1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was an American Old West lawman and gambler in Cochise County, Arizona Territory, a deputy marshal in Tombstone. He worked in a wide variety of trades throughout his life and took part in the famous Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, during which lawmen killed three outlaw Cochise County Cowboys, he is erroneously regarded as the central figure in the shootout, although his brother Virgil was Tombstone city marshal and deputy U. S. marshal that day and had far more experience as a sheriff, constable and soldier in combat. Earp was a professional gambler and buffalo hunter, he owned several saloons, maintained a brothel, mined for silver and gold, refereed boxing matches, he spent his early life in Iowa. In 1870, he married Urilla Sutherland who contracted typhoid fever and died shortly before their first child was to be born. During the next two years, Earp was arrested for stealing a horse, escaped from jail, was sued twice, he was arrested and fined three times in 1872 for "keeping and being found in a house of ill-fame".
His third arrest was described at length in the Daily Transcript, which referred to him as an "old offender" and nicknamed him the "Peoria Bummer", another name for loafer or vagrant. By 1874, he arrived in the boomtown of Kansas where his reputed wife opened a brothel. On April 21, 1875, he was appointed to the Wichita police force and developed a solid reputation as a lawman, but he was fined and dismissed from the force after getting into a fistfight with a political opponent of his boss. Earp left Wichita, following his brother James to Dodge City, Kansas where he became an assistant city marshal. In the winter of 1878, he went to Texas to track down an outlaw, he met John "Doc" Holliday whom Earp credited with saving his life. Earp moved throughout his life from one boomtown to another, he left Dodge City in 1879 and moved with brothers James and Virgil to Tombstone, where a silver boom was underway. The Earps clashed with an informal community of outlaws known as the Cowboys. Wyatt and their younger brother Morgan held various law-enforcement positions which put them in conflict with Tom McLaury, Frank McLaury, Ike Clanton, Billy Clanton who threatened to kill the Earps on several occasions.
The conflict escalated over the next year, culminating in the gunfight at the O. K. Corral on October 26, 1881 in which the Earps and Doc Holliday killed three of the Cowboys. In the next five months, Virgil was ambushed and maimed, Morgan was assassinated. Wyatt, Warren Earp, Doc Holliday, others formed a federal posse which killed three of the Cowboys whom they thought responsible. Wyatt was never wounded in any of the gunfights, unlike his brothers Virgil and Morgan or his friend Doc Holliday, which only added to his mystique after his death. Earp was always looking for a quick way to make money. After leaving Tombstone, he went to San Francisco where he reunited with Josephine Marcus, she became his common-law wife, they joined a gold rush to Idaho where they owned mining interests and a saloon. They open a saloon during a real estate boom in San Diego, California. Back in San Francisco, Wyatt raced horses again, but his reputation suffered irreparably when he refereed the Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey boxing match and called a foul which led many to believe that he fixed the fight.
They moved to Yuma, Arizona before joining the Nome Gold Rush in 1899. He and Charlie Hoxie paid $1,500 for a liquor license to open a two-story saloon called the Dexter and made an estimated $80,000; the couple left Alaska and opened another saloon in Tonopah, the site of a new gold find. Around 1911, Earp began working several mining claims in Vidal, retiring in the hot summers with Josephine to Los Angeles, he made friends among early Western actors in Hollywood and tried to get his story told, but he was portrayed only briefly in one film produced during his lifetime: Wild Bill Hickok. Earp died on January 13, 1929, he was known as a Western lawman and boxing referee. He had a notorious reputation for both his handling of the Fitzsimmons–Sharkey fight and his role in the O. K. Corral gunfight; this only began to change after his death when the flattering biography Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal was published in 1931. It created his reputation as a fearless lawman. Since Earp has been the subject of numerous films, television shows and works of fiction which have increased both his fame and his notoriety.
Long after his death, he admirers. His modern-day reputation is that of deadliest gunman of his day. Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp was born on March 19, 1848, the fourth child of Nicholas Porter Earp and his second wife, Virginia Ann Cooksey, he was named after his father's commanding officer in the Mexican–American War, Captain Wyatt Berry Stapp, of the 2nd Company Illinois Mounted Volunteers. Some evidence supports Wyatt Earp's birthplace as 406 South 3rd Street in Monmouth, though the street address is disputed by Monmouth College professor and historian William Urban. Wyatt had seven siblings: James, Martha, Baxter Warren and Adelia. In March 1849 or in early 1850, Nicholas Earp joined about 100 other people in a plan to relocate to San Bernardino County, where he intended to buy farmland. Just 150 miles west of Monmouth on the journey, their daughter Martha became ill; the family stopped and Nicholas bought a n
Richard Benjamin Speck was an American mass murderer who systematically tortured and murdered eight student nurses from South Chicago Community Hospital on the night of July 13 into the early morning hours of July 14, 1966. He was convicted at trial and sentenced to death, but the sentence was overturned due to issues with jury selection at his trial. Speck died of a heart attack after 25 years in prison. In 1996, videotapes featuring Speck were shown before the Illinois State Legislature to highlight some of the illegal activity that took place in prisons. Richard Benjamin Speck was born in the town of Kirkwood, the seventh of eight children of Benjamin Franklin Speck and Mary Margaret Carbaugh Speck; the family moved to Monmouth, shortly after Speck's birth. Speck and his younger sister Carolyn were much younger than their four older sisters and two older brothers. Speck's eldest brother, died at the age of 23 in an automobile accident in 1952. Speck's father worked as a packer at Western Stoneware in Monmouth and had worked as a farmer and logger.
Speck was close to his father, who died in 1947 from a heart attack at the age of 53. Speck was six years old at the time. A few years Speck's religious, teetotaler mother fell in love with a traveling insurance salesman from Texas, Carl August Rudolph Lindberg, whom she met on a train trip to Chicago; the hard-drinking, peg-legged Lindberg, with a 25-year criminal record that started with forgery and included several arrests for drunk driving, was the opposite of Speck's sober, hardworking father. Speck's mother married Lindberg on May 1950, in Palo Pinto, Texas. Speck and his younger sister Carolyn stayed with their married sister Sara Thornton in Monmouth for a few months so Speck could finish second grade, before joining their mother and Lindberg in rural Santo, Texas, 40 miles west of Fort Worth, where Speck attended third grade. After a year in Santo, Speck moved with his mother, his stepfather, his sister Carolyn to the East Dallas section of Dallas, living at ten addresses in poor neighborhoods over the next dozen years.
Speck loathed his drunk and absent stepfather, who psychologically abused him with insults and threats. Speck, a poor student who needed glasses for reading but refused to wear them, struggled through Dallas public schools from fourth through eighth grade, repeating the eighth grade at J. L. Long Jr. High School, in part because he refused to speak in class because of a lifelong fear of people staring at him. In autumn 1957, Speck started ninth grade at Crozier Technical High School, but failed every subject and did not return for the second semester in January 1958, dropping out just after his 16th birthday. Speck started drinking alcohol at age 12 and by age 15 he was getting drunk every day, his first arrest, in 1955 at age 13 for trespassing, was followed by dozens of other arrests for misdemeanors over the next eight years. Speck worked as a laborer for the 7-Up bottling company in Dallas for three years, from 1960 to 1963. In October 1961, Speck met 15-year-old Shirley Annette Malone at the Texas State Fair.
She became pregnant after three weeks of dating him. Shirley married Speck on January 19, 1962, moved in with him, his mother, his sister Carolyn, Carolyn's husband. Speck's mother and stepfather had separated, his stepfather had moved to California. Speck stopped using the name Richard Benjamin Lindberg when he got married and began using the name Richard Benjamin Speck; when Speck's daughter, Robbie Lynn, was born on July 5, 1962, his wife did not know that Speck was serving a 22-day jail sentence for disturbing the peace in McKinney, after a drunken melee. In July 1963, Speck was caught after he cashed a co-worker's $44 paycheck, he robbed a grocery store, making away with cigarettes, beer and $3 in cash. The 21-year-old Speck was sentenced to three years in prison, he was paroled after serving 16 months from 1963 to 1965 in the Texas State Penitentiary in Huntsville, Texas. One week after his parole, at 2:20 a.m. on January 9, 1965, Speck was wielding a 17-inch carving knife when he attacked a woman in the parking lot of her apartment building.
He fled. The police apprehended Speck a few blocks away. Speck was convicted of aggravated assault, given a 16-month sentence to run concurrently with a parole violation sentence, returned to prison in Huntsville, but due to an error he was released from prison just six months on completion of his parole violation sentence on July 2, 1965. After his release from prison, Speck worked for three months as a driver for the Patterson Meat Company and had six accidents with his truck before he was fired for failing to show up for work. In December 1965, on the recommendation of his mother, Speck moved in with a 29-year-old divorced woman, an ex-professional wrestler, a bartender at his favorite bar, Ginny's Lounge, needed someone to babysit her three children. In January 1966, Speck's wife filed for divorce; that same month, Speck stabbed a man in a knife fight at Ginny's Lounge. He was charged with aggravated assault, but a defense attorney hired by his mother was able to get the charge reduced to disturbing the peace.
Speck was jailed for three days after he failed to pay the fine. This was the last time. On March 5, 1966, Speck bought a 12-year-old car; the following evening, he robbed a grocery store, stole 70 cartons of cigarettes, sold them out of the trunk of his car in the grocery store's parking lot, abandoned the car. The police traced the car to S
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late ninth or early eighth century BC. It is derived from the earlier Phoenician alphabet, was the first alphabetic script to have distinct letters for vowels as well as consonants. In Archaic and early Classical times, the Greek alphabet existed in many different local variants, but, by the end of the fourth century BC, the Eucleidean alphabet, with twenty-four letters, ordered from alpha to omega, had become standard and it is this version, still used to write Greek today; these twenty-four letters are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, Ω ω. The Greek alphabet is the ancestor of the Cyrillic scripts. Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek had only a single form of each letter. Sound values and conventional transcriptions for some of the letters differ between Ancient and Modern Greek usage, because the pronunciation of Greek has changed between the fifth century BC and today.
Modern and Ancient Greek use different diacritics. Apart from its use in writing the Greek language, in both its ancient and its modern forms, the Greek alphabet today serves as a source of technical symbols and labels in many domains of mathematics and other fields. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the letters of the Greek alphabet have stable and consistent symbol-to-sound mappings, making pronunciation of words predictable. Ancient Greek spelling was near-phonemic. For a number of letters, sound values differ between Ancient and Modern Greek, because their pronunciation has followed a set of systematic phonological shifts that affected the language in its post-classical stages. Examples Notes Among consonant letters, all letters that denoted voiced plosive consonants and aspirated plosives in Ancient Greek stand for corresponding fricative sounds in Modern Greek; the correspondences are as follows: Among the vowel symbols, Modern Greek sound values reflect the radical simplification of the vowel system of post-classical Greek, merging multiple distinct vowel phonemes into a much smaller number.
This leads to several groups of vowel letters denoting identical sounds today. Modern Greek orthography remains true to the historical spellings in most of these cases; as a consequence, the spellings of words in Modern Greek are not predictable from the pronunciation alone, while the reverse mapping, from spelling to pronunciation, is regular and predictable. The following vowel letters and digraphs are involved in the mergers: Modern Greek speakers use the same, modern symbol–sound mappings in reading Greek of all historical stages. In other countries, students of Ancient Greek may use a variety of conventional approximations of the historical sound system in pronouncing Ancient Greek. Several letter combinations have special conventional sound values different from those of their single components. Among them are several digraphs of vowel letters that represented diphthongs but are now monophthongized. In addition to the four mentioned above, there is ⟨ηι, ωι⟩, ⟨ου⟩, pronounced /u/; the Ancient Greek diphthongs ⟨αυ⟩, ⟨ευ⟩ and ⟨ηυ⟩ are pronounced, in Modern Greek.
In some environments, they are devoiced to, respectively. The Modern Greek consonant combinations ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩ stand for and respectively. In addition, both in Ancient and Modern Greek, the letter ⟨γ⟩, before another velar consonant, stands for the velar nasal. In analogy to ⟨μπ⟩ and ⟨ντ⟩, ⟨γκ⟩ is used to stand for. There are the combinations ⟨γχ⟩ and ⟨γξ⟩. In the polytonic orthography traditionally used for ancient Greek, the stressed vowel of each word carries one of three accent marks: either the acute accent, the grave accent, or the circumflex accent; these signs were designed to mark different forms of the phonological pitch accent in Ancient Greek. By the time their use became conventional and obligatory in Greek writing, in late antiquity, pitch accent was evolving into a single stress accent, thus the three signs have not corresponded to a phonological distinction in actual speech since. In addition to the accent marks, every word-initial vowel must carry either of two so-called "breathing marks": the rough breathing, marking an /h/ sound at the beginning of a word, or the smooth breathing, marking its absence.
The letter rho, although not a vowel carries a rough breathing in word-initial position. If a rho was geminated within a word, the first ρ always had the smooth breathing and the second the rough breathing leading to the transliteration rrh; the vowel letters ⟨α, η, ω⟩ carry an additional diacritic in certain words, the so-called iota subscript, which has the shape of a small vertical stroke or a miniature ⟨ι⟩ below the letter. This iota represents the former offglide of what were long diphthongs, ⟨ᾱι, ηι, ωι⟩, which became monophthongized during antiquity. Another diacritic used in Greek is the diaeresis; this system of diacritics was first developed by the scholar Aristophanes of Byzantium, who worked at the Musaeum in Alexandria during the third century BC. Aristophanes of Byzantium was the first to divide poems into lines, rather than writing them like prose, introduced a series of signs for textual criticism. In 1982, a new, simplif