Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B. They are best known as powerful anti-depressants, as well as effective therapeutic agents for panic disorder and social phobia, they are effective in treatment-resistant depression and atypical depression. They are used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and several other disorders. Reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A are a subclass of MAOIs that selectively and reversibly inhibit the MAO-A enzyme. RIMAs are used clinically in the treatment of dysthymia. Due to their reversibility, they are safer in single-drug overdose than the older, irreversible MAOIs, weaker in increasing the monoamines important in depressive disorder. RIMAs have not gained widespread market share in the United States. New research into MAOIs indicates that much of the concern over their supposed dangerous dietary side effects stems from misconceptions and misinformation, that it is still underutilized despite demonstrated efficacy.
New research questions the validity of the perceived severity of dietary reactions, based on outdated research. Despite this, many psychiatrists still reserve monoamine oxidase inhibitors as a last line of treatment, used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs have failed. MAOIs have been found to be effective in the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia, social phobia, atypical depression or mixed anxiety disorder and depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as borderline personality disorder. MAOIs appear to be effective in the management of bipolar depression according to a recent retrospective-analysis. There are reports of MAOI efficacy in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania and avoidant personality disorder, but these reports are from uncontrolled case reports. MAOIs can be used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease by targeting MAO-B in particular, as well as providing an alternative for migraine prophylaxis. Inhibition of both MAO-A and MAO-B is used in the treatment of clinical anxiety.
MAOIs appear to be indicated for outpatients with dysthymia complicated by panic disorder or hysteroid dysphoriaNewer MAOIs such as selegiline and the reversible MAOI moclobemide provide a safer alternative and are now sometimes used as first-line therapy. People taking MAOIs need to change their diets to limit or avoid foods and beverages containing tyramine. If large amounts of tyramine are consumed, they may suffer hypertensive crisis. Examples of foods and beverages with high levels of tyramine include animal liver and fermented substances, such as alcoholic beverages and aged cheeses. Excessive concentrations of tyramine in blood plasma can lead to hypertensive crisis by increasing the release of norepinephrine, which causes blood vessels to constrict by activating alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. Ordinarily, MAO-A would destroy the excess NE. RIMAs are displaced from MAO-A in the presence of tyramine, rather than inhibiting its breakdown in the liver as general MAOIs do. Additionally, MAO-B remains free and continues to metabolize tyramine in the stomach, although this is less significant than the liver action.
Thus, RIMAs are unlikely to elicit tyramine-mediated hypertensive crisis. The most significant risk associated with the use of MAOIs is the potential for drug interactions with over-the-counter and prescription medicines, ‘controlled’ drugs or medications, some dietary supplements, it is vital. For this reason, many users carry an MAOI-card, which lets emergency medical personnel know what drugs to avoid. Tryptophan supplements should not be consumed with MAOIs as the fatal serotonin syndrome may result. MAOIs should not be combined with other psychoactive substances except under expert care. Certain combinations can cause lethal reactions, common examples including SSRIs, tricyclics, MDMA, meperidine and dextromethorphan. Drugs that affect the release or reuptake of epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine need to be administered at lower doses due to the resulting potentiated and prolonged effect. MAOIs interact with tobacco-containing products and may potentiate the effects of certain compounds in tobacco.
This may be reflected in the difficulty of smoking cessation, as tobacco contains occurring MAOI compounds in addition to the nicotine. While safer than general MAOIs, RIMAs still possess significant and serious drug interactions with many common drugs. Ocular alpha-2 agonists such as brimonidine and apraclonidine are gla
Glen John Provost is an American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church who has served as the bishop of the Diocese of Lake Charles, Louisiana since his episcopal consecration on April 23, 2007. Provost was born to Sadie Marie Blanchet Provost in Lafayette, Louisiana, he received a B. A. in English Literature from Saint Joseph Seminary College near Covington, Louisiana, in 1971, continued his studies in Rome while living at the North American College. In 1974 he was awarded the Sacrae Theologiae Baccalaureum from St. Thomas University and the Licentiate in 1975. In 1981 he earned a Master of Arts degree in English Literature from the University of Louisiana-Lafayette. Further studies include work at Institut Catholique in Paris; as Provost was a student at the North American College, he joined numerous other students being ordained to the priesthood by Pope Paul VI on June 29, 1975 in St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City, served in the Diocese of Lafayette in Louisiana. Provost was appointed bishop of Lake Charles on March 6, 2007.
He was consecrated, installed, as bishop on April 23, 2007, with Archbishop Alfred C. Hughes of New Orleans as principal celebrant, his installation brought to a close the two year'sede vacante' the diocese experienced after his predecessor, Edward Kenneth Braxton, was appointed Bishop of Belleville, Illinois, on March 15, 2005. In addition to English, Provost speaks French and Spanish. Roman Catholic Diocese of Lake Charles Official Site
The fifth season of Smallville, an American television series, began airing on September 29, 2005. The series recounts the early adventures of Kryptonian Clark Kent as he adjusts to life in the fictional town of Smallville, during the years before he becomes Superman; the fifth season comprises 22 episodes and concluded its initial airing on May 11, 2006, marking the final season that aired on The WB. Regular cast members during season five include Tom Welling, Kristin Kreuk, Michael Rosenbaum, Erica Durance, Allison Mack, John Glover, Annette O'Toole and John Schneider. Season 5 deals with the aftermath of the second meteor shower. Clark deals with adult life, going to college, a real relationship with Lana, the loss of someone he loves, his distrust for Lex continues to grow, as Clark's professor begins supplying him with evidence of LuthorCorp's secret projects. Clark looks to Chloe for support, while Lionel's transformation into a better person draws skepticism from everyone. Jensen Ackles, who played Jason Teague, left the show after season four, Erica Durance became a series regular as Lois Lane.
The writers brought in Arthur Curry, Victor Stone, Andrea Rojas, DC Comics superheroes, in three separate guest spots as well as the classic Superman villain Brainiac. After spending seasons three and four airing on Wednesday at 8:00 pm, Smallville was moved to Thursday at 8:00 pm, where it stayed for four seasons. Season five rose from the previous season; this was the last season to air on the WB Network. Season 6 and all following seasons aired on The CW Network following a merger of the WB and UPN networks. Since the second season, a promotional tie-in titled Chloe's Chronicles was established to wrap up "unfinished business" from the television series through the use of internet episodes. During season five, the series was evolved into Vengeance Chronicles. In this series, Chloe joins forces with a costumed vigilante she dubs the "Angel of Vengeance", introduced in the episode "Vengeance", to expose Lex Luthor's Level 33.1 experiments on meteor-infected people. In 2006, the show was awarded an Emmy for Outstanding Editing for a Series for the fifth-season episode "Arrival".
Allison Mack was awarded Best Sidekick in 2006. Guest star Emily Hirst was nominated for a Young Artist Award for her portrayal of Maddie Van Horn in "Fragile". In 2006, the show was nominated for a Golden Reel Award for Best Sound Editing in "Commencement". For the 32nd Annual Saturn Awards, the show received seven nominations: Best Network Television Series; the complete fifth season of Smallville was released on September 2006 in North America. Additional releases in region 2 and region 4 took place on August 28, 2006 and April 4, 2007, respectively; the DVD box set included various special features, including episode commentary, The Chloe Chronicles: Volume II, a behind-the-scenes featurette on the making of the 100th episode, Vengeance Chronicles webisodes, a preview of the documentary Look, Up in the Sky! The Amazing Story of Superman. Official website Smallville – list of episodes on IMDb List of Smallville season 5 episodes at TV.com List of Smallville season 5 episodes at Wikia Smallville at epguides.com List of Smallville season 5 guide at kryptonsite.com