The Lenape called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and were matrilocal. During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies, their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin and Ontario.
The name Lenni Lenape Leni Lenape and Lenni Lenapi, comes from their autonym, which may mean "genuine, real, original," and Lenape, meaning "Indian" or "man". Alternately, lënu may be translated as "man."The Lenape, when first encountered by Europeans, were a loose association of related peoples who spoke similar languages and shared familial bonds in an area known as Lenapehoking, the Lenape traditional territory, which spanned what is now eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey, southern New York, eastern Delaware. The tribe's common name Delaware is not of Native American origin. English colonists named the Delaware River for the first governor of the Province of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, whose title was derived from French; the English began to call the Lenape the Delaware Indians because of where they lived. Swedes settled in the area, early Swedish sources listed the Lenape as the Renappi. Traditional Lenape lands, the Lenapehoking, was a large territory that encompassed the Delaware Valley of eastern Pennsylvania and New Jersey from the north bank Lehigh River along the west bank Delaware south into Delaware and the Delaware Bay.
Their lands extended west from western Long Island and New York Bay, across the Lower Hudson Valley in New York into the lower Catskills and a sliver of the upper edge of the North Branch Susquehanna River. On the west side, the Lenape lived in numerous small towns along the rivers and streams that fed the waterways, shared the hunting territory of the Schuylkill River watershed with the rival Iroquoian Susquehannock; the Unami and Munsee languages belong to the Eastern Algonquian language group. Although the Unami and Munsee speakers people are related, they consider themselves as distinct, as they used different words and lived on opposite sides of the Kitatinny Mountains of modern New Jersey. Today, only elders speak the language although some young Lenape youth and adults learn the ancient language; the German and English-speaking Moravian missionary John Heckewelder wrote: "The Monsey tong is quite different though came out of one parent language."William Penn, who first met the Lenape in 1682, stated that the Unami used the following words: "mother" was anna, "brother" was isseemus, "friend" was netap.
Penn instructed his fellow Englishmen: "If one asks them for anything they have not, they will answer, mattá ne hattá, which to translate is,'not I have,' instead of'I have not.'"According to the Moravian missionary David Zeisberger, the Unami word for "food" is May-hoe-me-chink. The Unami word for "hill" is Ah-choo. Sometimes the languages shared words, such as "corn,", Xash-queem, or "wolf,", too-may. In contemporary Unami orthography, "food" is michëwakàn, "hill" is ahchu, "corn" is xàskwim, "wolf" is tëme. At the time of first European contact, a Lenape person would have identified with his or her immediate family and clan, and/or village unit. Next with more distant neighbors who spoke the same dialect. Among many Algonquian peoples along the East Coast, the Lenape were considered the "grandfathers" from whom other Algonquian-speaking peoples originated. Lenape has three phratries, each of which had twelve clans; these are: Wolf, Took-seat Turtle, Poke-koo-un'go Turkey, Pul-la'-ook Lenape kinship system has matrilineal clans, that is, children belong to their mother's clan, from which they gain social status and identity.
The mother's eldest brother was more significant as a mentor to the male children than was their father, of another clan. Hereditary leadership passed through the maternal line, women elders could remove leaders of whom they disapproved. Agricultural land was managed by women and allotted according to the subsistence needs of their extended families. Families were matrilocal. By 1682, when William Penn arrived to his America
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Barnegat Bay is a small brackish arm of the Atlantic Ocean 42 miles long, along the coast of Ocean County, New Jersey in the United States. It is separated from the Atlantic by the long Barnegat Peninsula, as well as by the north end of Long Beach Island, popular segments of the Jersey Shore; the bay is fed by several small rivers, including the Toms River and Metedeconk River, which empty into the bay through small estuaries along its inner shore. The communities of Toms River and Forked River sit along the river estuaries on the bay; the bay connects with the ocean through the Barnegat Inlet, along which sits the Barnegat Lighthouse. The bay is part of the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, entered on its north end by the Point Pleasant Canal and connecting on the south end with Little Egg Harbor via the small Manahawkin Bay. In a broader sense, Barnegat Bay is sometimes considered to stretch to the south end of Long Beach Island and to include Little Egg Harbor. Three bridges span the bay from the mainland to the peninsula: the Mantoloking Bridge from Brick Township to Mantoloking, the Thomas A. Mathis and J. Stanley Tunney Bridges from Toms River to Ortley Beach.
The Barnegat Division of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge comprises wetlands along the inner southern part of the bay. Along the outside of the bay, on the peninsula, is the Island Beach State Park. Various islands within the bay are a part of the National Wildlife Refuge or the Sedge Islands State Wildlife Management Area; the northern tip of Long Beach Island includes the Barnegat Lighthouse State Park. The area surrounding Barnegat Bay and Barnegat Inlet was described by Henry Hudson, in 1609, as "... a great lake of water, as we could judge it to be... The mouth of the lake hath many shoals, the sea breaketh on them as it is cast out of the mouth of it." The bay was named in 1614 "Barendegat," or "Inlet of the Breakers," by Dutch explorers of the coastline, referring to the waterway's turbulent channel. During the American Revolutionary War, the bay was used as refuge by American privateers; the bay has been a longtime center for commercial fishing. The village of Toms River was a significant whaling port in the 19th century.
While still popular for fishing, Barnegat Bay has become a popular destination for recreational boating. The water quality of the bay has been degraded by pollution in the creeks that feed it; the preservation of the bay's water quality has been an ongoing effort of several public and private organizations. The bay was immortalized by the famous writer E. B. White, who used it as a setting for his short story "The Family That Dwelt Apart"; the story appears in his collection Preposterous Parables. It was adapted into the animated short The Family That Dwelt Apart, narrated by White, by the National Film Board of Canada; the song "My Eyes Adored You" by New Jersey native Frankie Valli contains a reference to "walking home everyday over Barnegat Bridge and Bay". On March 22, 1975, the song became one of the Hot 100 number-one hits of 1975; the Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation group, has done extensive work in the Barnegat Bay area for over two decades, protecting over 1,100 acres of land.
The Trust began the new River to Bay Greenway, the primary goal of, to create a 70-mile multi-use recreational route across southern New Jersey from the Delaware River to Barnegat Bay. In the 2000s and 2010s, scientists and residents have drawn attention to fish kills, algal blooms, low dissolved oxygen levels, loss of habitat, diminishing clam populations, the rise in stinging Chrysaora quinquecirrha populations in the bay due to high levels of nitrogen from fertilizer runoff; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency monitors the health of the bay by testing at four locations as as once a week in the summer months, when surface water can reach 82 °F. Community members have expressed concern over the impact of stored radioactive material and thermal pollution at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station in Lacey Township; the 1969 plant is the oldest operating nuclear power plant in the United States and is scheduled to be retired by 2019. A 2008 baseline sediment pollution study of 15 locations within Barnegat Bay - Little Egg Harbor area including sites at Mill Creek, Cedar Run, Parker Run measured total petroleum hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls.
The joint US/UK team of scientists reported that TPH content was low and that mercury content ranged from <0.02 to 2.61 mg/kg dry wt. PAH content ranged from as low as 37 ug/kg to 1696 ug/kg with the highest concentrations at Tuckerton Creek these concentrations are not considered harmful to humans or biota; the distribution pattern of PAHs throughout the study area was consistent with the burning from grass and coal sources. Concentrations of PCB were below reported. Middle Sedge Island in Barnegat Bay is a 25-acre island, 14 acres of which are developed with a single house. Other islands include: Northwest Point Island and Marsh Elder Island; some are owned and some are owned by the state of New Jersey. State of New Jersey: Barnegat Bay Estuary Program Save Barnegat Bay – environmental advocacy site Rutgers University: Barnegat Bay Resources Jersey City Anglers Association: Future of Barnegat Bay ReClam the Bay – environmental organization that grows and plants millions of clams and oysters to reclaim Barnegat Bay Nitrogen Pollution Action Project – guide to eutrophication of Barnegat Bay and solutions
John Bowne was an English immigrant residing in the Dutch colony of New Netherland, honored today as a pioneer in the American struggle for religious liberty. Born in Matlock, Derbyshire, on 9 March 1627, Bowne emigrated with his father and sister to Boston, Mass. in 1648. Bowne became a merchant and married well, his first wife Hannah Feake, whom he married in 1656, being a great-niece of Governor John Winthrop of Massachusetts. Bowne and his bride, along with his in-laws William Hallet and Elizabeth Fones, soon became adherents of the new doctrine of Quakerism, being repressed in most of the English colonies of New England. Accordingly, by 1661, they had relocated to Flushing, Long Island, where a small group of English-speaking Quakers were attempting to practice their faith in defiance of the Dutch governor of New Netherland, Peter Stuyvesant. In 1662, Bowne was arrested by the New Amsterdam sheriff, Resolved Waldron, under orders of Governor Stuyvesant, for allowing a Quaker meeting in his house.
Refusing to pay the assessed fine, or to depart from the province, he was sent to Holland for trial before the Dutch West India Company. There, he exonerated himself by appealing to the guarantees of religious liberty contained in the Flushing patent of 1645 granted by Governor William Kieft. Winning the respect of his judges by his uncompromising stance, he was released, returned triumphantly home in 1664, Governor Stuyvesant being ordered to extend tolerance to all religious sects. Although New Netherland was soon to become the English colony of New York, the ideal of religious freedom for which John Bowne had stood up was upheld by the province's new rulers, serving as an example for the other English colonies in North America, to the framers of the American Constitution as well. A 1672 letter from Bowne and other Quakers to the Governor of New York explaining their conscientious refusal to contribute funds for the repair of the fort of New York is one of the earliest examples of American Quaker war tax resistance.
John Bowne served in the provincial assembly of New York, dying in Flushing on 20 December 1695. John Bowne's first wife Hannah Feake was the daughter of the Elizabeth Fones who served as the title character in Anya Seton's historical novel "The Winthrop Woman", they had 8 children. John Bowne's second wife had 6 children. John Bowne's third wife had two children. A park, high school and an elementary school in Flushing, Queens are named in his honor, his house at Bowne Street and 37th Avenue in Flushing still stands, is open to the public as a NYC Landmark and a Registered Historic Place. On 20 October 2018 a memorial stone was unveiled and a lime tree planted on the corner of Lime Tree Road and Hurst Rise, Derbyshire, the site of John Bowne's birthplace, Lime Tree Farm. Flushing Remonstrance Bowne House This book gives more on the John Bowne history Ref. page 234-246 Religion in New Netherlands 1623-1664 by Frederick J Zweidlein, Da Capo Press, NY 1971 University Catalog Call #F122.1 Z98 BowneHouse.org the Bowne descendants of John Bowne John Bowne's Journal and Related Materials 1649-1676 Anya Seton's papers housed at the Historical Society of the Town of Greenwich, including information and references for the book, The Winthrop Woman A colony with a conscience
Monmouth County, New Jersey
Monmouth County is a county located in Central New Jersey, in the United States within the New York metropolitan area, the northernmost county along the Jersey Shore. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 626,351, making it the state's fifth-most populous county, representing a decrease of 0.6% from the 2010 Census, when the population was enumerated at 630,380, in turn an increase of 15,079 from 615,301 at the 2000 Census. As of 2010, the county fell to the fifth-most populous county in the state, having been surpassed by Hudson County, its county seat is Freehold Borough. The most populous place was Middletown Township, with 66,522 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Howell Township covered 61.21 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $69,410, the fifth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 74th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Monmouth County ranked 38th among the highest-income counties in the United States as of 2011, placing it among the top 1.2% of counties by wealth.
As of 2009, it was ranked 56th in the United States by personal per-capita income. In 1609, the English navigator, Henry Hudson, his crew aboard the Dutch vessel Half Moon spotted land in what is now Monmouth County, most off Sandy Hook. Among the first European settlers and majority landowners in the area were Richard and Penelope Stout. Penelope miraculously survived her wounds from a native attack in Sandy Hook and further lived to the age of 110. Additionally, a group of Quaker families from Long Island settled the Monmouth Tract, an early land grant from Richard Nicolls issued in 1665, they were followed by a group of Scottish settlers who inhabited Freehold Township in about 1682–85, followed several years by Dutch settlers. As they arrived in this area, they were greeted by Lenape Native Americans, who lived in scattered small family bands and developed a amicable relationship with the new arrivals. Enslaved Africans were present in the area from at least 1680, by 1726 made up 9% of the total population of the county.
Monmouth County was established on March 1683, while part of the province of East Jersey. On October 31, 1693, the county was partitioned into the townships of Freehold and Shrewsbury, its name may come from the Rhode Island Monmouth Society or from a suggestion from Colonel Lewis Morris that the county should be named after Monmouthshire in Wales, Great Britain. Other suggestions include that it was named for James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who had many allies among the East Jersey leadership. In 1714, the first county government was established. At the June 28, 1778, Battle of Monmouth, near Freehold Township, General George Washington's soldiers battled the British under Sir Henry Clinton, in the longest land battle of the American Revolutionary War, it was at Monmouth that the tactics and training from Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben developed at Valley Forge during the winter encampment were first implemented on a large scale. At independence, Monmouth's population included 1,640 slaves, as well as an undetermined number of free African Americans.
The number of enslaved persons fell steeply after 1820, though a small number remained until at least 1850. Monmouth's free African American population climbed from 353 in 1790 to 2,658 in 1860. Ocean County was carved out of Monmouth County in 1850. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a total area of 665.32 square miles, including 468.79 square miles of land and 196.53 square miles of water. Much of Monmouth County remains flat and low-lying far inland. However, there are some low hills in and around Holmdel Township, one of them, Crawford Hill, the former site of a radar facility, is the county's highest point, variously listed at 380 to 391 feet above sea level; the top portion of the hill is owned by Alcatel-Lucent and houses a research laboratory of Bell Laboratories. The northeastern portion of the county, in the Locust section of Middletown Township and the boroughs of Highlands and Atlantic Highlands, are very hilly; the lowest point is sea level. Along with adjacent Ocean County, Monmouth County is a mecca of fishing.
Its waterways include several rivers and bays that flow from the Raritan Bayshore into Raritan Bay and Lower New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean. The Manasquan Inlet is located in the county, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the estuary of the Manasquan River, a bay-like body of saltwater that serves as the starting point of the Intracoastal Waterway, which attracts as many as 1,600 boats each weekend during the peak season; the county adjoins: Middlesex County, New Jersey – northwest Ocean County, New Jersey – south Mercer County, New Jersey – west Burlington County, New Jersey – southwest Richmond County, New York - north Gateway National Recreation Area As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 630,380 people, 233,983 households, 163,320.134 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,344.7 per square mile. There were 258,410 housing units at an average density of 551.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 82.60% White, 7.37% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 4.96% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.89% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.67% of the population. There were 233,983 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with n
Middletown Township, New Jersey
Middletown Township is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 66,522, making it the state's 16th largest municipality, having seen an increase of 195 residents from its population of 66,327 in the 2000 Census, when it was the state's 17th most populous municipality, which had in turn declined by 1,856 from the 68,183 counted in the 1990 Census. Middletown is one of the oldest sites of European settlement in New Jersey. Due to its affluence, low crime, access to cultural activities, public school system, central commuting location, Middletown was ranked in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2014 Top 100 in CNNMoney.com's Best Places to Live. Time magazine listed Middletown on its list of "Best Places to Live 2014". In 2016, SafeWise named Middletown Township as the fifth-safest city in America to raise a child. Small communities of the Lenape Navesink tribe were common throughout the area when the first known European landing in what would become Middletown Township occurred in 1609.
Sea captain and explorer Henry Hudson, in search of the mythical Northwest Passage in the service of the Dutch West India Company, anchored along the shores of Sandy Hook Bay in 1609, describing the area "a good land to fall in with and a pleasant land to see." While a patroonship was granted by the company in 1651 the land wasn't settled. Today's Shoal Harbor Museum and Old Spy House includes portions of a house constructed by Thomas Whitlock, one of the area's first European settlers who arrived here as early as 1664, around the time of the English takeover of New Netherland as a prelude of the Second Anglo-Dutch War. Long-standing tradition had Penelope Stout, one of the first settlers, hiding in a tree from hostile Native Americans. Shortly after the Dutch surrender of the New Netherland to the English in 1664 a large tract of land known as the Navesink Patent or Monmouth Tract was granted to Baptist and Quaker settlers from Long Island, Rhode Island and Massachusetts, which soon thereafter became the townships of Middletown and Shrewsbury.
During the American Revolutionary War and much of the rest of Eastern Monmouth County was held by the British. After the Battle of Monmouth, the British retreat from Freehold Township, New Jersey carried them down King's Highway in Middletown to their embarkation points at Sandy Hook in the bay, heading back to New York City. Middletown Township was formed on October 31, 1693, was incorporated as a township by the Township Act of 1798 of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken to form Atlantic Township, Raritan Township, Atlantic Highlands and Keansburg. Upon the completion of a railroad junction in 1875, the town grew more eventually changing from a group of small and loosely connected fishing and agricultural villages into a fast-growing suburb at the turn of the 20th century. If Middletown had a recognizable town center or town square, it was lost in that rapid growth soon after World War II. In May 1958, several Nike Ajax missiles exploded at Battery NY-53 in Chapel Hill, killing ten Army and civilian personnel.
The accident was one of the worst missile-related disasters of the Cold War. The Waterfront site of Naval Weapons Station Earle is located in Leonardo on Sandy Hook Bay, is used to load ammunition onto ships on a finger pier that stretches for 2.9 miles, making it the world's second-longest such pier. The "Evil Clown of Middletown" is a towering sign along Route 35 painted to resemble a circus clown, that advertises a liquor store; the sign is a remnant of an old supermarket that used to be at that location called "Food Circus". The clown and recent successful attempts from residents to save it from demolition have been featured in the pages of Weird NJ magazine, on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, in the Kevin Smith-directed film Clerks II; the Indian Trails 15K road race is held each year in April to benefit the Monmouth Conservation Foundation and includes a 5K walk/run event for fun. The race, run on a combination on paved and dirt roads, includes many steep hills and has been described as "the most challenging race in the state".
According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 58.735 square miles, including 40.989 square miles of land and 17.746 square miles of water. Belford, Leonardo, Navesink, North Middletown and Port Monmouth are all census-designated places and unincorporated communities located within Middletown Township. Other unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Browns Dock, Chapel Hill, East Keansburg, Fort Hancock, Headdons Corner, Hendrickson Corners, Highland Park, Highlands Beach, Highlands of Navesink, Leonardville, Locust Point, Monmouth Hills, New Monmouth, Oak Hill, Philips Mills, Red Hill, River Plaza, Stone Church, Tiltons Corner, Town Brook, Waterwitch Park and Wilmont Park; the Sandy Hook peninsula is within Middletown Township, though it is not connected to the rest of the township by land. However, one could sail along Raritan Bay from the mainland to Sandy Hook and remain within Middletown Township; the township borders the Monmouth County communities of Atlantic Highlands, Colts Neck Township, Fair Haven, Hazle