Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. After the Norman conquest of 1066, English was replaced, for a time, as the language of the upper classes by Anglo-Norman, a relative of French; this is regarded as marking the end of the Old English era, as during this period the English language was influenced by Anglo-Norman, developing into a phase known now as Middle English. Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or Ingvaeonic dialects spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes; as the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain: Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Latin, brought to Britain by Roman invasion. Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms: Mercian, Northumbrian and West Saxon.
It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the literary standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop from Mercian. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule and settlement beginning in the 9th century. Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English and difficult for Modern English speakers to understand without study. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German: nouns, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms, word order is much freer; the oldest Old English inscriptions were written using a runic system, but from about the 9th century this was replaced by a version of the Latin alphabet. Englisc, which the term English is derived from, means'pertaining to the Angles'. In Old English, this word was derived from Angles.
During the 9th century, all invading Germanic tribes were referred to as Englisc. It has been hypothesised that the Angles acquired their name because their land on the coast of Jutland resembled a fishhook. Proto-Germanic *anguz had the meaning of'narrow', referring to the shallow waters near the coast; that word goes back to Proto-Indo-European *h₂enǵʰ- meaning'narrow'. Another theory is that the derivation of'narrow' is the more connection to angling, which itself stems from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning bend, angle; the semantic link is the fishing hook, curved or bent at an angle. In any case, the Angles may have been called such because they were a fishing people or were descended from such, therefore England would mean'land of the fishermen', English would be'the fishermen's language'. Old English was not static, its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is an arbitrary process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections, a synthetic language.
Around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, but those that survived are basic elements of Modern English vocabulary. Old English is a West Germanic language, it came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England. This included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, except in the areas of Scandinavian settlements where Old Norse was spoken. Celtic speech remained established in certain parts of England: Medieval Cornish was spoken all over Cornwall and in adjacent parts of Devon, while Cumbric survived to the 12th century in parts of Cumbria, Welsh may have been spoken on the English side of the Anglo-Welsh border. Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century.
The oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmon's Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a limited corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries, but the oldest coherent runic texts date to the 8th century; the Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century. With the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. Alfred advocated education in English alongside Latin, had many works translated into the English language. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, but King Alfred the Great chiefly inspired the growth of prose. A literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. Th
Argiope bruennichi is a species of orb-web spider distributed throughout central Europe, northern Europe, north Africa, parts of Asia, the Azores archipelago, as well as recent sightings in North American states such as North Carolina and Ohio. Like many other members of the genus Argiope, it shows striking yellow and black markings on its abdomen; the spider builds a spiral orb web at dawn or dusk in long grass a little above ground level, taking it an hour. The prominent zigzag shape called the stabilimentum, or web decoration, featured at the centre of the orb is of uncertain function, though it may be to attract insects; when a prey item is first caught in the web, Argiope bruennichi will immobilise its prey by wrapping it in silk. The prey is bitten and injected with a paralysing venom and a protein-dissolving enzyme. During Summer 2006, research was carried out in the UK to find that there has been an influx of these spiders to the UK; the colour is still similar. In 2008, Aidan Grady, Christie van Tinteren and Matthew Secombe were responsible for the discovery of well over 100 of these spiders.
The colony was discovered to be the largest found in the UK. The team worked with Plymouth University and the RSPB to catalogue the discovery and learn more about the spiders. Sir David Attenborough said. Besides the nominate subspecies, there is one subspecies recognised: Argiope bruennichi nigrofasciata Franganillo, 1910 Argiope bruennichi display a rather large distinction between males and females with males averaging length of 4.5 mm and females averaging 15 mm. The reasons for this large difference has evolutionary and fitness background with regards to mating as well as cannibalism by the females towards the males after copulation; the differences of size of these male spiders allows the males to come into contact with the females in relation to their orb webs. The male Argiope bruennichi are able to enter into the female's orb and thus make their webs without being detected as prey and thus eaten before they are able to mate, a major fitness advantage. Certain male Argiope bruennichi have a important adaptation that they have developed to insure that they will be the only mate with whom the female can produce offspring.
Certain males are able to "plug" the female after they have mated with her to prevent other males from copulating with the female. This plugging involves using the entire male's body, thus allowing him to only mate once; this is a major reason as to why these males are always in a rush to mate after the female has completed her final moult. With males always waiting around for the female to reach full maturity, the race is on for the male, small enough to not be detected, yet is able to "plug" the female so that no other male can compete for fertilization of her eggs; these spiders have evolved to become monogamous for the most part after mating because of this damage. If the females are only able to reproduce once they must develop method to produce more offspring at one time; this can be caused by multiple things, including a sex ratio that forces these males to make sure they have at least one female to produce their offspring because there are not as many females present. If these females are only able to mate one time, they need to develop this larger clutch size to ensure that their genes are passed down from the surviving of her first clutch.
The species Argiope bruennichi displays cannibalism. We can see this because the sex ratio is so biased towards females in the mating season. With so few females available, the males need to develop their own ways to find and secure a successful mating like small size and proper time to find an immature female; the females much larger in size when compared to the males always consume their male counterpart after copulation. Males can be seen in or near a female's web waiting for her to complete her final moult, at which time she reaches sexual maturity. At this time her chelicerae will be soft for a short time and the male may mate with the female without the danger of being eaten; these males want to avoid getting eaten and this is more or less the only time that they are able to take advantage. Although the cause for this type of dimorphism between sexes seems to have a much larger benefit for the females. Ella Davies. "Cold-tolerant wasp spiders spread to northern Europe". BBC Nature. "Argiope bruennichi".
Fauna Europaea. 2004. Daiqin Li. "Spiders that decorate their webs at higher frequency intercept more prey and grow faster". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272: 1753–1757. Doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3160. PMC 1559872. PMID 16096085
Chandler's Ford (originally The Ford and Chandlersford is a residential area and civil parish in the Borough of Eastleigh in Hampshire, with a population of 21,436 in the 2011 UK Census. Chandler's Ford lies on the old Winchester to Southampton road and the'Ford' is thought to refer either to the ford of Monks Brook on the Hursley Road or on the Winchester-Southampton road; the "Chandler's" prefix was added in the late 16th century, is derived from the surname, Chaundler, of a family in the area from the 14th Century. The head offices of Draper Tools, B&Q, Selwood and Ahmad Tea are located in Chandler's Ford. Draper Tools has announced that they plan to move to Test Valley where they are building a new complex. In 2018, an Aldi supermarket opened in replacement of the old Homebase DIY store in the retail park on Chestnut Avenue - introducing new jobs and competition with ASDA. Hiltonbury Farm appeared on a map of 1588 and may have been owned by the Hursley Park Estate in nearby Hursley, it was sold to Cranbury Park Estate and stopped being a working farm in the late 1970s, when the surrounding area was developed.
Other communities revolved around other farms in the area but Chandler's Ford was sparsely populated until the 19th century. In 1889, an iron church and some schools were constructed; the civil parish of Chandlersford was created in 1897, from portions of North Stoneham, North Baddesley, Ampfield, although the railway station remained in the North Baddesley parish. Chandler's Ford used to be a town with housing estates, however there are now various developments of shops and schools that have been built in the area. In the 1920s, building took place in the King's Court and Hiltingbury areas. Development in the Hursley Road area happened, followed by housing across the Hiltingbury, Peverells Road, Spring Hill and Oakmount areas. More developments in North Millers Dale, South Millers Dale and the'new town' of Valley Park to the West of Chandler's Ford have completed the mix of housing. Chandler's Ford is considered to be the development to the West of the M3 motorway and now forms the majority of the Eastleigh urban area.
Due to the development of the town, there is little identifiable'town centre'. The main commercial centre is in Fryern, the area of the Halfway Inn, but other smaller shopping areas include the Central Precinct and the area around St Boniface Church. An Anglican church was added in Hiltingbury in the 1960s, with the Roman Catholic Church of St. Edward the Confessor and Methodist churches existing on the main Winchester-Southampton route. Although a residential area, Chandler's Ford has a significant industrial estate located off School Lane and in between the B3043 – Bournemouth Road; the companies on the industrial estate now cover a wide variety of industries from light engineering and manufacturing, distribution and outsourcing. A number of employers on the estate are of particular local interest. Peter Green Furnishers were once regarded as the biggest furniture and carpeting store in the whole of Hampshire. Selwoods is another company of interest having been in the area since 1946 and with its head office on the corner of School Lane.
Chandler's Ford is represented by Compton and Chandler's Ford Cricket Club which formed in 1995 when Chandler's Ford Cricket Club merged with Compton and Shawford CC. Chandler's Ford railway station was re-opened in May 2003, having been closed since 1969, it now has an hourly service run by South Western Railway, from Romsey to Salisbury via Chandler's Ford and Southampton stopping at all stations in between. An allegedly'haunted' phone box once stood opposite the Hendy Ford car showroom; this was featured with noted historian Richard Felix. The phone box has since been removed following a number of reported cases of the phone ringing and those responding to the calls finding themselves hearing silence on the other end. Three members of parliament serve Chandler's Ford; the majority of Chandler's Ford was moved into Winchester constituency for the 2010 General Election, when Steve Brine of the Conservative Party was elected. Valley Park forms part of the Romsey and Southampton North constituency, won in 2010 by the Conservative Caroline Nokes.
Part of the Eastleigh South ward lies west of the M3, so is considered part of Chandler's Ford. The Chandler's Ford seat on the Hampshire County Council is held by Judith Grajewski, representing the Conservative Party. Parts of Chandler's Ford are located in the Eastleigh South division, held by Wayne Irish of the Liberal Democrats and the Baddesley division, represented by Alan Dowden of the Liberal Democrats. On Eastleigh Borough Council, Alan Broadhurst, Tim Groves and David Pragnell represent Chandler's Ford, Paul Bicknell, Darshan Mann and Alex Bourne represent Eastleigh South. Hiltingbury is represented by Judith Grajewski, Michael Hughes, Margaret Atkinson. Valley Park lies in the Test Valley Borough and is represented by Liberal Democrats Andrew Beesley, Alan Dowden and Christopher Thom. Chandler's Ford has its own Parish Council, covering all of the area lying within Eastleigh Borough; as of April 2011, the Chandler's Ford and Hiltingbury council wards had a population of 21,436, across 8,896 households.
River Itchen, Hampshire
The River Itchen is a river in Hampshire, England. It flows from mid-Hampshire to join with Southampton Water below the Itchen Bridge in the city of Southampton; the river has a total length of 28 miles, is noted as one of the world's premier chalk streams for fly fishing using dry fly or nymphing techniques. The local chalk aquifer provides excellent storage and filtration and the river has long been used for public water supply. Watercress thrives all along the Itchen valley in its once pristine, crystal clear waters, now affected by some farming practices, it is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and is noted for its high-quality habitats, supporting a range of protected species including water crowfoot, brown trout, the endangered water vole, brook lamprey and white-clawed crayfish. The river is managed by riparian owners with the use of water regulated by the Environment Agency, whilst the Port of Southampton is the navigation authority for the tidal section below Swaythling.
During Roman Britain, the river may have been associated with the Celtic goddess Ancasta. The origin of the name is thought to be pre-Celtic; the settlement of Itchen Abbas on the river is given as Icene in the Domesday Book of 1086. The source of the Itchen is situated just south of the village of Cheriton; the river flows north, through the villages of Cheriton and Tichborne, before joining up with its tributaries the River Alre and the Candover Brook, just below the town of New Alresford. The river flows west down the upper Itchen Valley passing the villages of Avington, Itchen Stoke, Itchen Abbas, Martyr Worthy and Abbots Worthy. Before entering the historic city of Winchester it crosses Winnall Moors; the river flows in several different channels through the city of Winchester, some of which come close enough to Winchester Cathedral to have caused serious problems to the building's foundations in earlier years. The main channel flows through Winchester City Mill and to the east of the city's Roman walls, along a promenaded reach known as "The Weirs".
The river heads south, through a series of water meadows, passing the Hospital of St Cross, the villages of Twyford and Shawford, between the town of Eastleigh and the village of Bishopstoke and through Itchen Valley Country Park before reaching the northern suburbs of Southampton at Mansbridge. Between Winchester and Mansbridge, sections of the river were once deepened or widened as part of the long disused Itchen Navigation, the former towpath forms part of the Itchen Way. Monks Brook flows into the Itchen at Swaythling, the river passes under Woodmill Bridge and becomes tidal. Four further bridges cross the river before its confluence with the River Test estuary in Southampton Water: Cobden Bridge, a road bridge connecting Bitterne Park and St Denys. Cobden railway bridge carrying the Southampton – Portsmouth railway line. Northam Bridge, a road bridge carrying the A3024 road from Bitterne Manor to Northam, opened in 1799; the Itchen Bridge, a high-level toll road bridge connecting the docks area with Woolston.
This replaced the Woolston Floating Bridge which had crossed the river at this point. Between the latter two bridges, the river passes St Mary's Stadium, the home of Southampton F. C; as the river joins onto Southampton Water it passes the major mixed-development on the eastern side of the river in Woolston, called Centenary Quay. The lower part of the river is an important yachting centre and contains several marinas, sailing centres and boatyards. From seaward they are: Ocean Village Marina, on the western shore just below the Itchen Bridge and close to the city centre Southampton Water Activities Centre underneath the bridge on the western shore Itchen Marine, just above the bridge, principally a towage business but with some berths for yachts and the only fuel berth in the river Merlin Boatyard, opposite Itchen Marine, on the eastern shore Lauren Marine Services, a small marina on the eastern side Ocean Quay and Solent Breeze Yacht Charter on the west side Shamrock Quay, the biggest marina in the river on the west Saxon Wharf is adjacent to Shamrock Quay, containing the biggest boat lift in Britain Kemps Quay Marina on the eastern shore, a drying marina and boatyard Quayside Marina, a single long pontoon next to Kemps Drivers Wharf, another single long pontoon, parallel to the shore, with a crane and boatyardAbove Northam Bridge, the limit of navigation for masted craft, are the Vespasian Road boatyard and numerous small establishments.
In recent years there have been attempts to reduce possible phosphate pollution from commercial watercress businesses such as Vitacress Salads and the Watercress company. There is an ambition for compliance by 2016. In 2018 a campaign was launched over pollution allegations aimed at Alresford-based business Bakkavor. Rivers of the United Kingdom Map source for the source and mouth River Itchen Archaeology Project Home Page Pictures from around the river itchen from source to its mouth
Æthelstan or Athelstan was King of the Anglo-Saxons from 924 to 927 and King of the English from 927 to 939 when he died. He was his first wife, Ecgwynn. Modern historians regard him as one of the greatest Anglo-Saxon kings, he never had no children. He was succeeded by Edmund; when Edward died in July 924, Æthelstan was accepted by the Mercians as king. His half-brother Ælfweard may have been recognised as king in Wessex, but died within three weeks of their father's death. Æthelstan encountered resistance in Wessex for several months, was not crowned until September 925. In 927 he conquered the last remaining Viking kingdom, making him the first Anglo-Saxon ruler of the whole of England. In 934 he invaded Scotland and forced Constantine II to submit to him, but Æthelstan's rule was resented by the Scots and Vikings, in 937 they invaded England. Æthelstan defeated them at the Battle of Brunanburh, a victory which gave him great prestige both in the British Isles and on the Continent. After his death in 939 the Vikings seized back control of York, it was not reconquered until 954.
Æthelstan centralised government. These meetings were attended by rulers from outside his territory Welsh kings, who thus acknowledged his overlordship. More legal texts survive from his reign than from any other 10th-century English king, they show his concern about widespread robberies, the threat they posed to social order. His legal reforms built on those of Alfred the Great. Æthelstan was one of the most pious West Saxon kings, was known for collecting relics and founding churches. His household was the centre of English learning during his reign, it laid the foundation for the Benedictine monastic reform in the century. No other West Saxon king played as important a role in European politics as Æthelstan, he arranged the marriages of several of his sisters to continental rulers. By the ninth century the many kingdoms of the early Anglo-Saxon period had been consolidated into four: Wessex, Mercia and East Anglia. In the eighth century, Mercia had been the most powerful kingdom in southern England, but in the early ninth, Wessex became dominant under Æthelstan's great-great-grandfather, Egbert.
In the middle of the century, England came under increasing attack from Viking raids, culminating in invasion by the Great Heathen Army in 865. By 878, the Vikings had overrun East Anglia and Mercia, nearly conquered Wessex; the West Saxons fought back under Alfred the Great, achieved a decisive victory at the Battle of Edington. Alfred and the Viking leader Guthrum agreed on a division that gave Alfred western Mercia, while eastern Mercia was incorporated into Viking East Anglia. In the 890s, renewed Viking attacks were fought off by Alfred, assisted by his son Edward and Æthelred, Lord of the Mercians. Æthelred was married to his daughter Æthelflæd. Alfred was succeeded by Edward. Æthelwold, the son of Æthelred, King Alfred's older brother and predecessor as king, made a bid for power, but was killed at the Battle of the Holme in 902. Little is known of warfare between the English and the Danes over the next few years, but in 909, Edward sent a West Saxon and Mercian army to ravage Northumbria.
The following year the Northumbrian Danes attacked Mercia, but suffered a decisive defeat at the Battle of Tettenhall. Æthelred was succeeded as ruler of Mercia by his widow Æthelflæd. Over the next decade, Edward and Æthelflæd conquered East Anglia. Æthelflæd died in 918 and was succeeded by her daughter Ælfwynn, but in the same year Edward deposed her and took direct control of Mercia. When Edward died in 924, he controlled all of England south of the Humber; the Viking king Sihtric ruled the Kingdom of York in southern Northumbria, but Ealdred maintained Anglo-Saxon rule in at least part of the former kingdom of Bernicia from his base in Bamburgh in northern Northumbria. Constantine II ruled Scotland, apart from the southwest, the British Kingdom of Strathclyde. Wales was divided into a number of small kingdoms, including Deheubarth in the southwest, Gwent in the southeast, Brycheiniog north of Gwent, Gwynedd in the north. According to William of Malmesbury, Æthelstan was thirty years old when he came to the throne in 924, which would mean that he was born around 894.
He was the oldest son of Edward the Elder and the tallest. He was Edward's only son by Ecgwynn. Little is known about Ecgwynn, she is not named in any pre-Conquest source. Medieval chroniclers gave varying descriptions of her rank: one described her as an ignoble consort of inferior birth, while others described her birth as noble. Modern historians disagree about her status. Simon Keynes and Richard Abels believe that leading figures in Wessex were unwilling to accept Æthelstan as king in 924 because his mother had been Edward the Elder's concubine. However, Barbara Yorke and Sarah Foot argue that allegations that Æthelstan was illegitimate were a product of the dispute over the succession, that there is no reason to doubt that she was Edward's legitimate wife, she may have been related to St Dunstan. William of Malmesbury wrote that Alfred the Great honoured his young grandson with a ceremony in which he gave him a scarlet cloak, a belt set with gems, a sword with a gilded scabbard. Medieval Latin scholar Michael Lapid
North Baddesley is a large village and civil parish in Hampshire, England. It is situated 3 mi east of 6 mi north of Southampton, it occupies an area of 9.15 km2, is home to a population of just over 10,000 people, reducing to 7,000 at the 2011 Census. It is located in the Test Valley. North Baddesley is one of the largest villages in the South of England. Nearby towns and cities: Romsey, Eastleigh, Winchester Nearby villages: Rownhams, Chandler's Ford, Chilworth, Nursling The Domesday Book of 1086 shows North Baddesley or Badeslei as it was called as a small hamlet with a church, four farms, seven small holdings and a wood sufficient for ten hogs valued at 60 shillings; the most notable event in North Baddesley's past was the arrival in the 12th century of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem known as the Knights Hospitaller, their acquisition of the overlordship rights in the late 14th century. However, long before this, half the manor had been transferred to the Knights as early as 1304, when the little church of All Saints was re-dedicated to St John the Baptist, the patron saint of Hospitallers.
The church was opposite the Hospitallers preceptory, on the site now occupied by the present manor house. The Black Death of 1348–49 resulted in the transfer of the Hospitallers Hampshire headquarters from Godsfield near New Alresford to North Baddesley; the Knights Hospitaller were a medieval order dedicated to the care and protection of pilgrims, tending the sick and infirm, including the crusaders in their quest to return the Holy Land to the Christian world. A Europe-wide order, they became large and wealthy landowners thanks to the patronage of rich and noble families; the Knights Hospitaller were in Baddesley for about 400 years until 1541. Following the Dissolution of the Monasteries they were at odds with Henry VIII, as they still recognised the supremacy of Rome and were themselves suppressed, their possessions were made forfeit to the crown. After the departure of the Hospitallers the manor changed hands several times; the Civil War of 1642–46 came and went without leaving any physical scars and there is no record of any significant happenings in Baddesley during this time.
However, the lord of the manor, Samuel Dunch was a strong parliamentarian. He was related to the Cromwell family through the marriage of his son John in 1650 to Ann Major of Hursley Park, whose sister Dorothy was married to Richard Cromwell. In 1767 the manor was bought by Thomas Dummer of Cranbury Park, from whom it devolved to the Chamberlayne family; the Joyce family bought the manor house from the Chamberlaynes in 1981 and have lived there since. Baddesley expanded down Nutburn Road and in 1876 the first buildings south of the crossroads were erected; the school opened to serve both Baddesley and Chilworth, with Mr Dibble the headmaster living in the adjoining school house. The modern village, was built on open farmland and common-land belonging to the Willis Fleming family of North Stoneham Park, who were major local landowners; this is reflected in the names of Willis Avenue and Fleming Avenue. The arrival of the 20th century was to change Baddesley forever, propelling it from a small hamlet with a population of 393 in 1901 to that of the largest village in the Test Valley.
In 2001, 100 years it had a population in excess of 10,000, akin to that of a small town, consisting predominantly of 1960s / 70s style small housing. The most recent development is a new estate off Rownhams Road, completed in 2008. North Baddesley, although still a village, has many of the features, though few of the facilities, of a small town. In 1921 the population was fewer than 400, but by the outbreak of war in 1939 it was 1,000, its proximity to Southampton and Eastleigh gave rise to considerable pressure for development after the war and large estates of modern houses were built. The most recent of the parish's developments is orientated to the north of Botley Road running up Nutburn Road. There is a Community Centre on Fleming Avenue, the church hall at All Saints church in the centre of the village provides space to many community initiatives. Valley Park, which straddles the borough boundary with Eastleigh is now a community of 3000 dwellings, with a population of 7,500. Built from 1981 onwards, it was part of the parish of North Baddesley, but after much debate, it formed its own parish in 2006.
The old village lies to the north, the manor house incorporates part of the Preceptory of the Knights Hospitaller, the Hampshire headquarters of the order after 1365. Reminders of this are found in the local place-names of Knightwood; the parish church is of mediaeval foundation, is dedicated to St. John the Baptist, the patron saint of the Knights Hospitaller; however the Knights seem to have had their own chapel in the Preceptory so it was not “a Knights Hospitallers Church” in a formal sense. Baddesley Common and Emer Bog are areas of New Forest style grassland bog. There is a wide variety of the plants which thrive in this environment and it is a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Marsh gentian, cross-leaved heath, heath spotted orchid and petty whin are some specialist plants that occur in the wet heath areas. White admiral and purple emperor butterflies glide through the woods and dragonflies chase over the bog and ponds. Several hundred different species of moth have been recorded. There is a boardwalk trail towards the back of the bog, which can be strolled to observe the woodlan
The European roe deer known as the western roe deer, chevreuil, or roe deer or roe, is a species of deer. The male of the species is sometimes referred to as a roebuck; the roe deer is small and grey-brown, well-adapted to cold environments. The species is widespread in Europe, from the Mediterranean to Scandinavia, from Scotland to the Caucasus, east to northern Iran and Iraq, it is distinct from the somewhat larger Siberian roe deer. Within Europe, the European roe deer occurs in most areas, with the exception of northernmost Scandinavia and some of the islands, notably Iceland and the Mediterranean Sea islands. Scottish roe deer were introduced to the Lissadell Estate in Co. Sligo in Ireland around 1870 by Sir Henry Gore-Booth, Bt; the Lissadell deer were noted for their occasional abnormal antlers and survived in that general area for about 50 years before they died out. According to the National Biodiversity Data Centre, in 2014 there was a confirmed sighting of roe deer in County Armagh. There have been other, sightings in County Wicklow.
In England and Wales, roe have experienced a substantial expansion in their range in the latter half of the 20th century and continuing into the 21st century. This increase in population appears to be affecting woodland ecosystems. At the start of the 20th century, they were extinct in Southern England, but since have hugely expanded their range for no apparent reason and in some cases with human help. In 1884, roe were introduced from Württemberg in Germany into the Thetford Chase area, these spread to populate most of Norfolk and substantial parts of Cambridgeshire. In southern England, they started their expansion in Sussex and from there soon spread into Surrey, Wiltshire and Dorset, for the first half of the 20th century, most roe in southern England were to be found in these counties. By the end of the 20th century, they had repopulated much of Southern England and had expanded into Somerset, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and South Yorkshire, had spread into mid-Wales from the Ludlow area where an isolated population had appeared.
At the same time, the surviving population in Scotland and the Lake District had pushed further south beyond Yorkshire and Lancashire and into Derbyshire and Humberside. Roe can now be found in most of rural England except for south east Kent and the greater part of Staffordshire and Cheshire, although the expansion is continuing to the extent that before the end of the 21st century, anywhere in the UK mainland suitable for roe may have a population. Not being a species that needs large areas of woodland to survive, urban roe are now a feature of several cities, notably Glasgow and Bristol, where in particular they favour cemeteries. In Wales, they are less common, but have been seen as far south west as Cardigan and as far north west as Bangor, they are reasonably well established in Powys and Monmouthshire. German colonial administrators introduced roe deer to the island of Pohnpei in Micronesia, they are hunted by locals in steep and vegetated terrain. The meat is sold in markets and restaurants in Kolonia, the capital city of Pohnpei and the Federated States of Micronesia.
The roe deer is distinct from the somewhat larger Siberian roe deer found from the Ural Mountains to as far east as China and Siberia. The two species meet at the Caucasus Mountains, with the European species occupying the southern flank of the mountain ranges and adjacent Asia Minor, the Siberian species occupying the northern flank of the mountain ranges, it is known. The roe deer is a small deer, with a body length of 95–135 cm, a shoulder height of 65–75 cm, a weight of 15–35 kg. Bucks in good conditions develop antlers up to 20–25 cm long with two or three even four, points; when the male's antlers begin to regrow, they are covered in a thin layer of velvet-like fur which disappears on after the hair's blood supply is lost. Males may speed up the process by rubbing their antlers on trees, so that their antlers are hard and stiff for the duels during the mating season. Unlike most cervids, roe deer begin regrowing antlers immediately after they are shed; the roe deer is crepuscular quick and graceful, lives in woods, although it may venture into grasslands and sparse forests.
They feed on grass, leaves and young shoots. They like young, tender grass with a high moisture content, i.e. grass that has received rain the day before. Roe deer will not venture into a field that has had or has livestock in it because the livestock make the grass unclean. A pioneer species associated with biotic communities at an early stage of succession, during the Neolithic period in Europe, the roe deer was abundant, taking advantage of areas of forest or woodland cleared by Neolithic farmers; the roe deer attains a maximum lifespan of 10 years. When alarmed, it will flash out its white rump patch. Rump patches differ between the sexes, with the white rump patches heart-shaped on females and kidney-shaped on males. Males may bark or make a low grunting noise. Females make a high-pitched "pheep" whine to attract males during the rut in August; the female goes looking for a mate and lures the