Northern Central Railway
The Northern Central Railway was a Class I Railroad connecting Baltimore, Maryland with Sunbury, along the Susquehanna River. Completed in 1858, the line came under the control of the Pennsylvania Railroad in 1861, when the PRR acquired a controlling interest in the Northern Central's stock to compete with the rival Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. For eleven decades the Northern Central operated as a subsidiary of the PRR until much of its Maryland trackage was washed out by Hurricane Agnes in 1972, it is now a fallen flag railway, having come under the control of the Penn Central and broken apart and disestablished. The southern part in Pennsylvania is now the York County Heritage Rail Trail which connects to a similar hike/bike trail in Northern Maryland down to Baltimore, named the Torrey C. Brown Rail Trail. Only the trackage around Baltimore remains in rail service; the Baltimore and Susquehanna Railroad Company was chartered by an act of the General Assembly of Maryland on February 13, 1828, as the second designated rail system in the state with authority to construct a railroad from Baltimore northeast to the Susquehanna River.
To reach the Susquehanna at any commercially useful point, the new line would have to cross the state line into York County, Pennsylvania. However, the Pennsylvania General Assembly did not look favorably on the prospect of the trade of its southern counties being tapped for the benefit of Baltimore, instead of its own Philadelphia. In spite of the fact that Pennsylvania would have gained access to the Chesapeake Bay, its legislature would not grant a charter for a connecting railroad. Construction of the Baltimore & Susquehanna Railroad had begun in 1829, reached as far north as the York Road at Cockeysville, north of Baltimore, by 1831. At that time, the B&S obtained an amendment to its charter from the Maryland legislature which allowed it to be built in a northwestern direction via Westminster, the seat of Carroll County; the line would continue into the headwaters of the Monocacy River and reach Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. New construction began at Hollins and ran west through the Green Spring Valley north of Baltimore.
The line reached the Reisterstown Road at Owings Mills on June 13, 1832. Despite continuing fierce opposition from Philadelphia business and political interests, the Pennsylvania legislature chartered the York and Maryland Line Rail Road on March 14, 1832, authorizing it to connect the Baltimore & Susquehanna, at the Mason and Dixon Line/state line, with York, Pennsylvania, a commercial city center in the southern part of the Keystone State, with water access on Codorus Creek; the directors of the Baltimore & Susquehanna did not give up their planned route via Westminster, the terms of the new charter being somewhat onerous. The Adams County Railroad was chartered on April 6, 1832, in Pennsylvania, to run from Gettysburg to the Maryland state line, but was never constructed, nor was the line to Westminster extended further northwest. A further amendment to the York & Maryland Line's charter in 1837, allowed it the unlimited use of the Wrightsville and Gettysburg Railroad, which it had aided financially.
The Baltimore & Susquehanna, York & Maryland Line had completed the line from Baltimore to York by 1838. This line included the use of the Howard Tunnel, near Seven Valleys, constructed 1836-1837, opened 1838, the earliest railroad tunnel in the U. S. still in use today. In 1832 the railroad purchased its first locomotive, the Herald, run along the route from Baltimore to Owings Mills; this purchase was a major undertaking, for it was built in England and transported by ship The America's. Because the age of railroading was new to America, an engineer was sent with the locomotive to ensure that he could teach others the finer art of locomotive engineering. John Lawson went on to own, be first engineer to the Cherokee steamboat, which helped with the Confederate Army effort during the American Civil War. In 1832, the Railway built Bolton Station, the first in Baltimore, with an adjacent roundhouse and shops, at Bolton and North Howard Streets in old northern Baltimore City, overlooking the west bank of the Jones Falls, near the former George Grundy estate of Bolton mansion.
In April 1840, the Wrightsville, York & Gettysburg R. R. had been completed on the Susquehanna. There a connection was made to the Columbia-Wrightsville Bridge, allowing trains to cross the river and reach the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad and the Pennsylvania Railroad just prior to the Civil War; the railroad provided an alternative method of shipping cargo from central Pennsylvania to the Maryland seaports versus the Tide Water and Susquehanna Canal. However, the cost of expansion and inconsistent tariff policies plagued the Baltimore & Susquehanna and limited further growth; the York and Cumberland Railroad Company was chartered on April 21, 1846 to connect the York & Maryland Line with the Cumberland Valley Railroad somewhere north of Mechanicsburg. It was opened on February 10, 1851, running north from York to the Susquehanna and following the river to Lemoyne, across the river from Harrisburg, it was operated by the Cumberland Valley, but the Baltimore & Susquehanna took over operations on June 7.
Work began on the Hanover Branch Railroad, a line connecting Hanover with the York & Maryland Line at Hanover Junction. The Baltimore & Susquehanna system built and opened Calvert Street Station, an Italianate-style structure of
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Harford County, Maryland
Harford County is a county in the U. S. state of Maryland. As of the 2010 census, the population was 244,826, its county seat is Bel Air. Harford County is included in the Baltimore-Columbia-Towson, MD Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Washington-Baltimore-Arlington, DC-MD-VA-WV-PA Combined Statistical Area. In 1608 the area was settled by Susquehannocks; the first European to see the area was John Smith in 1608 when he traveled up the Chesapeake Bay from Jamestown. In 1652 the English and Susquehannocks signed a treaty at what is now Annapolis for the area now called Harford County. Harford County was formed on March 22, 1774 from the eastern part of Baltimore County with a population of 13,000 people. On March 22, 1775 Harford County hosted the signers of the Bush Declaration, a precursor document to the American Revolution. On January 22, 1782 Bel Air became the county seat. After marrying Mary Ann Holmes in 1821 Junius Brutus Booth Sr. moved to the county into a log cabin before building Tudor Hall in 1847.
Junius Brutus Booth Sr. "was followed as a marvel. Mention of his name stirred an enthusiasm no other could awaken." Junius Brutus Booth Jr. was born to the couple in Bel Air, Harford County, Maryland in 1821 before managing the Boston Theatre, Walnut Street Theatre, Winter Garden Theatre, Booth's Theatre where his younger brother Edwin was the star attraction. Though a undistinguished actor, Junius Jr. was regarded for his performances as King John and Cassius in Julius Caesar, which he performed with Edwin as Brutus and John Wilkes as Mark Antony in 1864. He married Agnes Land Perry in 1867, he retired in 1881 to Masconomo House in Manchester-by-the-Sea, where he died on September 17, 1883. Edwin Booth was born in Bel Air but in 1833 and toured America and Europe performing plays by Shakespeare before founding Booth's Theatre in New York in 1869. Edwin was a Unionist. Born in the same log cabin but in 1838 John Wilkes Booth made his stage debut at age 17 on August 14, 1855 in the supporting role of the Earl of Richmond in Richard III at Baltimore's Charles Street Theatre.
Some of the more known theaters that he acted for include John T. Ford's Holliday Street Theater in Baltimore, Arch Street Theatre in Philadelphia, the Richmond Theatre. Of all Shakespearean characters his favorite role was Brutus the slayer of a tyrant; some critics called him "the handsomest man in America," a "natural genius", praised his "astonishing memory" while others gave mixed reviews of his acting. Historian Benjamin Platt Thomas wrote that Booth "won celebrity with theater-goers by his romantic personal attraction."Author Gene Smith wrote that Booth's acting may not have been as precise as his brother Edwin's, but his strikingly handsome appearance enthralled women. As the 1850s drew to a close, Booth was becoming wealthy as an actor. Despite the acting fame of the entire Booth family, John Wilkes Booth will always be most known for assassinating Abraham Lincoln. Havre de Grace, a city incorporated in 1785 within Harford County, was once under consideration to be the capital of the United States rather than Washington, D.
C. It was favored for its strategic location at the top of the Chesapeake Bay. Today, the waterways around Havre de Grace have become adversely affected by silt runoff, one of the primary environmental issues of Harford County. While today the site is a Maryland National Guard military reservation, the land was used as the Havre de Grace Racetrack where racehorse Man o' War ran in 1919 and 1920. During the 1900s the Bata Shoe Company employed numerous Eastern European refugees at the Belcamp factory. In the 1940s the Susquehanna River tributary Broad Creek was dammed to form the 55 acres at what is now the Broad Creek Memorial Scout Reservation. In June 1972 Hurricane Agnes flooded areas in many states. On the County Health Rankings & Roadmaps by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation with the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, "prior to the 2016 report... Harford's yearly rankings fell between ninth and 10th place because of the percentage of county residents who were obese or who smoked."
Scenes from Tuck Everlasting, From Within, House of Cards were all filmed in Harford County. In 2011 the Office of National Drug Control Policy deemed Harford County a designated High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area; the county was named for Henry Harford, the illegitimate son of Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore. Henry Harford was born to Calvert's mistress, Hester Whelan, whose residence still stands as part of a private residence on Jarretsville Pike, in Phoenix, Maryland. Harford served as the last Proprietary Governor of Maryland but, because of his illegitimacy, did not inherit his father's title. There are 79 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including one National Historic Landmark called Sion Hill. Harford County has environmental issues in three major areas: land use, water pollution/urban runoff, soil contamination/groundwater contamination; as the county sits at the headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay along the Susquehanna River, it plays a key role in controlling sediment and fertilizer runoff into the bay as well as fostering submerged aquatic vegetation regrowth.
The county has had to balance the needs of land owners to practice agriculture and/or pave land with effects of runoff into the bay. Harford County has been burdened by soil contamination and groundwater contamination since the creation of the Aberdeen Proving Ground; the military installation performs researc
Towson is an unincorporated community and a census-designated place in Baltimore County, Maryland. The population was 55,197 as of the 2010 census, it is the second-most populated unincorporated county seat in the United States. The first inhabitants of the future Towson and central Baltimore County region were the Susquehannock people who hunted in the area, their region included all of Baltimore County, though their primary settlement was farther northeast along the Susquehanna River. Towson was settled in 1752 when Pennsylvania brothers and Thomas Towson, began farming an area of Sater's Hill, northeast of the present-day York and Joppa Roads. William's son, opened the Towson Hotel to serve the growing number of farmers bringing their produce and livestock to the port of Baltimore, he built the hotel near the area's main crossroads. The village became known as "Towsontown"; the property in West Towson came from two land grants: 400 acre Gott's Hope in 1719, Gunner's Range in 1706. In 1790, businessman Capt. Charles Ridgely completed the magnificent Hampton Mansion just north of Towsontown, the largest private house in America at the time.
The Ridgelys lived there for six generations, until 1948. It is now open to the public. Dr. Grafton Marsh, a surgeon during the war of 1812, his brother Dr. Josiah Marsh settled their families in a collection of early houses known as Gott's Hope, part of a group along Joppa Road, they consolidated four of the structures into a larger dwelling that they called "Marshmont". The brothers went into business together as medical practitioners. Neither had any heirs but were joined in practice by their nephew, Dr. Grafton Marsh Bosley, who inherited the medical practice, the Marshmont compound, a 140-acre farm; the farm extended west of York Road, south of Joppa Road, north of the Sheppard Pratt Hospital, east of Woodbine Avenut. In 1869, Bosley and his wife Margaret Nicholson built a new home in an area of the property known as "Highlands" or "Highland Park", which they named "Uplands"; the ratification of the second Maryland Constitution of 1851 provided for the jurisdictional separation of the former Baltimore Town, founded in 1729.
Baltimore Town had served as the county seat since 1767, now the City of Baltimore, since its incorporation in 1796–97 by the General Assembly of Maryland. Several tortured sets of negotiations occurred to divide the various assets of the city and the county, such as the downtown courthouse of 1805, the city/county jail of 1801 along the Jones Falls and the almshouse, jointly owned. After a series of elections and referenda, on February 13, 1854, Towson became, by popular vote, the choice of the remaining, now rural, eastern and western portions of the county as the new county seat of Baltimore County; the Baltimore County Courthouse, still in use by 2015, with its various annexes, was designed by the local city architectural firm of Dixon and Dixon. It was completed within a year, constructed of limestone and marble donated by the well-known Ridgely family of nearby Hampton Mansion, on land donated by Towson doctor Grafton Marsh Bosley; the courthouse was subsequently enlarged in 1910 through additional designs for north and south wings by well-known and regarded city architects, Baldwin & Pennington.
Additional expansions in 1926 and 1958 created an H-shaped plan for the courthouse. An additional modernistic Baltimore County Courts Building, with room for the new charter government since 1956 and administration of a county executive and county council, plus administrative and executive departments, was erected in 1970–71 across a plaza to the west of the older historic courthouse; the old Baltimore County Jail was built in 1855, was replaced in the 1980s by a new modern Baltimore County Detention Center, north of the town on Kenilworth Avenue, with an addition constructed in the 2010s. From 1850 to 1874, another notable land owner, Amos Matthews, had a farm of 150 acres that—with the exception of the 17-acre natural parcel where the Kelso Home for Girls, was erected —was wholly developed into the neighborhoods of West Towson, Southland Hills and other subdivisions, beginning in the middle 1920s. During the Civil War, Towson was the scene of two minor engagements. Many local citizens were sympathetic to the Southern Confederate cause, so much so that Ady's Hotel and the current site of the 1920s-era Towson Theatre, flew the Southern flag.
The Union Army found it necessary to overtake the town by force on June 2, 1861. During the raid, the Union Army seized weapons from citizens at Ady's Hotel. A local paper, in jest, refers to the "strongly fortified and impregnable city of Towsontown" and downplays the need for the attack, stating, "the distinguished Straw, with only two hundred and fifty men, has taken a whole city and nearly frightened two old women out of their wits."The second engagement took place around July 12, 1864, between Union and Confederate forces. On July 10, 1864, a 135-man Confederate cavalry detachment attacked the Northern Central Railway to the north in nearby Cockeysville, under orders from Gen. Bradley T. Johnson, of Frederick, Maryland; the First and Second Maryland Cavalry, led by Baltimore County native and pre-war member of the Towson Horse Guards, Maj. Harry W. Gilmor, of Glen Ellen, attacked strategic targets throughout Ba
Ladew Topiary Gardens
Ladew Topiary Gardens are nonprofit gardens with topiary located in Monkton, Maryland. The gardens were established in the 1930s by socialite and huntsman Harvey S. Ladew, who in 1929 had bought a 250-acre farm to build his estate; the house and gardens are open April through October and weekends. The grounds contain 15 garden rooms, each devoted to a single color, plant or theme, arranged around two cross axes with vistas; the axes meet in an oval swimming pool. The garden is noted for its topiary, influenced by Ladew's extensive travel in England, where he went fox hunting. Ladew designed topiaries depicting a fox hunt with horses, riders and fox clearing a hedge, a Chinese junk with sails, a giraffe, among others, it was proclaimed an "exquisite garden estate" by The New York Times. The Garden Club of America has described it as "the most outstanding topiary garden in America." The grounds contain a 1.5-mile nature walk. The house was built in stages, starting in the late 18th century, with a mid-19th century addition and other additions in the 20th century.
The oval library is noteworthy, has been called "one of the 100 most beautiful rooms in America". Both the grounds and house, which contains a good collection of antique English furniture, opened to the public in 1971. List of botanical gardens in the United States Ladew Topiary Gardens Ladew Topiary Gardens and Ladew House, Harford County, including undated photo, at Maryland Historical Trust
A horse trainer is a person who tends to horses and teaches them different disciplines. Some of the responsibilities trainers have are caring for the animals’ physical needs, as well as teaching them submissive behaviors and/or coaching them for events, which may include contests and other riding purposes; the level of education and the yearly salary they can earn for this profession may differ depending on where the person is employed. Horse domestication by the Botai culture in Kazakhstan dates to about 3500 BC. Written records of horse training as a pursuit has been documented as early as 1350 BC, by Kikkuli, the Hurrian "master horse trainer" of the Hittite Empire. Another source of early recorded history of horse training as a discipline comes from the Greek writer Xenophon, in his treatise On Horsemanship. Writing circa 350 BC, Xenophon addressed starting young horses, selecting older animals, proper grooming and bridling, he how to deal with vices. His approach is credited as the first known method of training horses through a sympathetic approach, wherein the trainer attempts to understand the natural instincts of the horse and build a relationship.
In horse racing, a trainer prepares a horse for races, with responsibility for exercising it, getting it race-ready and determining which races it should enter. Leading horse trainers can earn a great deal of money from a percentage of the winnings that they charge the owner for training the horse. Outside horse racing, most trainers specialize in a certain equestrianism discipline, such as show jumping, rodeo, sport horse disciplines, training of a specific horse breed, starting young horses, or working with problem horses. There are a wide variety of horse training methods used to teach the horse to do the things humans want them to do; some fields can be lucrative depending on the value of the horses once trained or prize money available in competition. However, as a rule, most horse trainers earn, at best, a modest income which requires supplementation from a second job or additional horse-related business, such as horse boarding or riding lessons. Horse trainers are deemed to have the status of agents for the horse owners.
As such, they have legal obligations to their owners, as well as authority to represent and bind their owners to certain transactions. Graduation from some form of secondary school, mandatory to become an animal trainer, is one of the qualifications a horse trainer may need. While this is a requirement for some employers, others may only require that horse trainers learn as they go along. Beginners in horse training can learn more about the subject at a college institution, which can be beneficial for their profession, but it is not always mandatory for horse trainers. Apprenticeship is another option if a person wants to gain more knowledge about the profession; when starting out in the profession, a horse trainer may not be given the assignments of a more learned and seasoned trainer until they gain more maturity in the job. Or, prior to their employment, they can develop their skills elsewhere. A horse trainer may need to acquire a license in order to train; the earnings of horse trainers may be different depending on the country and the place of employment.
According to the United States Department of Labor, “The median annual wage for animal trainers was $25,270 in May 2012. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $17,580, the top 10 percent earned more than $49,840.” The Government of Western Australia Department of Training and Workforce Development, in their section about horse trainers, state that $43,399 may be the standard yearly wages in Western Australia. Racehorse trainers in the UK can earn up to a standard yearly amount of £45,000, depending on the level of expertise a person possesses. For independent horse trainers, their status and the amount of work they do can influence the salary."Race winnings" can provide a trainer with additional money. Drug usage in horses has been a disputed topic in the field of equine; the acceptable purpose of drugs in this area is to reduce suffering of injuries in racehorses, but sometimes drugs are used unlawfully to get an advantage over other horses, which can result in penalties for the horse trainer in question.
With the numerous weekly deaths of racehorses, drugs are a disputed cause of death in horses. The intoxication of horses is concerning to some people, such as legislators; some trainers defend drugs. Some trainers deny that they use drugs for unlawful purposes, sometimes because of their respect for horses. List of race horse trainers Horse training Horse racing Horse show O*Net online description of animal trainer
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat