A monomer is a molecule that can be reacted together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain or three-dimensional network in a process called polymerization. Monomers can be classified in many ways, they can be subdivided depending on the kind of the polymer that they form. Monomers that participate in condensation polymerization have a different stoichiometry than monomers that participate in addition polymerization: Other classifications include: natural vs synthetic monomers, e.g. glycine vs caprolactam polar vs nonpolar monomers, e.g. vinyl acetate vs ethylene cyclic vs linear, e.g. ethylene oxide vs ethylene glycol, respectivelyThe polymerization of one kind of monomer gives a homopolymer. Many polymers are copolymers. In the case of condensation polymerizations, the ratio of comonomers is 1:1. For example, the formation of many nylons requires equal amounts of a dicarboxylic diamine. In the case of addition polymerizations, the comonomer content is only a few percent.
For example, small amounts of 1-octene monomer are copolymerized with ethylene to give specialized polyethylene. Ethylene gas is the monomer for polyethylene. Other modified ethylene derivatives include: tetrafluoroethylene which leads to Teflon vinyl chloride which leads to PVC styrene which leads to polystyrene Epoxide monomers may be cross linked with themselves, or with the addition of a co-reactant, to form epoxy BPA is the monomer precursor for polycarbonate Terephthalic acid is a comonomer that, with ethylene glycol, forms polyethyleneterephthalate. Dimethylsilicon dichloride is a monomer. Ethyl methacrylate is an acrylic monomer that, when combined with an acrylic polymer and forms an acrylate plastic used to create artificial nail extensions The term "monomeric protein" may be used to describe one of the proteins making up a multiprotein complex; some of the main biopolymers are listed below: For proteins, the monomers are amino acids. Polymerization occurs at ribosomes. About 20 types of amino acid monomers are used to produce proteins.
Hence proteins are not homopolymers. For polynucleic acids, the monomers are nucleotides, each of, made of a pentose sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. Nucleotide monomers are found in the cell nucleus. Four types of nucleotide monomers are precursors to DNA and four different nucleotide monomers are precursors to RNA. For carbohydrates, the monomers are monosaccharides; the most abundant natural monomer is glucose, linked by glycosidic bonds into the polymers cellulose and glycogen. Isoprene is a natural monomer that polymerizes to form natural rubber, most cis-1,4-polyisoprene, but trans-1,4-polymer. Synthetic rubbers are based on butadiene, structurally related to isoprene. Protein subunit List of publications in polymer chemistry Prepolymer Polymer Structure
Alejandro Aura was a Mexican writer, poet and actor, as well as a culture promoter and television host. Alejandro Aura was born on March 1944, to a family from the San Rafael borough of Mexico City, his father Olimpo Aura Pineda was a mathematician, his mother Ema Palacios Ordorica, whose grandfather Manuel Ordorica worked at the National Palace of Mexico with President Porfirio Díaz, was descendant of an aristocratic family. From a young age, Alejandro developed a passion for literature writing poetry, essays, short fiction and fiction, he was characterized by his political activism by participating in the student movement of 1968. Besides his literary activities, he was director of the Theater and Dance department of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. In March, 1995, Aura created the national reading club "Aureolas" in his cultural bar "El hijo del cuervo'" in Coyoacán, where he presented several artistic and social activities between 1984 and 1999. In 1998, he created and directed the Institute of Culture of Mexico City during Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas' term as Head of Government, until 2001.
During his term, Aura promoted the use of public spaces for cultural activities and created reading clubs. He was director of the Institute of Culture of Mexico in Madrid, Spain from July, 2001, to December, 2003, he got first married to Elsa Cross, with whom he had a daughter, Cecilia Aura Cross to Emma Ruiz and to actress Verónica Langer, with whom he had a son, Pablo Aura. He married Carmen Boullosa, with whom he had two children: María and Juan Aura. In Madrid, he met Milagros Revenega, with whom he spent his last days. Alejandro Aura died on July 2008 in Madrid, he was awarded the Latin-American Award for Short Fiction in 1969 for Los baños de Celeste, the National Award for Poetry Aguascalientes in 1973 for Volver a casa. Los baños de Celeste La historia de Nápoles La hora íntima de Agustín Lara El otro lado Cinco veces la flor, in Poesía Joven de México Alianza para vivir Varios desnudos y dos docenas de naturalezas muertas Volver a casa Tambor interno Hemisferio sur La patria vieja Cinco veces Poeta en la mañana Los exaltados Las visitas Salón calavera Xe bubulú, in collaboration with Carmen Boullosa.
Salón calavera, Las visitas and Bang Official blog of Alejandro Aura
Gunslinger Stratos is a series of third-person hero shooter video games, developed by Byking and Taito, published by Square Enix. It debuted in arcades on July 12, 2012, with the scenario provided by Norimitsu Kaihō based on a concept by Gen Urobuchi, it uses Silicon Studio's Orochi game engine, runs on the Taito Type X³ arcade system board. Its sequel, Gunslinger Stratos 2, was released on February 20, 2014, featuring new characters, new battle mechanics, new stages. Tetsuya Nomura and Akira Yasuda each created two characters for the game. A sequel, titled Gunslinger Stratos: Reloaded, was announced to be released in 2016 for Windows PC; the servers were closed on March 29, 2016. A fourth game, Gunslinger Stratos 3, was released on May 12, 2016. An upgraded version, Gunslinger Stratos Σ, with four character types and six new weapon packs for each character and several changes to the respawn and awake systems, was released on April 24, 2017. An anime adaptation of the game known under its expanded title, Gunslinger Stratos: The Animation, was announced and made its premiere on April 4, 2015.
All of the games are played from a third-person perspective, the player must move around the massive battleground, while using the Gun Controllers to aim and shoot at enemies. The goal is to survive and shoot down the rival teams to decrease the opposing team's team meter within a given time limit; the round ends. Players can switch weapons in-battle, utilizing various strategies and tactics, by melding the two gun controllers together into different positions, such as: Side Style: by clipping the side of the gun controllers together, the players can use their character's secondary arsenal. Tandem Style: by clipping the tip of right gun controller onto the top of the left gun controller, the players can use their character's powerful arsenal; as the players progressed to the game's multiplayer mode, those who using the NESiCAxLive card can accumulate "Team Points" by winning battles, using it to purchase and equip "Weapon Packs". Weapons Packs are a set of weapons that can use in battle; some of the packs has upgraded versions of the character's default weapons with boosted stats.
In 2115, the country known as Japan has been split into two parallel worlds: the Frontier S and the 17th Far East Imperial City Management District. Frontier S is an outlaw universe in which freedom runs rampant, while the 17th Far East Imperial City Management District is a totalitarian universe bereft of freedom and is under constant surveillance; when the two universes are starting to fuse into one, the government of each worlds initiates the Operation Stratos, a world-scale protocol wherein a handpicked group of gunslingers and special individuals, each from the two universes, will be sent to the year 2015 to alter the past by eliminating the other side until only one group survives, erasing a parallel universe in the process. The story revolves on a group of gunslingers, each from the two universes who participate in Operation Stratos on a group of four childhood friends: Tohru Kazasumi, Kyōka Katagiri, Kyōma Katagiri, Shizune Rindo, who all must confront their own flaws and differences when they battle their alternate selves in order to survive.
Gunslinger Stratos official franchise website Gunslinger Stratos official English website Game websites: Gunslinger Stratos official Japanese website Gunslinger Stratos 2 official Japanese website Gunslinger Stratos 3/Σ official Japanese website Gunslinger Stratos Reloaded official Japanese website