A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Etymology is the study of the history of words. By extension, the term "the etymology" means the origin of the particular word and for place names, there is a specific term, toponymy. For Greek—with a long written history—etymologists make use of texts, texts about the language, to gather knowledge about how words were used during earlier periods and when they entered the language. Etymologists apply the methods of comparative linguistics to reconstruct information about languages that are too old for any direct information to be available. By analyzing related languages with a technique known as the comparative method, linguists can make inferences about their shared parent language and its vocabulary. In this way, word roots have been found that can be traced all the way back to the origin of, for instance, the Indo-European language family. Though etymological research grew from the philological tradition, much current etymological research is done on language families where little or no early documentation is available, such as Uralic and Austronesian.
The word etymology derives from the Greek word ἐτυμολογία, itself from ἔτυμον, meaning "true sense", the suffix -logia, denoting "the study of". In linguistics, the term etymon refers to a word or morpheme from which a word derives. For example, the Latin word candidus, which means "white", is the etymon of English candid. Etymologists apply a number of methods to study the origins of words, some of which are: Philological research. Changes in the form and meaning of the word can be traced with the aid of older texts, if such are available. Making use of dialectological data; the form or meaning of the word might show variations between dialects, which may yield clues about its earlier history. The comparative method. By a systematic comparison of related languages, etymologists may be able to detect which words derive from their common ancestor language and which were instead borrowed from another language; the study of semantic change. Etymologists must make hypotheses about changes in the meaning of particular words.
Such hypotheses are tested against the general knowledge of semantic shifts. For example, the assumption of a particular change of meaning may be substantiated by showing that the same type of change has occurred in other languages as well. Etymological theory recognizes that words originate through a limited number of basic mechanisms, the most important of which are language change, borrowing. While the origin of newly emerged words is more or less transparent, it tends to become obscured through time due to sound change or semantic change. Due to sound change, it is not obvious that the English word set is related to the word sit, it is less obvious that bless is related to blood. Semantic change may occur. For example, the English word bead meant "prayer", it acquired its modern meaning through the practice of counting the recitation of prayers by using beads. English derives from Old English, a West Germanic variety, although its current vocabulary includes words from many languages; the Old English roots may be seen in the similarity of numbers in English and German seven/sieben, eight/acht, nine/neun, ten/zehn.
Pronouns are cognate: I/mine/me and ich/mein/mich. However, language change has eroded many grammatical elements, such as the noun case system, simplified in modern English, certain elements of vocabulary, some of which are borrowed from French. Although many of the words in the English lexicon come from Romance languages, most of the common words used in English are of Germanic origin; when the Normans conquered England in 1066, they brought their Norman language with them. During the Anglo-Norman period, which united insular and continental territories, the ruling class spoke Anglo-Norman, while the peasants spoke the vernacular English of the time. Anglo-Norman was the conduit for the introduction of French into England, aided by the circulation of Langue d'oïl literature from France; this led to many paired words of English origin. For example, beef is related, through borrowing, to modern French bœuf, veal to veau, pork to porc, poultry to poulet. All these words and English, refer to the meat rather than to the animal.
Words that refer to farm animals, on the other hand, tend to be cognates of words in other Germanic languages. For example, swine/Schwein, cow/Kuh, calf/Kalb, sheep/Schaf; the variant usage has been explained by the proposition that it was the Norman rulers who ate meat and the Anglo-Saxons who farmed the animals. This explanation has been disputed. English has proved accommodating to words from many languages. Scientific terminology, for example, relies on words of Latin and Greek origin, but there are a great many non-scientific examples. Spanish has contributed many words in the southwestern United States. Examples include buckaroo, rodeo and states' names such as Colorado and Florida. Albino, lingo and coconut from Portuguese. Modern French has contributed café, naive and many more. Smorgasbord, slalom
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Theophilus is a prominent lunar impact crater that lies between Sinus Asperitatis in the north and Mare Nectaris to the southeast. It intrudes into the comparably sized crater Cyrillus to the southwest. To the east is the smaller crater Mädler and further to the south-southeast is Beaumont, it was named after the 4th-century Coptic Pope Theophilus of Alexandria. Theophilus and Catharina form a prominent group of large craters visible on the terminator 5 days after the new moon; the rim of Theophilus has a terraced inner surface that shows indications of landslips. It has broken into a second formation, Cyrillus, it was created during the Eratosthenian period, from 3.2 to 1.1 million years ago. It has an imposing central mountain, 1,400 metres high, with four summits; the floor of the crater is flat, it has a large, triple-peaked central mountain that climbs to a height of about 2 kilometres above the floor. The western peak is designated Psi, the eastern Phi, the northern peak is Alpha Theophilus.
The western slopes of this ridge are wider and more irregular, whereas the peaks descend more to the floor on the northern and western faces. The Apollo 16 mission collected several pieces of basalt that are believed to be ejecta from the formation of Theophilus. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint, closest to Theophilus. Media related to Theophilus at Wikimedia Commons Central Peak Bedrock, from LROC
Rupes Altai is an escarpment in the lunar surface, located in the southeastern quadrant of the Moon's near side. It is named for the Altai Mountains in Asia, is the most prominent lunar escarpment; the selenographic coordinates of this feature are 24.3°S 22.6°E / -24.3. The southeastern end of the cliff terminates along the western edge of the crater Piccolomini, it arcs irregularly towards the north, climbing to heights of nearly a kilometer. The northern end of the arc is an irregular region with no defined terminus, where it brackets the prominent craters Theophilus and Catharina; this cliff forms the southwestern rim of the Nectaris impact basin. This feature is difficult to locate during the full moon, it appears as a bright, winding line about five days after the new moon, casts a long, irregular shadow about four days after the full moon, when the sunset terminator is nearby and the sunlight is arriving at a low angle. Lunar Orbiter 4 image showing most of Rupes Altai Rupes Altai at The Moon Wiki Wood, Chuck.
"A Fault of Consequence". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Wood, Chuck. "Ring Around a Piddle". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Wood, Chuck. "Ring Around a Basin". Lunar Photo of the Day. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Wood, Chuck. "Four Rings and a Mystery". Lunar Photo of the Day
Albrecht Penck was a German geographer and geologist and the father of Walther Penck. Born in Reudnitz near Leipzig, Penck became a university professor in Vienna, from 1885 to 1906, in Berlin from 1906 to 1927. There he was the director of the "Institute and Museum for Oceanography" by 1918, he dedicated himself to geomorphology and climatology and raised the international profile of the "Vienna School of physical geography". With Eduard Bruckner, he was co-author of Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter, a work in which the two scientists identified the four ice ages of the European Pleistocene. Since 1886, he was married to the sister of the successful Bavarian regional writer Ludwig Ganghofer. In 1945, Penck died in Prague. In memory of Penck, the painter and sculptor Ralf Winkler adopted the nom de plume A. R. Penck in 1966. In 1928, Penck taught as a Visiting Professor at the University of California at Berkeley led by Carl O. Sauer. Albrecht Penck was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1905 and awarded the Founder's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1914.
The glacier of Penckbreen in Wedel Jarlsberg Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard is named after him. Since 1958 the "Albrecht-Penck-Medaille" is awarded by the Deutsche Quartärvereinigung for accomplishments associated with Quaternary science. Morphologie der Erdoberfläche. International Map of the World Hanna Bremer: Albrecht Penck and Walther Penck, two German Geomorphologists. In: Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Vol. 27, 1983, pp. 129-138. Richard J. Chorley, Robert P. Beckinsale & Antony J. Dunn: The History of the Study of Landforms or the Development of Geomorphology, Vol. 2. The Life and Work of William Morris Davis, London 1973. Nicolas Ginsburger: ""La guerre, la plus terribles des érosions". Cultures de guerre et géographes universitaires. France, Etats-Unis", unpublished PhD, Université de Paris-Ouest-Nanterre-La Défense, 2010, 1682 p. Michael Heffernan: Professor Penck's Bluff: Geography and Hysteria in World War I. In: Scottish Geographical Journal, Vol. 116, no. 4, 2000, pp. 267–282. Norman Henniges: "Sehen lernen": Die Exkursionen des Wiener Geographischen Instituts und die Formierung der Praxiskultur der geographischen Beobachtung in der Ära Albrecht Penck.
In: Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Geographischen Gesellschaft, Vol. 156, Wien 2014, pp. 141–170. Norman Henniges: "Naturgesetze der Kultur“: Die Wiener Geographen und die Ursprünge der „Volks- und Kulturbodentheorie“. In: ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies, Vol. 14, 4, 2015, pp. 1309–1351. Norman Henniges: Die Spur des Eises: eine praxeologische Studie über die wissenschaftlichen Anfänge des Geologen und Geographen Albrecht Penck. Leibniz-Institut f. Länderkunde, Leipzig 2017, ISBN 978-3-86082-097-1, 556 p. Norman Henniges: Albrecht Penck. In: Ingo Haar, Michael Fahlbusch: Handbuch der völkischen Wissenschaften, 2nd ed. Berlin 2017, pp. 570–577. Alexander Pinwinkler: „Hier war die große Kulturgrenze, die die deutschen Soldaten nur zu deutlich fühlten …“ Albrecht Penck und die deutsche „Volks- und Kulturbodenforschung“. In: Österreich in Geschichte und Literatur. Vol. 55, 2011, pp. 180–191. Ingo Schaefer: Der Weg Albrecht Pencks nach München, zur Geographie und zur alpinen Eiszeitforschung.
In: Mitteilungen der Geographischen Gesellschaft in München. Vol 74, 1989, pp. 5–25. Hans-Dietrich Schultz: „Ein wachsendes Volk braucht Raum.“ Albrecht Penck als politischer Geograph. In: Bernhard Nitz, Hans-Dietrich Schultz, Marlies Schulz: 1810–2010: 200 Jahre Geographie in Berlin. Berlin 2010, pp. 91–135. Hans-Dietrich Schultz: Albrecht Penck: Vorbereiter und Wegbereiter der NS-Lebensraumpolitik? In: E&G Quaternary Sci. J. Vol. 66, 2018, pp. 115-129. Newspaper clippings about Albrecht Penck in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics