Military of Monaco
The Principality of Monaco, the world's second-smallest sovereign state, after the Vatican City State, has a limited military capability, depends entirely upon its larger neighbour, for defence. Altogether, there are two hundred and fifty-five soldiers serving in Monaco's military, making its military the third-smallest in the world; the Minister of the Department of the Interior is appointed by the Prince of Monaco for one five-year term, is responsible for both policing and military activity within Monaco. Ministers of the Department of the Interior: Philippe Deslandes Paul Masseron Some military roles are assigned to the civil police, such as border patrol and border defence, which are the responsibility of a special police unit named the "Maritime and Heliport Police Division," and which operates on land and sea using patrol boats and high-speed surveillance boats. Patrol boats, which number four, are operated by both the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers and the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince.
Two full-time militarised armed forces exist under the control of the Department of the Interior. One is the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers de Monaco, the other is the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince. Both units are key to the "ORMOS Red Plan" which makes provision for the evacuation of Monaco in case of natural disaster, or civil emergency. Describing itself as a military force, the Corps consists of ten officers, twenty-six non-commissioned officers and ninety-nine other ranks, for a total force of three hundred and five military personnel providing fire, hazardous materials and emergency medical services; the officers' ranks are: Colonel, Lieutenant-Colonel, Captain and Sub-Lieutenant. There enlisted personnel. Officers have served in the French military's fire service. Based at two barracks, the Corps is equipped with fire engines, rescue vehicles and a range of specialist vehicles, including a fire boat and sealed tracked vehicles for entering Monaco's railway tunnels during an emergency.
Beyond fire-fighting duties, the Corps has an extensive civil defence brief. Its personnel are trained in the use of firearms, the Corps has a central armoury, they are equipped with ambulances and personnel have paramedic training. Of a similar size to the Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers, the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince has a total force of one hundred and sixteen, consisting of three officers, fifteen non-commissioned officers and nineteen enlisted men; each officer has served with the French military. Its primary duty is the defence of the Prince and the Prince's Palace in the Monaco-Ville quartier of Monaco. By extension, it has a role in guarding members of the judiciary, who administer justice in the name of the Prince. There are a number of specialist units within the Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince, which include a motorcycle section; the ceremonial "changing of the guard" at 11:55 a.m. each day attracts large numbers of tourists. The ceremony is more than just tourist spectacle, as this small military force is the front line of defence of the Monegasque princely family.
The rank structure of the armed forces of Monaco is based upon the rank structure of the French army. Enlisted soldiers and non-commissioned officers rise through a series of eight ranks: Commissioned officers rise through a series of six ranks: Sub-Lieutenant, Captain, Lieutenant-Colonel, Colonel; as can be seen, in the French/Monegasque system the title'Commandant' replaces the title'Major' as used in the British/Commonwealth/American system. Department of the Interior official site Corps des Sapeurs-pompiers Official site
Monarchy of Monaco
The Sovereign Prince or Princess of Monaco is the reigning monarch and head of state of the Principality of Monaco. All reigning princes and princesses have taken the name of the House of Grimaldi, although some have belonged to other families in the male line; the present reigning prince is Albert II. Monaco, along with Liechtenstein and Vatican City, is one of only three states in Europe where the monarch still plays an active role in day-to-day politics; the Prince or Princess of Monaco exercises his or her authority in accordance with the Constitution and laws. He or she represents the Principality in foreign relations and any revision, either total or partial, of the Constitution must be jointly agreed to by the Prince and the National Council. Legislative power is divided between the Prince who initiates the laws, the National Council which votes on them. Executive power is retained by the Prince; the Minister of State and the Government Council are directly responsible to the Prince for the administration of the Principality.
Judiciary powers belong to the Prince. The present Constitution states that the Prince has full authority in the courts and tribunals which render justice in his or her name. Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1962 Constitution, the Sovereign Prince confers orders and other distinctions as the fons honorum of the Principality of Monaco; the Prince is styled His Serene Highness. Although used only formally, the Prince bears several other hereditary titles, some of which are bestowed on his relatives or their spouses; some of these titles have merged with the Crown of Monaco as a result of the Grimaldi family's acquisition of various fiefs. Most were granted or recognised by the Kingdom of France or the Papal States and could only pass through the male line. Thereafter, some of these titles were implicitly re-created as distinctly Monegasque titles; the father of Prince Rainier III was Pierre Grimaldi, Duke of Valentinois, né Count Pierre de Polignac, whose legitimate male-line descendants remain remotely in the line of succession for the French dukedom of Polignac).
The current Prince's complete titles and styles are, in precedent order of rank: Sovereign Prince of Monaco Duke of Valentinois Duke of Estouteville Duke of Mazarin Duke of Mayenne Prince of Château-Porcien Marquis of Baux Marquis of Chilly-Mazarin Marquis of Guiscard Marquis of Bailli Count of Polignac Count of Carladès Count of Ferrette, Belfort and Rosemont Count of Torigni Count of Longjumeau Count of Clèdes Baron of Calvinet Baron of Buis Baron of La Luthumière Baron of Hambye Baron of Altkirch Baron of Saint-Lô Baron of Massy Seigneur of Issenheim Seigneur of Saint-Rémy Sire of Matignon "Prince of Monaco" is a title given to legitimate members of the princely family of Monaco. It is distinct from the ruling Prince's title "Sovereign Prince of Monaco" Albert II, or with the title of the heir apparent or presumptive to the throne Hereditary Prince Jacques. Charlene, Gabriella and Stephanie, are given Princess titles, as the wife and daughters of a sovereign prince. List of rulers of Monaco List of Monégasque consorts Line of succession to the Monegasque throne
History of Monaco
The early history of Monaco is concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area's chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and as a fortress. Part of Liguria's history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for political reasons. Since that point, excepting a brief period of French occupation, it has remained under the control of the House of Grimaldi; the Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the area's early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period 400,000 BC, evidence of, found in a cave in St. Judist's Gardens. According to the accounts of historian Diodorus Siculus and geographer Strabo, the area's first permanent settlers were the mountain-dwelling Ligures, who emigrated from their native city of Genoa, Italy. However, the ancient Ligurian language, Indo-European, is not directly connected to the Italian dialect spoken by the modern inhabitants of Liguria, nor to the modern Monegasque language.
During the 6th-century BC. Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos; the name of the colony derives from the local veneration of the Greek demigod Hercules later adopted by the Romans, said to have constructed the ancient path that passed through the region from Spain to Italy. The Roman emperor Julian wrote of Hercules's construction of Monaco's port and a coastal road; the road was dotted with altars to Hercules, a temple dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco. The name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port. Monoeci meaning "Single One" or Monoikos meaning "Single House" could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the "travels of Hercules" theme documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, both Greeks and native Ligurian people asserted that Hercules passed through the area. After the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.
The Roman poet Virgil called it "that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea". The commentator Servius's use of the passage asserts, under the entry portus, that the epithet was derived: dictus autem Monoecus vel quod pulsis omnibus illic solus habitavit, vel quod in eius templo numquam aliquis deorum simul colitur."either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time." No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground and dense conurbation make future excavations unlikely. The port is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History and in Tacitus's Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476; the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the mid-6th century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century.
Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks. Though these raids left the area entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, the native home of the Ligurians. On 10 June 1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco; this date is cited as the beginning of Monaco's modern history. As the Ghibellines intended their fortress to be a strategic military stronghold and center of control for the area, they set about creating a settlement around the base of the Rock to support the garrison; the Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family. Members of this family, in the course of the civil strife in Genoa between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, took refuge in Monaco, accompanied by various other Guelphic families, most notably the Fieschis.
Francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions. In 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, contributing to the principality's prosperity. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. Since the area has remained under the control of the Grimaldi family to the present day, except when under French control during the French revolution from 1793 to May 17, 1814, as part of the département of Alpes-Maritimes; the principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surround
Tête de Chien
The Tête de Chien is a 550 m high rock promontory near the village of La Turbie in the Alpes-Maritimes department of France. It overlooks the Principality of Monaco, is the highest point on the Grande Corniche road; the American diplomat Samuel S. Cox, in his 1870 travel book Search for Winter Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica and Spain wrote that the Tête de Chien more resembled a tortoise than a dog's head, believed that'Tête de Chien' was a corruption of'Tête de Camp', as it was where Caesar stationed his troops after the conquest of Gaul. Vere Herbert, the heroine of Ouida's 1880 novel Moths is described as living under the Tête de Chien, "...within a few miles of the brilliant Hell."In 1897, Gustave Saige described it as "a vertical escarpment of circular shape which gives it a characteristic appearance. Bohm's observation was on the day of the disappearance of the aviator Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, it has been speculated that Bohm saw the final flight of Saint-Exupéry
Land reclamation in Monaco
Land reclamation is done in Monaco because land is scarce, as the country is comparatively tiny, at 0.78 mi². To solve this problem and continue economic development, for years the country has been adding to its total land area by reclaiming land from the sea; the entire district of Fontvieille was constructed on land reclaimed from the sea in the 1970s. It is the newest of the four traditional quartiers in the principality of Monaco, one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes, it is located in the western part of Monaco. Land has been added to areas of La Condamine and Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Prince Albert's father, Rainier III, was known as the "Builder Prince". In an attempt to further develop the economy of Monaco, he first supported the idea of land reclamation. Since it was impossible to extend into France, the only solution was to reclaim land from the sea. First, the Larvotto beach district was created in the early 1960s the Fontvieille industrial area, increasing the principality's surface area by 20 percent.
More Port Hercules has been extended to welcome larger cruise ships on one side, to provide land for a new Yacht Club on the other. Prince Albert II is planning to reclaim more land, he intends to build into the Mediterranean to create a new area about 5 hectares in size. The new district will extend from the Fontvieille district at the western foot of the Rock of Monaco, where Monaco's palace and historic centre are situated; the project will cost an estimated €11 billion. It was suspended in 2009 due to the global financial crisis and the prince's concerns regarding the marine environment. However, the project was resumed in 2010 and is expected to be completed by 2014. Monaco's coastline on the Mediterranean is a fragile and vulnerable environment. Any further land reclamation projects threaten to damage the coastal ecosystem. Monaco's leaders have approached the prospect of further land reclamation with caution and have stated that new projects would have to meet strict environmental standards to limit damage to flora and wildlife.
Due to the concerns that land reclamation could damage local marine ecosystems, Prince Albert II has insisted the entire expansion be placed on stilts, like an oil rig, in order to disturb the sea floor as little as possible. Land reclamation in Hong Kong Land reclamation in the UAE
The Alpine Line or Little Maginot Line was the component of the Maginot Line that defended the southeastern portion of France. In contrast to the main line in the northeastern portion of France, the Alpine Line traversed a mountainous region of the Maritime Alps, the Cottian Alps and the Graian Alps, with few passes suitable for invading armies. Access was difficult for the Alpine Line garrisons. Fortifications were smaller in scale than the fortifications of the main Line; the Alpine Line mounted few anti-tank weapons, since the terrain was unsuitable for the use of tanks. Ouvrage Rimplas was the first Maginot fortification to be completed on any portion of the Maginot Line, in 1928; the Alpine Line was unsuccessfully attacked by Italian forces during the Italian invasion of France in 1940. Following World War II, some of the larger positions of the Alpine Line were retained in use through the Cold War; as France studied measures to protect its northeastern frontier with Germany, a parallel effort was made to examine the improvement of France's defenses against Italy in the southeast.
France's Italian border was a relic of the 1860 Treaty of Turin in which the Duchy of Savoy and the County of Nice were incorporated into France. The treaty boundary followed the crest of the Maritime Alps inland through the Cottian Alps to Switzerland; the precise line of demarcation left the upper reaches of many westward-draining valleys in Italian hands, thus giving Italy positions on high points overlooking French territory, those however were most impractical and inadequate. The region had been extensively fortified in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, most notably by Vauban, whose fortifications of Briançon have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site, by Raymond Adolphe Séré de Rivières in the late nineteenth century, who expanded the Fort de Tournoux and other fortifications in the area as part of the Séré de Rivières system of fortifications. Passage through the Alps was possible only at a series of comparatively low passes, movement toward the major cities of southeastern France such as Lyon, Grenoble or Nice was possible only along a series of deep river valleys.
Defenses therefore tended to concentrate in consistent locations: Bourg-Saint-Maurice in the Tarentaise, facing the Little St Bernard Pass Modane in the Maurienne, facing the Mont Cenis pass Briançon, facing the Col de Montgenèvre Barcelonnette, facing the Col de Larche Approaches to Nice from the north, with defenses in the Tinée and Vesubie valleys, around Sospel and on the Authion massif Menton and Nice, guarding the coastal road and railway lineIn 1925 General Charles Nollet, the Minister of War, directed General Jean Degoutte to survey the southeastern frontier and to make recommendations for their defense. Degoutte's proposal used principles of defense in depth to economize on manpower and funds, which were needed for the main Maginot defenses in northeastern France; the still-ambitious plan proposed in 1927 envisioned a series of fortified positions right on the frontier divides at every potential crossing, backed by thirty-six centers of resistance, each with fourteen infantry casemates and twelve infantry shelters, a total of about one thousand blockhouses.
Costs were estimated at 250 million francs. The proposed plan was criticized for placing the fortifications too far forward by the Commission de Defense, but the overall organization was approved by Minister of War Paul Painlevé, with a strategy of fortifying Menton and the valleys of the Vésubie and Tinée. Revisions in late 1927 proposed about 400 positions at a cost of between 400 million and 500 million francs; the plan was altered in 1928 by General Fillonneau, who proposed to concentrate fortifications along potential invasion axes, rather than along a continuous line. The geographic emphasis remained on Menton and Sospel, but the concept of frontal confrontation was replaced by a strategy of attack from the flanks of a potential advance. Fillonneau was assisted by the new management organization for the Maginot fortifications, the Commission d'Organisation des Régions Fortifiés, or CORF; the proposal was estimated to cost 700 million francs to build 103 ouvrages and to reconstruct 28 old fortifications.
An initial phase, designed to protect Nice, was estimated to cost 205 million francsUnlike the thin, linear defenses of the northeast, the revised Alpine fortifications extended some distance back from the frontier, with forward defenses supported by rearward defenses, compartmentalized by the terrain into distinct sectors. A final proposal in 1930 established a scaled-back, prioritized programme of 362 million francs to be executed in two phases, with the second phase to cost an additional 62 million francs; as with the main Maginot Line of the northeast, positions took the form of concrete-encased strongpoints linked by underground tunnels, which housed living quarters and utilities for the ouvrage. Larger ouvrages were provided with 600 mm narrow gauge rail lines to move materials and munitions, although unlike the northeastern positions, none were electrified; because of the mountainous terrain and the vertical character of the sites chosen for fortification, individual blocks emerged from rock faces in a steep hillside or cliff with mined galleries within under rock cover.
By comparison, most northeastern ouvrages were semi-submerged into the rolling soil with galleries buried beneath earth cover. In addition to the linked complexes of blockhouses that formed the grand and petit ouvrages, the country around and between each position was provided with isolated blockhouses, observation points, outposts
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km southeast of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways the Via Agrippa. For the ecclesiastical history, see bishopric of TroyesThe geographical location of Celtic grave-mounts around Troyes and the finding of Celtic artifacts in the City grounds suggest that Troyes as a settlement may originate from the Celts as early as 600 BC. Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways the Via Agrippa which led north to Reims and south to Langres and to Milan, it was the civitas of the Tricasses, separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct.
By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes. The city was the seat of a bishop from the fourth century – the legend of its bishop Lupus, who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage is hagiographic rather than historical – though it was several centuries before it gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce; the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains called The Battle of Troyes was fought nearby in 451 AD, between the Roman general Flavius Aetius and the Visigothic king Theodoric I against Attila. In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital; the Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, gave its name to troy weight.
The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes. In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, aimed in 1417 at making Troyes the capital of France, he came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court and parlement with comptroller's offices should be established at Troyes, it was at Troyes in the hands of the Burgundians, that on 21 May 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI, by terms of which he was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429. In medieval times Troyes was an important international trade centre.
The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement. The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the city's numerous canals. * Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town Hôtels Particuliers of the old town The Hôtel de Ville, Place Alexandre Israël, is an urbane example of the style Louis XIII. On the central corps de logis which contains the main reception rooms, its cornice is rhythmically broken forward over paired Corinthian columns which are supported below by strong clustered pilasters. Above the entrance door the statue of Louis XIV was pulled out of its niche and smashed in 1793, during the Reign of Terror at the height of the French Revolution. Museum of Modern Art Maison de l'outil et de la pensée ouvrière Vauluisant Museum: Historical museum of Troyes and Champagne-Ardenne Museum of hosiery Hôtel-Dieu-Lecomte apothecary Saint-Loup Museum Di Marco Museum Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the city centre.
They include: Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. Classified Monument Historique in 1840; the Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica, with a roofing covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, on grounds where the workshop of his father was. Classified Monument Historique in 1840. Sainte-Madeleine Church. Early Gothic, with east end rebuilt around 1500. Remarkably elaborate stone rood screen of 1508-17 in Flamboyant Gothic style, sculpted by Jean Gailde, with a statue of Saint Martha. Fine Renaissance stained glass. Saint Jean district. Classified Monument historique in 1840; the Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the high altar by Giraudon