Le Mont-Dore (New Caledonia)
Le Mont-Dore is a commune in the suburbs of Nouméa in the South Province of New Caledonia, an overseas territory of France in the Pacific Ocean. Réginald Bernut, a local politician
Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Arlanc is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes in central France. Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department INSEE INSEE: 2013 census, municipal population
The Dordogne is a river in south-central and southwest France. The Dordogne and its watershed were designated Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO on July 11 2012; the river rises on the flanks of the Puy de Sancy at 1,885 metres above sea level in the mountains of Auvergne, from the confluence of two small torrents above the town of Le Mont-Dore: the Dore and the Dogne. It flows west about 500 kilometres through the Limousin and Périgord regions before flowing into the Gironde, its common estuary with the Garonne, at the Bec d'Ambès, north of the city of Bordeaux; the Dordogne is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit the phenomenon of a tidal bore, known as a mascaret. The upper valley of the Dordogne is a series of deep gorges; the cliffs, steep banks, fast flowing water and high bridges attract both drivers. In several places the river is dammed to form deep lakes. Camp sites and holiday homes have proliferated wherever the valley floor is wide enough to accommodate them. Below Argentat and around Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne, the valley widens to accommodate fertile farmland, well-watered pasture and orchards.
In the towns, which are major tourist attractions because of their history and architecture, the quaysides are lined with eating and drinking places. In Périgord, the valley widens further to encompass one of France's main gastronomic regions, with vineyards, poultry farms and truffle-rich woodlands; the main season for tourism in the Valley of the Dordogne is from June to September, with July and August being high season. The lifestyle and culture of the Dordogne valley attract both visitors and incomers from all over France, but from many other countries Britain and Germany; the départements of France through which the Dordogne runs, together with some towns in those départements that are on or quite near the river, are as follows: The département of Puy-de-Dôme – The towns of Le Mont-Dore and La Bourboule. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Chavanon. N. B.: = right tributary. The Dordogne at the Sandre database The Dordogne Valley in the Lot department The Dordogne Valley UNESCO Biosphere Reserve
Aubière is a French commune located in the department of Puy-de-Dôme in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeast France. As of 2014 its population was 9,832; the town is home to the Cézeaux campus of the University of Clermont Auvergne, a substantial number of sports teams, a large commercial area. Aubière is located south of Clermont-Ferrand in the heart of the Puy-de-Dôme department, 3.7 km south-east of the administrative center of Clermont-Ferrand. It borders the villages of Beaumont, Romagnat, Pérignat-lès-Sarliève, Cournon-d’Auvergne; the Artière river, a tributary of the Allier, flows through the village from west to east. The river, a large part of, underground, can flood at any moment; the quality of its water deteriorates when it converges with the Gazelle river, one of its tributaries. A75 autoroute with two exits Route départementale 2009 Other routes départementales: 21, 69, 212, 777, 805 The nearest railway stations are located in the neighbouring commune of Clermont-Ferrand: the Gare de Clermont-Ferrand and the Gare de Clermont-La Pardieu.
Since August 27, 2007, Aubière has contained three stops of the Clermont-Ferrand tramway. There are four bus lines. A local urban master plan was approved by the municipal council in April 8, 2008; as of the 2013 census, the commune numbered 5,296 housing units, compared to 5,226 in 2008. Among these, 90.2% were primary residences, 1.8% secondary residences, 6.2% holiday residences. 51.4 % of the residences were 45 % apartments. The percentage of primary residences owned by their residents was 51.4%, nearly equal to the percentage in 2008. The renting of empty HLM, or rent-controlled housing, went down from 6.8% to 5.8%. The earliest traces of the commune date back to the 13th century, when it was within the outer walls of a castle; until the end of the 19th century, Aubière featured a sizeable winemaking industry, which ended after the phylloxera epidemic. Proof of, the fact that most of the houses in the village contain a wine vat, numerous wine cellars were built on the north and south edges of the Artière valley.
Today there is only one wine producer in the village. The distinctive feature of these wine cellars is that they were constructed above ground because the water that runs under the houses creates a large amount of humidity in the basement. Thus, an urban legend has that people used to speak of going “up to the cellar” rather than “down to the cellar”; the Aubière Vine and Wine Museum preserves the traditional tools used in winemaking as well as most archival documents. The scope of this museum is not restricted to the village of Aubière, but covers wine produced elsewhere in Auvergne as well; the current mayor is Christian Sinsard, elected in March 2008. He was reelected in 2014. List of previous mayors of Aubière: 1800–1812: Guillaume Girard, notary 1812–1827: Louis Voiret, doctor 1827–1848: Jean Foulhouze, notary 1848–1854: Michel Noëllet dit Lacourtière, farmer 1854–1855: François Casière, farmer 1855–1867: Pierre Henri Daumas-Foulhouze, notary 1867–1870: Martin Gioux-Chatagnier, farmer 1870–1874: Michel Roche-Chaduc, farmer 1874–1876: François Cassière-Noëllet, farmer 1876–1896: Michel Roche-Chaduc, farmer 1896–1900: Michel Bourcheix, farmer 1900–1912: Francisque Noellet-Roche, farmer 1912–1929: Jean Noellet-Degironde 1929–1935: Jean Carsac 1935–unknown: Eugène Martin 1947–1965: Ernest Cristal September 1965–September 1982: Georges Digue, doctor September 1982–March 1983: Jean Drouin, printer March 1983–March 2008: Hubert Tarrérias, pharmacist March 2008–present: Christian Sinsard, French Social Security manager In spring, the feast of the “Rosière” takes place, a tradition celebrated in numerous villages in France, in which the most beautiful and virtuous girl is crowned “the Rosière”.
In September, the village organizes the Fair of Saint-Loup, in which everyone empties out their attics. Aubière is part of the Academy of Clermont-Ferrand, which runs its two public elementary schools and Vercingetorix; the general council of the Puy de Dôme runs Joliot-Curie. All students are educated here by default, with the exception of the residents of the Mirondet district who attend Beaumont Middle School; the school group of Saint-Joseph, consisting of an elementary school and a middle school, is private. High school students attend either the Lycée Jeanne-d’Arc or the Lycée Blaise-Pascal, both located in Clermont-Ferrand. There is the Cézeaux Campus shared by a variety of schools. Aubière is home to a soccer team, whose colors and blue, are those of the village; the team plays in the Beaudonnat stadium. There are various clubs and dance associations, a gymnasium for practicing judo and karate, a track-and-field club. Since 2002, the Jean-Pellez stadium has hosted track-and-field competitions.
Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department Town Hall Website
Ambert is a commune in the Puy-de-Dôme department in Auvergne in central France. Ambert is the seat of the arrondissement of Ambert, it is a sub-prefecture of the department. The arrondissement consists of eight cantons. Ambert lies on a tributary of the Allier River. Ambert is famous for its fourme d'Ambert cheese - "Fourme d'Ambert", its paper mills - "Le moulin Richard de Bas" - and its circular town market hall - "La Mairie" -; the Agrivap Chemin de Fer Touristique operates out of Ambert. There is a steam engine that makes a local run, but to see the line in full a ride on the Panoramique Autorail is not to be missed. There is an industrial museum with an interesting collection of small steam engines. In the town the Museum of Cheese is worth a visit, as is the old paper mill a few kilometres outside the main town. Ambert was the birthplace of the mathematician Michel Rolle, composer Emmanuel Chabrier, anthropologist Henri Pourrat, who collected the oral traditions of the Auvergne, it is the birthplace of actor and director Pierre-Loup Rajot.
Ambert is twinned with: Annweiler, since 1988 Higashichichibu, Japan, since 1989 Gorgonzola, since 2002. Both cities, known for their blue cow's-milk cheeses, have the same latitude: 45° 32' N for Gorgonzola, 45° 33' N for Ambert; some semi-famous places to go when visiting Ambert, France are: La Mairie Le Moulin Richard-de-Bas Communes of the Puy-de-Dôme department INSEE statistics
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine