Neuropsychology is the study and characterization of the behavioral modifications that follow a neurological trauma or condition. It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Whereas classical neurology focuses on the pathology of the nervous system and classical psychology is divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind through the study of neurological patients, it thus shares concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in animals, it has been applied in efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells in higher primates. In practice, neuropsychologists tend to work in research settings, clinical settings, or forensic settings or industry.
Neuropsychology is a new discipline within the field of psychology. The first textbook defining the field, Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, was published by Kolb and Whishaw in 1980. However, the history of its development can be traced back to the Third Dynasty in ancient Egypt even earlier. There is much debate as to. For many centuries, the brain was thought useless and was discarded during burial processes and autopsies; as the field of medicine developed its understanding of human anatomy and physiology, different theories were developed as to why the body functioned the way it did. Many times, bodily functions were approached from a religious point of view and abnormalities were blamed on bad spirits and the gods; the brain has not always been considered the center of the functioning body. It has taken hundreds of years to develop our understanding of the brain and how it affects our behaviors. In ancient Egypt, writings on medicine date from the time of the priest Imhotep, they took a more scientific approach to medicine and disease, describing the brain, trauma and remedies for reference for future physicians.
Despite this, Egyptians saw the heart not the brain as the seat of the soul. Aristotle reinforced this focus on the heart, he believed the heart to be in control of mental processes, looked on the brain, due to its inert nature, as a mechanism for cooling the heat generated by the heart. He drew his conclusions based on the empirical study of animals, he found that while their brains were cold to the touch and that such contact did not trigger any movements, the heart was warm and active and slowing dependent on mood. Such beliefs were upheld by many for years to come, persisting through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period until they began to falter in the 17th Century due to further research; the influence of Aristotle in the development of neuropsychology is evident within language used in modern day, since we "follow our hearts" and "learn by the heart". Hippocrates looked upon the brain as the seat of the soul, he drew a connection between the brain and behaviors of the body saying "The brain exercises the greatest power in the man".
Apart from moving the focus from the heart as the "seat of the soul" to the brain, Hippocrates did not go into much detail about its actual functioning. However, by switching the attention of the medical community to the brain, the doors were opened to a more scientific discovery of the organ responsible for our behaviors. For years to come, scientists were inspired to explore the functions of the body and to find concrete explanations for both normal and abnormal behaviors. Scientific discovery led them to believe that there were natural and organically occurring reasons to explain various functions of the body, it could all be traced back to the brain. Over the years, science would continue to expand and the mysteries of the world would begin to make sense, or at least be looked at in a different way. Hippocrates introduced man to the concept of the mind –, seen as a separate function apart from the actual brain organ. Philosopher René Descartes expanded upon this idea and is most known by his work on the mind-body problem.
Descartes' ideas were looked upon as overly philosophical and lacking in sufficient scientific background. Descartes focused much of his anatomical experimentation on the brain, paying specific attention to the pineal gland – which he argued was the actual "seat of the soul". Still rooted in a spiritual outlook towards the scientific world, the body was said to be mortal, the soul immortal; the pineal gland was thought to be the place at which the mind would interact with the mortal and machine-like body. At the time, Descartes was convinced the mind had control over the behaviors of the body – but that the body could have influence over the mind, referred to as dualism; this idea that the mind had control over the body, but man's body could resist or influence other behaviors was a major turning point in the way many physiologists would look at the brain. The capabilities of the mind were observed to do much more than react, but to be rational and function in organized, thoughtful ways – much more complex than he thought the animal world to be.
These ideas, although disregarded by many
A doppelgänger is a non-biologically related look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a ghostly or paranormal phenomenon and seen as a harbinger of bad luck. Other traditions and stories equate a doppelgänger with an evil twin. In modern times, the term twin stranger is used; the word "doppelgänger" is used in a more general and neutral sense, in slang, to describe any person who physically resembles another person. The word doppelgänger is a loanword from the German Doppelgänger, a compound noun formed by combining the two nouns Doppel and Gänger; the singular and plural forms are the same in German, but English prefers the plural "doppelgängers". The first known use, in the different form Doppeltgänger, occurs in the novel Siebenkäs by Jean Paul, in which he explains his newly coined word by a footnote – while the word Doppelgänger appears, but with a quite different meaning. Like all nouns in German, the word is written with an initial capital letter. Doppelgänger and Doppelgaenger are equivalent spellings, Doppelganger is different and would correspond to a different pronunciation.
In English, the word should be written with a lower-case letter unless it is the first word of a sentence or part of a title. It is further common to drop the umlaut on the letter "a", writing "doppelganger". English-speakers have only applied this German word to a paranormal concept. Francis Grose's, Provincial Glossary of 1787 used the term fetch instead, defined as the "apparition of a person living." Catherine Crowe's book on paranormal phenomena, The Night-Side of Nature helped make the German word well-known. However, the concept of alter egos and double spirits has appeared in the folklore, religious concepts, traditions of many cultures throughout human history. In Ancient Egyptian mythology, a ka was a tangible "spirit double" having the same memories and feelings as the person to whom the counterpart belongs; the Greek Princess presents an Egyptian view of the Trojan War in which a ka of Helen misleads Paris, helping to stop the war.. This is depicted in Euripides' play Helen. In Norse mythology, a vardøger is a ghostly double, seen performing the person's actions in advance.
In Finnish mythology, this is called having an etiäinen, "a firstcomer". The doppelgänger is a version of the Ankou, a personification of death, in Breton and Norman folklore. Izaak Walton claimed that English metaphysical poet John Donne saw his wife's doppelgänger in 1612 in Paris, on the same night as the stillbirth of their daughter. German playwright Goethe described an experience in his autobiography Dichtung und Wahrheit in which he and his double passed one another on horseback. In addition to describing the doppelgänger double as a counterpart to the self, Percy Bysshe Shelley's drama Prometheus Unbound makes reference to Zoroaster meeting "his own image walking in the garden". Lord Byron uses doppelgänger imagery to explore the duality of human nature. In The Devil's Elixir, a man murders the brother and stepmother of his beloved princess, finds his doppelgänger has been sentenced to death for these crimes in his stead, liberates him, only to have the doppelgänger murder the object of his affection.
This was one of E. T. A. Hoffmann's early novels. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's novel The Double presents the doppelgänger as an opposite personality who exploits the character failings of the protagonist to take over his life. Charles Williams' Descent into Hell has character Pauline Anstruther seeing her own doppelgänger all through her life. Clive Barker's story "Human Remains" in his Books of Blood is a doppelgänger tale, the doppelgänger motif is a staple of Gothic fiction. In Stephen King's book, The Outsider, the antagonist is able to use the DNA of individuals to become their near perfect match through a science-fictional ability to transform physically; the allusion to it being a doppelganger is made by the group trying to stop it from killing again. The group discusses other examples of fictional doppelgangers that occurred throughout history to provide some context. In The CW supernatural drama series, The Vampire Diaries, actress Nina Dobrev portrayed the roles of several doppelgangers; the series focused on the doppelgangers of the sweet & genuine Elena and the malevolent & bitchy Katherine.
With the advent of social media, there have been several reported cases of people finding their "twin stranger" online, a modern term for a doppelgänger. Twinstrangers.net is a website where users can upload a photo of themselves and facial recognition software attempts to match them with another user of like appearance. The site reports that it has found numerous living doppelgängers—including three living doppelgängers of its founder Niamh Geaney. Heautoscopy is a term used in psychiatry and neurology for the hallucination of "seeing one's own body at a distance", it can occur as a symptom in schizophrenia and epilepsy, is considered a possible explanation for doppelgänger phenomena. Criminologists find a practical application in the concepts of facial familiarity and similarity due to the instances of wrongful convictions based on eyewitness testimony. In one case, a person spent 17 years behind bars persistently denying any involvement with the crime of which he was accused, he was released after someone was found who shared a striking resemblance and the same first name.
Alter ego Capgras delusion Doppelganger Week Evil twin Fetch Fylgja Sy
Belief is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case regardless of empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true. In the context of Ancient Greek thought, two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa. Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to "trust" and "confidence", while doxa refers to "opinion" and "acceptance"; the English word "orthodoxy" derives from doxa. Jonathan Leicester suggests that belief has the purpose of guiding action rather than indicating truth. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to personal attitudes associated with true or false ideas and concepts. However, "belief" does not require active circumspection. For example, we never ponder. We assume the sun will rise. Since "belief" is an important aspect of mundane life, according to Eric Schwitzgebel in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, a related question asks: "how a physical organism can have beliefs?"
Epistemology is concerned with delineating the boundary between justified belief and opinion, involved with a theoretical philosophical study of knowledge. The primary problem in epistemology is to understand what is needed in order for us to have knowledge. In a notion derived from Plato's dialogue Theaetetus, where the epistemology of Socrates most departs from that of the sophists, who at the time of Plato seem to have defined knowledge as what is here expressed as "justified true belief"; the tendency to translate from belief to knowledge, which Plato utterly dismisses, results from failing to distinguish a dispositive belief from knowledge when the opinion is regarded true, in terms of right, juristically so, the task of the rhetors to prove. Plato dismisses this possibility of an affirmative relation between belief and knowledge when the one who opines grounds his belief on the rule, is able to add justification to it. Plato has been credited for the "justified true belief" theory of knowledge though Plato in the Theaetetus elegantly dismisses it, posits this argument of Socrates as a cause for his death penalty.
Among American epistemologists and Goldman, have questioned the "justified true belief" definition, challenged the "sophists" of their time. Mainstream psychology and related disciplines have traditionally treated belief as if it were the simplest form of mental representation and therefore one of the building blocks of conscious thought. Philosophers have tended to be more abstract in their analysis, much of the work examining the viability of the belief concept stems from philosophical analysis; the concept of belief presumes an object of belief. So, like other propositional attitudes, belief implies the existence of mental states and intentionality, both of which are hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mind, whose foundations and relation to brain states are still controversial. Beliefs are sometimes divided into dispositional beliefs. For example, if asked "do you believe tigers wear pink pajamas?" A person might answer that they do not, despite the fact they may never have thought about this situation before.
This has important implications for understanding the neuroscience of belief. If the concept of belief is incoherent any attempt to find the underlying neural processes that support it will fail. Philosopher Lynne Rudder Baker has outlined four main contemporary approaches to belief in her controversial book Saving Belief: Our common-sense understanding of belief is correct – Sometimes called the "mental sentence theory," in this conception, beliefs exist as coherent entities, the way we talk about them in everyday life is a valid basis for scientific endeavour. Jerry Fodor is one of the principal defenders of this point of view. Our common-sense understanding of belief may not be correct, but it is close enough to make some useful predictions – This view argues that we will reject the idea of belief as we know it now, but that there may be a correlation between what we take to be a belief when someone says "I believe that snow is white" and how a future theory of psychology will explain this behaviour.
Most notably, philosopher Stephen Stich has argued for this particular understanding of belief. Our common-sense understanding of belief is wrong and will be superseded by a radically different theory that will have no use for the concept of belief as we know it – Known as eliminativism, this view argues that the concept of belief is like obsolete theories of times past such as the four humours theory of medicine, or the phlogiston theory of combustion. In these cases science hasn't provided us with a more detailed account of these theories, but rejected them as valid scientific concepts to be replaced by different accounts; the Churchlands argue that our common-sense concept of belief is similar in that as we discover more about neuroscience and the brain, the inevitable conclusion will be to reject the belief hypothesis in its entirety. Our common-sense unders
Lateralization of brain function
The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other. The medial longitudinal fissure separates the human brain into two distinct cerebral hemispheres, connected by the corpus callosum. Although the macrostructure of the two hemispheres appears to be identical, different composition of neuronal networks allows for specialized function, different in each hemisphere. Lateralization of brain structures is based on general trends expressed in healthy patients; each human's brain develops differently leading to unique lateralization in individuals. This is different from specialization as lateralization refers only to the function of one structure divided between two hemispheres. Specialization is much easier to observe as a trend; the best example of an established lateralization is that of Broca's and Wernicke's areas where both are found on the left hemisphere. These areas correspond to handedness, meaning that the localization of these areas is found on the hemisphere corresponding to the dominant hand.
Function lateralization such as semantics, accentuation, etc. has since been called into question and been found to have a neuronal basis in both hemispheres. Another example is. In the cerebellum this is the same bodyside, but in the forebrain this is predominantly the contralateral side. Language functions such as grammar and literal meaning are lateralized to the left hemisphere in right handed individuals. While language production is left-lateralized in up to 90% of right-handers, it is more bilateral, or right-lateralized, in 50% of left-handers. Broca's area and Wernicke's area areas associated with the production of speech and comprehension of speech are located in the left cerebral hemisphere for about 95% of right-handers, but about 70% of left-handers; the processing of visual and auditory stimuli, spatial manipulation, facial perception, artistic ability are represented bilaterally. Numerical estimation and online calculation depend on bilateral parietal regions while exact calculation and fact retrieval are associated with left parietal regions due to their ties to linguistic processing.
The two hemispheres appear to have different value systems. The left hemisphere prefers to reduce moral questions to arithmetic, while the right hemisphere sees the "bigger picture." Depression is linked with a hyperactive right hemisphere, with evidence of selective involvement in "processing negative emotions, pessimistic thoughts and unconstructive thinking styles", as well as vigilance and self-reflection, a hypoactive left hemisphere, "specifically involved in processing pleasurable experiences" and "relatively more involved in decision-making processes". Additionally, "left hemisphere lesions result in an omissive response bias or error pattern whereas right hemisphere lesions result in a commissive response bias or error pattern." The delusional misidentification syndromes, reduplicative paramnesia and Capgras delusion are often the result of right hemisphere lesions. Damage to either the right or left hemisphere, its resulting deficits provide insight into the function of the damaged area.
Left hemisphere damage has many effects on language perception. Damage or lesions to the right hemisphere can result in a lack of emotional prosody or intonation when speaking. Right hemisphere damage has grave effects on understanding discourse. People with damage to the right hemisphere have a reduced ability to generate inferences and produce main concepts, a reduced ability to manage alternative meanings. Furthermore, people with right hemisphere damage exhibit discourse, abrupt and perfunctory or verbose and excessive, they can have pragmatic deficits in situations of turn taking, topic maintenance and shared knowledge. Lateral brain damage can affect visual perceptual spatial resolution. People with left hemisphere damage may have impaired perception of high resolution, or detailed, aspects of an image. People with right hemisphere damage may have impaired perception of low resolution, or big picture, aspects of an image. If a specific region of the brain, or an entire hemisphere, is injured or destroyed, its functions can sometimes be assumed by a neighboring region in the same hemisphere or the corresponding region in the other hemisphere, depending upon the area damaged and the patient's age.
When injury interferes with pathways from one area to another, alternative connections may develop to communicate information with detached areas, despite the inefficiencies. Broca's aphasia is a specific type of expressive aphasia and is so named due to the aphasia that results from damage or lesions to the Broca's area of the brain, that exists most in the left inferior frontal hemisphere. Thus, the aphasia that develops from the lack of functioning of the Broca's area is an expressive and non-fluent aphasia, it is called'non-fluent' due the issues that arise because Broca's area is critical for language pronunciation and production. The area controls some motor aspects of speech production and articulation of thoughts to words and as such lesions to the area result in the specific non-fluent aphasia. Wernicke's aphasia is the result of damage to the area of the brain, in the left hemisphere above the sylvian fissure. Damage to this area causes a defi
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and relationship of the mind to the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigm issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness, the nature of particular mental states. Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events, mental functions, mental properties, the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, the relationship of the mind to the body. Dualism and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly. Dualism finds its entry into Western philosophy thanks to René Descartes in the 17th century. Substance dualists like Descartes argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, whereas property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.
Monism is the position that body are not ontologically distinct entities. This view was first advocated in Western philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th century BCE and was espoused by the 17th-century rationalist Baruch Spinoza. Physicalists argue that only entities postulated by physical theory exist, that mental processes will be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. Physicalists maintain various positions on the prospects of reducing mental properties to physical properties, the ontological status of such mental properties remains unclear. Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the mind. Neutral monists such as Ernst Mach and William James argue that events in the world can be thought of as either mental or physical depending on the network of relationships into which they enter, dual-aspect monists such as Spinoza adhere to the position that there is some other, neutral substance, that both matter and mind are properties of this unknown substance.
The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism. Most modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive physicalist or non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body; these approaches have been influential in the sciences in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences. Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states. Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the mind is not a separate substance, mental properties supervene on physical properties, or that the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable, cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science. Continued neuroscientific progress has helped to clarify some of these issues. Modern philosophers of mind continue to ask how the subjective qualities and the intentionality of mental states and properties can be explained in naturalistic terms.
The mind–body problem concerns the explanation of the relationship that exists between minds, or mental processes, bodily states or processes. The main aim of philosophers working in this area is to determine the nature of the mind and mental states/processes, how—or if—minds are affected by and can affect the body. Our perceptual experiences depend on stimuli that arrive at our various sensory organs from the external world, these stimuli cause changes in our mental states causing us to feel a sensation, which may be pleasant or unpleasant. Someone's desire for a slice of pizza, for example, will tend to cause that person to move his or her body in a specific manner and in a specific direction to obtain what he or she wants; the question is how it can be possible for conscious experiences to arise out of a lump of gray matter endowed with nothing but electrochemical properties. A related problem is how someone's propositional attitudes cause that individual's neurons to fire and muscles to contract.
These comprise some of the puzzles that have confronted epistemologists and philosophers of mind from at least the time of René Descartes. Dualism is a set of views about the relationship between matter, it begins with the claim. One of the earliest known formulations of mind–body dualism was expressed in the eastern Sankhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy, which divided the world into purusha and prakriti; the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali presents an analytical approach to the nature of the mind. In Western Philosophy, the earliest discussions of dualist ideas are in the writings of Plato who maintained that humans' "intelligence" could not be identified with, or explained in terms of, their physical body. However, the best-known version of dualism is due to René Descartes, holds that the mind is a non-extended, non-physical substance, a "res cogitans". Descartes was the first to identify the mind with consciousness and self-awareness, to distinguish this from the brain, the seat of intelligence.
He was therefore th
Cognitive neuropsychology is a branch of cognitive psychology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relates to specific psychological processes. Cognitive psychology is the science that looks at how mental processes are responsible for our cognitive abilities to store and produce new memories, produce language, recognize people and objects, as well as our ability to reason and problem solve. Cognitive neuropsychology places a particular emphasis on studying the cognitive effects of brain injury or neurological illness with a view to inferring models of normal cognitive functioning. Evidence is based on case studies of individual brain damaged patients who show deficits in brain areas and from patients who exhibit double dissociations. Double dissociations involve two tasks. One patient is impaired at one task but normal on the other, while the other patient is normal on the first task and impaired on the other. For example, patient A would be poor at reading printed words while still being normal at understanding spoken words, while the patient B would be normal at understanding written words and be poor at understanding spoken words.
Scientists can interpret this information to explain how there is a single cognitive module for word comprehension. From studies like these, researchers infer that different areas of the brain are specialised. Cognitive neuropsychology can be distinguished from cognitive neuroscience, interested in brain damaged patients, but is focused on uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes. Cognitive neuropsychology has its roots in the diagram making approach to language disorder that started in the second half of the 19th century; the discovery that aphasia took different forms depending on the location of brain damage provided a powerful framework for understanding brain function. In 1861 Paul Broca, reported a post mortem study of an aphasic patient, speechless apart from a single nonsense word: "Tan". Broca showed; as Tan was unable to produce speech but could still understand it, Broca argued that this area might be specialised for speech production and that language skills might be localized to this cortical area.
Broca did a similar study on Lelong, a few weeks later. Lelong, like Tan, could only repeat the same 5 words. After examining his brain, Broca noticed that Lelong had a lesion in the same area as his patient Tan, he noticed that in the more than 25 patients he examined with aphasia, they all had lesions to the left frontal lobe but there was no damage to the right hemisphere of the brain. From this he concluded that the function of speech was localized in the inferior frontal gyrus of the left hemisphere of the brain, an area now known as Broca's area. Karl Wernicke subsequently reported patients with damage further back in the temporal lobe who could speak but were unable to understand what was said to them, providing evidence for two interconnected language centres; these clinical descriptions were integrated into a theory of language organisation by Lichtheim. Subsequently, these models were used and developed to inform Dejerine's account of reading, Liepmann's theory of action and Lissauer's 1890 account of object recognition and Lewandowsky and Stadelmann's 1908 account of calculation.
However, the early 20th century saw a reaction to the overly-precise accounts of the diagram making neurologists. Pierre Marie challenged conclusions against previous evidence of Broca's areas in 1906 and Henry Head attacked the whole field of cerebral localisation 1926; the modern science of cognitive neuropsychology emerged during the 1960s stimulated by the insights of the neurologist Norman Geschwind who demonstrated that the insights of Broca and Wernicke were still clinically relevant. The other stimulus to the discipline was the "Cognitive Revolution" and the growing science of cognitive psychology which had emerged as a reaction to behaviorism in the mid 20th century. Psychologists in the mid-1950s acknowledged that the structure of mental information-processing systems could be investigated in scientifically acceptable ways, they developed and applied new cognitive processing models to explain experimental data from not only studies of speech and language but those of selective attention.
Cognitive psychologists and clinical neuropsychologists developed more research collaborations to gain a better understanding of these disorders. The rebirth of neuropsychology was marked by the publishing of two seminal collaborative papers from Marshall & Newcombe on reading and Warrington & Shallice on memory. Subsequently, work by pioneers such as Elizabeth Warrington, Brenda Milner, Tim Shallice, Alan Baddeley and Lawrence Weiskrantz demonstrated that neurological patients were an important source of data for cognitive psychologists, it took less than one decade for neuropsychology to be re-established. More achievements in neuropsychology were recognized: the establishment of the first major book discussing neuropsychology using a cognitive approach, Deep Dyslexia, in 1980 after a scientific meeting about the topic in Oxford in 1977, the birth of the Cognitive Neuropsychology journal in 1984, the publishing of the first textbook of neuropsychology, Human Cognitive Neuropsychology in 1988.
A particular area of interest was memory. Patients with amnesia caused by injuries to the hippocampus in the temporal cortex and midbrain areas (especially the mamillary bodies were of early interest. A patient with severe case of amnesia will not be able to remember meeting the examiner if they leave the room and return, let alone events of the previous day, but they will still be able to
Cognitive neuroscience is the scientific field, concerned with the study of the biological processes and aspects that underlie cognition, with a specific focus on the neural connections in the brain which are involved in mental processes. It addresses the questions of how cognitive activities are affected or controlled by neural circuits in the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a branch of both neuroscience and psychology, overlapping with disciplines such as behavioral neuroscience, cognitive psychology, physiological psychology and affective neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience relies upon theories in cognitive science coupled with evidence from neurobiology, computational modeling. Parts of the brain play an important role in this field. Neurons play the most vital role, since the main point is to establish an understanding of cognition from a neural perspective, along with the different lobes of the cerebral cortex. Methods employed in cognitive neuroscience include experimental procedures from psychophysics and cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, electrophysiology, cognitive genomics, behavioral genetics.
Studies of patients with cognitive deficits due to brain lesions constitute an important aspect of cognitive neuroscience. The damages in lesioned brains provide a comparable basis with regards to healthy and functioning brains; these damages change the neural circuits in the brain and cause it to malfunction during basic cognitive processes, such as memory or learning. With the damage, we can compare how the healthy neural circuits are functioning, draw conclusions about the basis of the affected cognitive processes. Cognitive abilities based on brain development are studied and examined under the subfield of developmental cognitive neuroscience; this shows brain development over time, analyzing differences and concocting possible reasons for those differences. Theoretical approaches include computational cognitive psychology. Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of study that has emerged from neuroscience and psychology. There were several stages in these disciplines that changed the way researchers approached their investigations and that led to the field becoming established.
Although the task of cognitive neuroscience is to describe how the brain creates the mind it has progressed by investigating how a certain area of the brain supports a given mental faculty. However, early efforts to subdivide the brain proved to be problematic; the phrenologist movement failed to supply a scientific basis for its theories and has since been rejected. The aggregate field view, meaning that all areas of the brain participated in all behavior, was rejected as a result of brain mapping, which began with Hitzig and Fritsch’s experiments and developed through methods such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Gestalt theory and the cognitive revolution were major turning points in the creation of cognitive neuroscience as a field, bringing together ideas and techniques that enabled researchers to make more links between behavior and its neural substrates. Philosophers have always been interested in the mind: "the idea that explaining a phenomenon involves understanding the mechanism responsible for it has deep roots in the History of Philosophy from atomic theories in 5th century B.
C. to its rebirth in the 17th and 18th century in the works of Galileo and Boyle. Among others, it’s Descartes’ idea that machines humans build could work as models of scientific explanation." For example, Aristotle thought the brain was the body’s cooling system and the capacity for intelligence was located in the heart. It has been suggested that the first person to believe otherwise was the Roman physician Galen in the second century AD, who declared that the brain was the source of mental activity, although this has been accredited to Alcmaeon. However, Galen believed that personality and emotion were not generated by the brain, but rather by other organs. Andreas Vesalius, an anatomist and physician, was the first to believe that the brain and the nervous system are the center of the mind and emotion. Psychology, a major contributing field to cognitive neuroscience, emerged from philosophical reasoning about the mind. One of the predecessors to cognitive neuroscience was phrenology, a pseudoscientific approach that claimed that behavior could be determined by the shape of the scalp.
In the early 19th century, Franz Joseph Gall and J. G. Spurzheim believed that the human brain was localized into 35 different sections. In his book, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, of the Brain in Particular, Gall claimed that a larger bump in one of these areas meant that that area of the brain was used more by that person; this theory gained significant public attention, leading to the publication of phrenology journals and the creation of phrenometers, which measured the bumps on a human subject's head. While phrenology remained a fixture at fairs and carnivals, it did not enjoy wide acceptance within the scientific community; the major criticism of phrenology is. The localizationist view was concerned with mental abilities being localized to specific areas of the brain rather than on what the characteristics of the abilities were and how to measure them. Studies performed in Europe, such as those of John Hughlings Jackson, supported this view. Jackson studied patients with brain damage those with epilepsy.
He discovered that the epileptic patients made the same clonic and tonic movements of muscle during their seizures, leading Jackson to believe that they must be occurring in the same place e