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph, it is made up of lymph vessels. In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of tissue culture from guinea pig corneal grown in lymph
Prairie dogs are herbivorous burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. The five species are: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison's, Mexican prairie dogs, they are a type of ground squirrel, found in Canadian Prairies and Mexico. In Mexico, prairie dogs are found in the northern states, which lie at the southern end of the Great Plains: northeastern Sonora and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, northern Tamaulipas. In the United States, they range to the west of the Mississippi River, though they have been introduced in a few eastern locales. Despite the name, they are not canines. Prairie dogs are named for their warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark; the name was in use at least as early as 1774. The 1804 journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition note that in September 1804, they "discovered a Village of an animal the French Call the Prairie Dog", its genus, derives from the Greek for "dog mouse". The black-tailed prairie dog was first described by Lewis and Clark in 1804.
Lewis described it in more detail in 1806, calling it the "barking squirrel". Order Rodentia Suborder Sciuromorpha Family Sciuridae Subfamily Xerinae Genus Cynomys Gunnison's prairie dog, Cynomys gunnisoni White-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys leucurus Black-tailed prairie dog, Cynomys ludovicianus Mexican prairie dog, Cynomys mexicanus Utah prairie dog, Cynomys parvidens About 14 other genera in subfamily On average, these stout-bodied rodents will grow to be between 30 and 40 cm long, including the short tail, weigh between 0.5 and 1.5 kilograms. Sexual dimorphism in body mass in the prairie dog varies 105 to 136% between the sexes. Among the species, black-tailed prairie dogs tend to be the least sexually dimorphic, white-tailed prairie dogs tend to be the most sexually dimorphic. Sexual dimorphism peaks during weaning, when the females lose weight and the males start eating more, is at its lowest when the females are pregnant, when the males are tired from breeding. Prairie dogs are chiefly herbivorous.
They feed on grasses and small seeds. In the fall, they eat broadleaf forbs. In the winter and pregnant females supplement their diets with snow for extra water, they will eat roots, seeds and buds. Grasses of various species are eaten. Black-tailed prairie dogs in South Dakota eat western bluegrass, blue grama, buffalo grass, six weeks fescue, tumblegrass, while Gunnison’s prairie dogs eat rabbit brush, dandelions and cacti in addition to buffalo grass and blue grama. White-tailed prairie dogs have been observed to kill a competing herbivore. Prairie dogs live at altitudes ranging from 2,000 to 10,000 ft above sea level; the areas where they live can get as warm as 38 °C in the summer and as cold as −37 °C in the winter. As prairie dogs live in areas prone to environmental threats, including hailstorms and floods, as well as drought and prairie fires, burrows provide important protection. Burrows help prairie dogs control their body temperature as they are 5–10 °C during the winter and 15–25 °C in the summer.
Prairie dog tunnel systems channel rainwater into the water table which prevents runoff and erosion, can change the composition of the soil in a region by reversing soil compaction that can result from cattle grazing. Prairie dog burrows are 5–10 m long and 2–3 m below the ground; the entrance holes are 10–30 cm in diameter. Prairie dog burrows can have up to six entrances. Sometimes the entrances are flat holes in the ground, while at other times they are surrounded by mounds of soil either left as piles or hard packed; some mounds, known as dome craters, can be as high as 20–30 cm high. Other mounds, known as rim craters, can be as high as 1 m. Dome craters and rim craters serve as observation posts used by the animals to watch for predators, they protect the burrows from flooding. The holes possibly provide ventilation as the air enters through the dome crater and leaves through the rim crater, causing a breeze though the burrow. Prairie dog burrows contain chambers to provide certain functions.
They have nursery chambers for their young, chambers for night, chambers for the winter. They contain air chambers that may function to protect the burrow from flooding and a listening post for predators; when hiding from predators, prairie dogs use less-deep chambers that are a meter below the surface. Nursery chambers tend to be deeper, being two to three meters below the surface.. Social, prairie dogs live in large colonies or "towns" and collections of prairie dog families that can span hundreds of acres; the prairie dog family groups are the most basic units of its society. Members of a family group inhabit the same territory. Family groups of black-tailed and Mexican prairie dogs are called "coteries", while "clans" are used to describe family groups of white-tailed, Gunnison’s, Utah prairie dogs. Although these two family groups are similar, coteries tend to be more knit than clans. Members of a family group grooming one another, they do not perform these behaviors with prairie dogs from other family groups.
A prairie dog town may contain 15–26 family groups. There may be subgroups within a town, called "wards", which are separated by a physical barrier. Family groups exist within these wards. Most prairie dog family gr
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t