Calaveras County, California
Calaveras County the County of Calaveras, is a county in the northern portion of the U. S. state, California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 40,171; the county seat is San Andreas. Angels Camp is the only incorporated city in the county. Calaveras is the Spanish word for skulls. Calaveras County is in both the Gold High Sierra regions of California. Calaveras Big Trees State Park, a preserve of Giant Sequoia trees, is in the county several miles east of the town of Arnold on State Highway 4. Credit for the discovery of giant sequoias here is given to Augustus T. Dowd, a trapper who made the discovery in 1852 while tracking a bear; when the bark from the "Discovery Tree" was removed and taken on a tour around the world, the trees became a worldwide sensation and one of the county's first tourist attractions. The uncommon gold telluride mineral calaverite was discovered in the county in 1861 and is named for it. Mark Twain set "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", in the county.
The county hosts an annual fair and Jumping Frog Jubilee, featuring a frog-jumping contest, to celebrate the association with Twain's story. Each year's winner is commemorated with a brass plaque mounted in the sidewalk of downtown Historic Angels Camp and this feature is known as the Frog Hop of Fame. In 2015, Calaveras County had the highest rate of suicide deaths in the United States, with 49.1 suicides per 100,000 people. The Spanish word calaveras means "skulls." The county takes its name from the Calaveras River. He believed they had either died of famine or been killed in tribal conflicts over hunting and fishing grounds. A more cause was a European epidemic disease, acquired from interacting with other tribes near the Missions on the coast; the Stanislaus River, which forms the southern boundary, is named for Estanislao, a Lakisamni Yokut who escaped from Mission San Jose in the late 1830s. He is reported to have raised a small group of men with crude weapons, hiding in the foothills when the Mexicans attacked.
The natives were decimated by Mexican gunfire. In 1836, John Marsh, Jose Noriega, a party of men, went exploring in Northern California, they made camp along a river bed in the evening, when they woke up the next morning, discovered that they had camped in the midst of a great quantity of skulls and bones. They gave the river the appropriate name: Calaveras; the writer Mark Twain spent 88 seminal days in the county, during which time he heard the story that became The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County in the Angel Hotel in 1865. This short story put Calaveras County on the map. Calaveras County was one of the original counties of the state of California, created in 1850 at the time of admission to the Union. Parts of the county's territory were reassigned to Amador County in 1854 and to Alpine County in 1864; the county's geography includes beautiful landmarks, rolling hills, giant valleys. It is known for its friendly communities, businesses such as agriculture management and construction engineering.
It has numerous caverns, such as Mercer Caverns, California Cavern and Moaning Cavern that are national destinations for tourists from across the country. Other attractions include a thriving wine making industry, including the largest of the Calaveras wineries: Ironstone Vineyards, mountain sports recreation and the performing arts. Gold prospecting in Calaveras County began in late 1848 with a camp founded by Henry and George Angel; the brothers first arrived in California as soldiers, serving under Colonel Frémont during the Mexican War. After the war's end, the brothers found themselves in Monterey where they heard of the fabulous finds in the gold fields, they set out for the mines. The company parted ways upon reaching what became known as Angels Creek; the brothers soon opened a trading post. By the end of the year, over one hundred tents were scattered about the creek and the settlement was referred to as Angels Trading Post shortened to Angels Camp. Placer mining soon gave out around the camp, but an extensive gold-bearing quartz vein of the area's Mother Lode was located by the Winter brothers during the mid-1850s, this brought in the foundations of a permanent town.
This vein followed Main Street from Angels Creek up to the southern edge of Altaville. Five major mines worked the rich vein: the Stickle, the Utica, the Lightner, the Angels, the Sultana; these mines reached their peaks during the 1880s and 1890s, when over 200 stamp mills crushed quartz ore brought in by hand cars on track from the mines. By the time hard rock mining was done, the five mines had producing a total of over $20 million in gold; the telluride mineral calaverite was first recognized and obtained in 1861 from the Stanislaus Mine, Carson Hill, Angels Camp, in Calaveras Co. California, it was named for the County of origin by chemist and mineralogist Frederick Augustus Genth who differentiated it from the known gold telluride mineral sylvanite, formally reported it as a new gold mineral in 1868. George J. Clarke Alexander Hunter According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,037 square miles, of which 1,020 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. A California Department of Forestry report lists the county's area in acres as 663,000, although the exact figure would
Paul Cook (politician)
Paul Joseph Cook is an American politician, the U. S. Representative for California's 8th congressional district since 2013, he served as a member of California State Assembly from 2006 to 2012 and on the Yucca Valley town council from 1998 until 2006. He is a Republican. Cook was born in Meriden, Connecticut in 1943, he was raised in Meriden and did not permanently move to California until the end of his military career. In 1966, he graduated from Southern Connecticut State University, earning a B. S. in teaching. That year, he joined the United States Marine Corps; as an infantry officer, Cook served in the Vietnam War. His actions in combat earned him many honors, including two Purple Hearts, he served in the Marine Corps for 26 years. After he retired from the Marine Corps in 1992 as a colonel, he earned an MPA from California State University, San Bernardino in 1996 and a master's in political science from University of California Riverside in 2000. From 1993 to 1994, he was Director of Yucca Valley Chamber of Commerce.
From 1998 to 2002, he was a professor at Copper Mountain College. Cook taught courses on political violence and terrorism at University of California Riverside since 2002. In 2006, Cook ran for California's 65th Assembly District. Cook won a five candidate Republican primary field with 29% of the vote. In the general election, Cook defeated Democrat Rita Ramirez-Dean 60%–37%. In 2008, he won re-election to a second term, defeating Democrat Carl Wood 53%–47%. In 2010, he won re-election to a third term, defeating Wood again 58%–42%.. The 65th district included the cities of Banning, Big Bear Lake, Cherry Valley, Moreno Valley, San Jacinto, Sun City, Twentynine Palms, Yucca Valley and other smaller communities and unincorporated areas in Riverside County and San Bernardino County; the California Chamber of Commerce and the California Taxpayers Association gave Cook a perfect 100% rating, 2007–2011. In 2010, Democratic Speaker of the Assembly John Pérez appointed Cook to chair the Veterans Affairs Committee, the first time a Democratic speaker had appointed a Republican to chair a committee since 2002.
Accountability and Administrative Review Committee Budget Committee Emergency Management Committee Governmental Organization Committee Higher Education Committee Inland Empire Transportation Issues Committee Master Plan for Higher Education Preservation of California's Entertainment Industry Committee Sunset Review Committee Veterans Affairs Committee Judiciary Committee In January 2012, 34-year incumbent Jerry Lewis announced he would not seek re-election in November. Cook entered the primary for the district, renumbered from the 41st to the 8th in redistricting, he finished second in the 13-candidate all-party open primary. He earned 15% of the vote. Fellow Republican and conservative activist Gregg Imus ranked first with 16% of the vote. Cook was endorsed by the California Off-Road Vehicle Association past presidents, the San Bernardino Sun, National Vietnam and Gulf War Veterans Coalition, the County Farm Bureau, state Assemblyman Steve Knight, state Senator Sharon Runner, U. S. Congressman Ed Royce.
In the November election, Cook defeated Imus 58%–42%. In 2013, Cook co-signed a letter to president Barack Obama, urging him to finalize the Keystone XL pipeline, stating that it was about "jobs, jobs jobs." He expressed fear that China "is ready to take advantage of America's missteps with the Keystone pipeline."Early in 2017, Cook voted in favor of repealing the Affordable Care Act. His reason for voting for the repeal was to ensure that "every American has access to quality care to fit their budget." In August 2017, he voted in favor of outlawing late term abortions, unless the woman was a victim of rape or incest or that her life was threatened. Cook voted in favor of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. By voting for the bill, Cook says that the bill will "deliver crucial tax relief for middle-class and low-income Americans." He voted for this bill because more than 90 percent of taxpaying constituents will receive a tax break. He supports it because it simplifies the tax code. Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces Subcommittee on Seapower and Projection Forces Committee on Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Europe and Eurasia Subcommittee on Terrorism and Trade Committee on Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Disability Assistance and Memorial Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity Congressional Cement Caucus House Baltic Caucus Republican Main Street Partnership Congressional Western Caucus In the first session of the 115th United States Congress, Cook was ranked the 33rd most bipartisan member of the House by the Bipartisan Index, a metric published by The Lugar Center and Georgetown's McCourt School of Public Policy to assess congressional bipartisanship.
Cook is pro-life. Cook opposes Common Core State Standards. Cook supports repealing the Affordable Care Act, he supports legislation that "decreases premiums, makes it easier for employers to offer affordable healthcare options for their employees, allows greater freedom for people to purchase a plan of their choice." Cook believes. Cook resides in Yucca Valley with Jeanne. Congressman Paul Cook official U. S. House site Paul Cook for Congress Paul Cook at Curlie Appearances on C-SPAN Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress
Mariposa County, California
Mariposa County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 U. S. Census, the population was 18,251; the county seat is Mariposa. It is located in the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada mountains, north of Fresno, east of Merced, southeast of Stockton; the county's eastern section is the central portion of Yosemite National Park. There are no incorporated cities in Mariposa County, it has the distinction of having no permanent traffic lights anywhere in the county. Mariposa County was one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850. While it began as the state's largest county, territory, once part of Mariposa was ceded over time to form all or part of twelve other counties, including all of Merced, Fresno, Tulare and Kern. Thus, Mariposa County is known as the "Mother of Counties". Mariposa County's original seat was a now-nonexistent hamlet known as Agua Fria, about 3 miles directly west of Mariposa proper on Agua Fria Road, which runs from Highway 140 to the south, to the community of Mt. Bullion to the northwest.
Charles Fremont moved the county seat to Mariposa in 1854, resulting in the construction of the Mariposa County Courthouse, whose grounds occupies an entire block. The historic structure is fronted by Bullion Street; this handsome, white judicial building erected with whip-sawed wood from nearby forests is the oldest courthouse still in use in California: cases are still tried there to this day. The courthouse is so recognizable. Noteworthy is the courthouse's clock tower and bell, which chimes every hour, on the hour, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; the county took its name from Mariposa Creek, so named by Spanish explorers in 1806, when they discovered a great cluster of butterflies in the foothills of the Sierras. Each year, the first weekend in May, residents mark the annual arrival of migrating monarch butterflies with a "Butterfly Days" festival and parade. Mariposa County is located at the southern end of California's Mother Lode region. During the California Gold Rush, great quantities of the prized mineral were found and extracted, first in local stream-beds and in hard rock mines.
One of the most notable beneficiaries of this wealth was the famed explorer and 1856 Republican presidential candidate, John Charles Frémont, for whom the local hospital and Charles Street are named. Jessie Street, in the town of Mariposa, is named for Fremont's wife, Jessie Benton Frémont, who came to Mariposa with her husband on many extended visits although they never took up permanent residence within the county. Many aspects of the area's mining history are depicted in exhibits at two local museums: the Mariposa History Museum, located in the town of Mariposa. Two small gold mines in Mariposa county, the Mockingbird and the Colorado Quartz, intermittently produce world-class specimens of crystalline gold for mineral collectors. "Specimens from these occurrences have bright luster and rich color, with well-developed crystals in unusual and attractive arrangements." The best-known example is "The Dragon", now on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science. According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,463 square miles, of which 1,449 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
Along the banks of the Merced River is found the sole habitat for the limestone salamander, a rare species endemic to Mariposa County. Tuolumne County - north Madera County - southeast Merced County - southwest Stanislaus County - westMono County- East Sierra National Forest Stanislaus National Forest Yosemite National Park The largest self-reported ancestry groups in Mariposa County were English, Irish, Italian, "American", Scottish and Portuguese; the 2010 United States Census reported that Mariposa County had a population of 18,251. The racial makeup of Mariposa County was 16,103 White, 138 African American, 527 Native American, 204 Asian, 26 Pacific Islander, 508 from other races, 745 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,676 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 17,130 people, 6,613 households, 4,490 families residing in the county. The population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 8,826 housing units at an average density of 6 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 88.9% White, 0.7% Black or African American, 3.5% Native American, 0.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. 7.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 17.8% were of German, 13.4% English, 12.7% Irish and 6.7% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.0% spoke English and 3.5% Spanish as their first language. There were 6,613 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.8% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average famil
Yosemite National Park
Yosemite National Park is an American national park located in the western Sierra Nevada of Central California, bounded on the southeast by Sierra National Forest and on the northwest by Stanislaus National Forest. The park is managed by the National Park Service and covers an area of 747,956 acres and sits in four counties: centered in Tuolumne and Mariposa, extending north and east to Mono and south to Madera County. Designated a World Heritage site in 1984, Yosemite is internationally recognized for its granite cliffs, clear streams, giant sequoia groves, mountains, meadows and biological diversity. 95% of the park is designated wilderness. On average, about 4 million people visit Yosemite each year, most spend the majority of their time in the 7 square miles of Yosemite Valley; the park set a visitation record in 2016, surpassing 5 million visitors for the first time in its history. Yosemite was central to the development of the national park idea. Galen Clark and others lobbied to protect Yosemite Valley from development leading to President Abraham Lincoln's signing the Yosemite Grant in 1864.
John Muir led a successful movement to have Congress establish a larger national park by 1890, one which encompassed the valley and its surrounding mountains and forests, paving the way for the National Park System. Yosemite is one of the largest and least fragmented habitat blocks in the Sierra Nevada, the park supports a diversity of plants and animals; the park has an elevation range from 2,127 to 13,114 feet and contains five major vegetation zones: chaparral and oak woodland, lower montane forest, upper montane forest, subalpine zone, alpine. Of California's 7,000 plant species, about 50% occur in the Sierra Nevada and more than 20% are within Yosemite; the park contains suitable habitat for more than 160 rare plants, with rare local geologic formations and unique soils characterizing the restricted ranges many of these plants occupy. The geology of the Yosemite area is characterized by granitic remnants of older rock. About 10 million years ago, the Sierra Nevada was uplifted and tilted to form its gentle western slopes and the more dramatic eastern slopes.
The uplift increased the steepness of stream and river beds, resulting in the formation of deep, narrow canyons. About one million years ago and ice accumulated, forming glaciers at the higher alpine meadows that moved down the river valleys. Ice thickness in Yosemite Valley may have reached 4,000 feet during the early glacial episode; the downslope movement of the ice masses cut and sculpted the U-shaped valley that attracts so many visitors to its scenic vistas today. The name "Yosemite" referred to the name of a renegade tribe, driven out of the area by the Mariposa Battalion; the area had been called "Ahwahnee" by indigenous people. Yosemite Valley has been inhabited for nearly 3,000 years, although humans may have first visited the area as long as 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the indigenous natives called themselves the Ahwahnechee, meaning "dwellers in Ahwahnee." They are related to the Northern Mono tribes. Many tribes visited the area to trade, including nearby Central Sierra Miwoks, who lived along the drainage area of the Tuolumne and Stanislaus Rivers.
A major trading route went over Mono Pass and through Bloody Canyon to Mono Lake, just to the east of the Yosemite area. Vegetation and game in the region were similar to that present today; the California Gold Rush in the mid-19th century increased travel by European-Americans in the area, causing competition for resources between the regional Paiute and Miwok and the miners and hangers on. In 1851 as part of the Mariposa Wars intended to suppress Native American resistance, United States Army Major Jim Savage led the Mariposa Battalion into the west end of Yosemite Valley, he was pursuing forces of around 200 Ahwahneechee led by Chief Tenaya. Accounts from this battalion were the first well-documented reports of ethnic Europeans entering Yosemite Valley. Attached to Savage's unit was Dr. Lafayette Bunnell, the company physician, who wrote about his awestruck impressions of the valley in The Discovery of the Yosemite. Bunnell is credited with naming Yosemite Valley, based on his interviews with Chief Tenaya.
Bunnell wrote. The Miwok, a neighboring tribe, most white settlers considered the Ahwahneechee to be violent because of their frequent territorial disputes; the Miwok term for the Pai-Ute band was yohhe'meti, meaning "they are killers". Correspondence and articles written by members of the battalion helped to popularize the natural wonders of the Yosemite Valley and the surrounding area. Chief Tenaya and his Ahwahneechee were captured and their village burned; the chief and some others were allowed to return to Yosemite Valley. In the spring of 1852 they attacked a group of eight gold miners, moved east to flee law enforcement. Near Mono Lake, they took refuge with the nearby Mono tribe of Paiute, they stole horses from their hosts and moved away, but the Mono Paiutes tracked down and killed many of the Ahwahneechee, including Chief Tenaya. The Mono Paiute took the survivors as captives back to Mono Lake and absorbed them into the Mono Lake Paiute tribe. After these wars, a number of Native Americans continued to live within the boundaries of Yosemite.
A number of Indians supported the growing tourism industry by worki
Northern Paiute people
The Northern Paiute people is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, southeast Oregon. The Northern Paiutes' pre-contact lifestyle was well adapted to the harsh desert environment in which they lived; each tribe or band occupied a specific territory centered on a lake or wetland that supplied fish and water-fowl. Communal hunt drives, which involved neighboring bands, would take rabbits and pronghorn from surrounding areas. Individuals and families appear to have moved among the bands. Northern Paiutes lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place following animal migration patterns and seasonal foods, they lived in independent groups that consisted of a handful or so of different family units. Upon arrival of foreigners into western Nevada, the Northern Paiutes became sedentary in order to protect themselves and handle negotiations with the new settlers; because of their change from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle, women were relied upon more for both their full-time employment and at-home work.
This is true today. In some modern Northern Paiute tribes, men work in “seasonal jobs on the ranches, in the mines, as caretakers in the nearby motels,” and women work “in the laundry, the bakery, in homes and motels as domestics, in the country hospital.”They gathered Pinyon nuts in the mountains in the fall as a critical winter food source. Women gathered grass seeds and roots as important parts of their diet; the name of each band was derived from a characteristic food source. For example, the people at Pyramid Lake were known as the Cui Ui Ticutta; the people of the Lovelock area were known as the Koop Ticutta. The Kucadikadi of Mono County, California are the "brine fly eaters." Relations among the Northern Paiute bands and their Shoshone neighbors were peaceful. There is no sharp distinction between Sosone. Relations with the Waasseoo or Washoe people, who were culturally and linguistically different, were not so peaceful; these differences in lifestyle and language could be because Northern Paiutes may have moved from southern regions to the Nevada/California area in which they reside.
They may have overthrown and destroyed other Indian tribes in order to inhabit their current lands. The Paiutes, for example, were “continually at war” with the Klamath south and west of them. "The Achomawi, south of the Klamath were enemies of the Northern Paiute, the earliest wars related in Achomawi oral tradition were Northern Paiute."Sustained contact between the Northern Paiute and Euro-Americans began in the early 1840s, although the first contact may have occurred as early as the 1820s. Although the Paiute had adopted the use of horses from other Great Plains tribes, their culture was otherwise largely unaffected by European influences; as Euro-American settlement of the area progressed, competition for scarce resources increased. Several violent confrontations took place, including the Pyramid Lake War of 1860, Owens Valley Indian War 1861-1864, Snake War 1864-1868; these incidents began with a disagreement between settlers and the Paiute regarding property, retaliation by one group against the other, counter-retaliation by the opposite party culminating in the armed involvement of the U.
S. Army. Fatalities were much higher among the Paiute due to newly introduced Eurasian infectious diseases, such as smallpox, which were endemic among the Europeans; the Natives had no acquired immunity. Sarah Winnemucca's book Life Among the Piutes; the government first established the Malheur Reservation for the Northern Paiute in eastern Oregon. It intended to concentrate the Northern Paiute there; because of the distance of the reservation from the traditional areas of most of the bands, because of its poor environmental conditions, many Northern Paiute refused to go there. Those that did, soon left, they clung to their traditional lifestyle as long as possible. When environmental degradation of their lands made that impossible, they sought jobs on white farms, ranches or in cities, they established small Indian colonies, where they were joined by many Shoshone and, in the Reno area, Washoe people. The government created larger reservations at Pyramid Lake and Duck Valley, Nevada. By that time the pattern of small de facto reservations near cities or farm districts with mixed Northern Paiute and Shoshone populations, had been established.
Starting in the early 20th century, the federal government began granting land to these colonies. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, several individual colonies gained federal recognition as independent tribes, it is said that the Northern Paiute people have inhabited the area between the West and Northwest of the United States for over 11,000 years. Therefore, their history is old with many varying accounts of their origin. One version of how the Northern Paiute people came to be is that a bird, the Sagehen, was the only bird that survived a massive flood; the Sagehen cared for it until the fire grew bigger and bigger. The water from the flood dried, a man “happened.” This man was called Nűműzóho, a cannibal. The Cannibals killed all the Indians, except for a woman, able to escape; this woman kept herself alive by traveling from place to place in the region and staying with different characters
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Inyo County, California
Inyo County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,546; the county seat is Independence. Inyo County is on the east side of the Sierra Nevada and southeast of Yosemite National Park in Central California, it contains the Owens River Valley. With an area of 10,192 square miles, Inyo County is the second-largest county by area in California, after San Bernardino County. One-half of that area is within Death Valley National Park. However, with a population density of 1.8 people per square mile, it has the second-lowest population density in California, after Alpine County. Mount Whitney, the highest peak in the contiguous United States, is on Inyo County's western border; the Badwater Basin in Death Valley National Park, the lowest place in North America, is in eastern Inyo County. The difference between the two points is about 14,700 feet, they are not visible from each other, but both can be observed from the Panamint Range on the west side of Death Valley, above the Panamint Valley.
Thus, Inyo County has the greatest elevation difference among all of the counties and county-equivalents in the contiguous United States. Present day Inyo county has been the historic homeland for thousands of years of the Mono tribe, Coso people and Kawaiisu Native Americans, they spoke the Mono language with Mono traditional narratives. The descendants of these ancestors continue to live in their traditional homelands in the Owens River Valley and in Death Valley National Park. Inyo County was formed in 1866 out of the territory of the unorganized Coso County, created on April 4, 1864 from parts of Mono and Tulare Counties, it acquired more territory from Mono County in 1870 and Kern County and San Bernardino County in 1872. For many years it has been believed that the county derived its name from the Mono tribe of Native Americans name for the mountains in its former homeland; the name came to be thought of, mistakenly, as the name of the mountains to the east of the Owens Valley when the first whites there asked the local Paiutes what the name of the mountains to the east was.
The local Paiutes responded that, the land of Inyo. They meant by this that those lands belonged to the Shoshone tribe headed by a man whose name was Inyo. Inyo was the name of the headman of the Panamint band of Paiute-Shoshone people at the time of contact when the first whites, the Manly expedition of 1849, lost, into Death Valley on their expedition to the gold fields of western California; the Owens Valley whites misunderstood the local Paiute and thought that Inyo was the name of the mountains when it was the name of the chief, or headman, of the tribe that had those mountains as part of their homeland. "Indian George", a fixture of many of the stories of early Death Valley days, was Inyo's son. Indian George's Shoshone name was "Bah-Vanda-Sa-Va-Nu-Kee", which means "The Boy Who Ran Away", a name he was given when he became terrified of the whites and their wheeled wagons and huge buffalo, none of which the Shoshone had seen before when they came wandering down Furnace Creek Wash in December 1849.
In 1940, when Bah-vanda was around 100 years old, JC Boyles, a Panamint Shoshone who had become educated, came back to the Panamint Valley and interviewed Bah-Vanda at length about the early days of his life, including the events of 1849, it is in this interview that Bah-vanda refers to his father, Inyo. In order to provide water needs for the growing City of Los Angeles, water was diverted from the Owens River into the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913; the Owens River Valley cultures and environments changed substantially. From the 1910s to 1930s the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power purchased much of the valley for water rights and control. In 1941 the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power extended the Los Angeles Aqueduct system further upriver into the Mono Basin. Inyo County is host to a number of natural superlatives. Among them are: Mount Whitney, with an elevation of 14,505 feet, is the highest point in the contiguous United States, the 12th highest peak in the U. S. and the 24th highest peak in North America.
Badwater Basin, in Death Valley, the lowest point in North America Methuselah, an ancient Bristlecone pine tree and one of the oldest living trees on Earth Owens Valley, the deepest valley on the American continents Two mountain ranges exceeding 14,000 feet in elevation: The Sierra Nevada and the White Mountains Thirteen of California's fifteen peaks which exceed 14,000 feet in elevation. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,227 square miles, of which 10,181 square miles is land and 46 square miles is water, it is the second-largest county by the ninth-largest in the United States. Death Valley National Park Inyo National Forest Manzanar National Historic SiteThere are 22 official wilderness areas in Inyo County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System; this is the second-largest number of any county, exceeded only by San Bernardino County's 35 wilderness areas. Most of these are managed by the Bureau of Land