A mountain is a large landform that rises above the surrounding land in a limited area in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism; these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode through the action of rivers, weather conditions, glaciers. A few mountains are isolated summits. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level; these colder climates affect the ecosystems of mountains: different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, such as mountain climbing; the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m. There is no universally accepted definition of a mountain.
Elevation, relief, steepness and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain. In the Oxford English Dictionary a mountain is defined as "a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable."Whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma, USA, is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittow's Dictionary of Physical Geography states "Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, those below being referred to as hills." In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, a mountain is defined as any summit at least 2,000 feet high, whilst the official UK government's definition of a mountain, for the purposes of access, is a summit of 600 metres or higher. In addition, some definitions include a topographical prominence requirement 100 or 500 feet. At one time the U.
S. Board on Geographic Names defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, but has abandoned the definition since the 1970s. Any similar landform lower. However, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US; the UN Environmental Programme's definition of "mountainous environment" includes any of the following: Elevation of at least 2,500 m. Using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, 14% of Africa; as a whole, 24% of the Earth's land mass is mountainous. There are three main types of mountains: volcanic and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics: when portions of the Earth's crust move and dive. Compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features; the height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if steeper, a mountain. Major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity.
Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed at a mid-ocean ridge or hotspot. At a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, forms magma that reaches the surface; when the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain, such as a shield volcano or a stratovolcano. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines; the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain: magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US. Fold mountains occur when two plates collide: shortening occurs along thrust faults and the crust is overthickened. Since the less dense continental crust "floats" on the denser mantle rocks beneath, the weight of any crustal material forced upward to form hills, plateaus or mountains must be balanced by the buoyancy force of a much greater volume forced downward into the mantle, thus the continental crust is much thicker under mountains, compared to lower lying areas.
Rock can fold either asymmetrically. The upfolds are anticlines and the downfolds are synclines: in asymmetric folding there may be recumbent and overturned folds; the Balkan Mountains and the Jura Mountains are examples of fold mountains. Block mountains are caused by faults in the crust: a plane; when rocks on one side of a fault rise relative to the other, it can form a mountain. The uplifted blocks are block horsts; the intervening dropped blocks are termed graben: these can be small or form extensive rift valley systems. This form of landscape can be seen in East Africa, the Vosges, the Basin and Range Province of Western North America and the Rhine valley; these areas occur when the regional stress is extensional and the crust is thinned. During and following uplift, mountains are subjected to the agents of erosion which wear the uplifted area down. Erosion causes the surface of mountains to be younger than the rocks that form the mountains themselves. Glacial processes produce characteristic landforms, such as pyramidal peaks, knife-edge arêtes, bowl-shaped cirques that can contai
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich; the municipality has 409,000 inhabitants, the urban agglomeration 1.315 million and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million. Zürich is a hub for railways and air traffic. Both Zürich Airport and railway station are the busiest in the country. Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who, in 15 BC, called it Turicum. However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years ago. During the Middle Ages, Zürich gained the independent and privileged status of imperial immediacy and, in 1519, became a primary centre of the Protestant Reformation in Europe under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli; the official language of Zürich is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Zürich German. Many museums and art galleries can be found in the city, including the Swiss National Museum and the Kunsthaus.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world. Zürich is a leading global city and among the world's largest financial centres despite having a small population; the city is home to a large number of financial institutions and banking companies. Most of Switzerland's research and development centres are concentrated in Zürich and the low tax rates attract overseas companies to set up their headquarters there. Monocle's 2012 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Zürich first on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within". According to several surveys from 2006 to 2008, Zürich was named the city with the best quality of life in the world as well as the wealthiest city in Europe in terms of GDP per capita; the Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking sees Zürich rank among the top ten most liveable cities in the world. In German, the city name is written Zürich, pronounced in Swiss Standard German. In Zürich German, the local dialect of Swiss German, the name is pronounced without the final consonant, as Züri, although the adjective remains Zürcher.
The city is called Zurich in French, Zurigo in Italian, Turitg in Romansh. In English, the name used to be written without the umlaut. So, standard English practice for German calques is to either preserve the umlaut or replace it with the base letter followed by e, it is pronounced ZEWR-ik, more sometimes with /ts/, as in German. The earliest known form of the city's name is Turicum, attested on a tombstone of the late 2nd century AD in the form STA TURICEN; the name is interpreted as a derivation from a given name Gaulish personal name Tūros, for a reconstructed native form of the toponym of *Turīcon. The Latin stress on the long vowel of the Gaulish name, was lost in German but is preserved in Italian and in Romansh; the first development towards its Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi. From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zurih. In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
Settlements of the Neolithic and Bronze Age were found around Lake Zürich. Traces of pre-Roman Celtic, La Tène settlements were discovered near the Lindenhof, a morainic hill dominating the SE - NW waterway constituted by Lake Zurich and the river Limmat. In Roman times, during the conquest of the alpine region in 15 BC, the Romans built a castellum on the Lindenhof. Here was erected Turicum, a tax-collecting point for goods trafficked on the Limmat, which constituted part of the border between Gallia Belgica and Raetia: this customs point developed into a vicus. After Emperor Constantine's reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy was located east of Turicum, crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum's safety; the earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum, discovered at the Lindenhof. In the 5th century, the Germanic Alemanni tribe settled in the Swiss Plateau.
The Roman castle remained standing until the 7th century. A Carolingian castle, built on the site of the Roman castle by the grandson of Charlemagne, Louis the German, is mentioned in 835. Louis founded the Fraumünster abbey in 853 for his daughter Hildegard, he endowed the Benedictine convent with the lands of Zürich and the Albis forest, granted the convent immunity, placing it under his direct authority. In 1045, King Henry III granted the convent the right to hold markets, collect tolls, mint coins, thus made the abbess the ruler of the city. Zürich gained Imperial immediacy in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained a status comparable to statehood. During the 1230s, a city wall was built, enclosing 38 hectares, when the earliest stone houses on the Rennweg were built as well; the Carolingian castle was used as a quarry, as it had st
Gunnbjørn Fjeld is Greenland's highest mountain and the highest mountain north of the Arctic circle. This mountain's name refers to the mythical Norse Hvitserk meaning "whiteshirt", of the Icelandic Sagas, it is a rocky peak protruding through glacial ice. Gunnbjørn Fjeld is located in the Watkins Range, an area of nunataks on the east coast, which contains several other summits above 3,500 metres, its height is given as 3,700 metres, although figures vary slightly. Gunnbjørn Fjeld was first climbed on 16 August 1935 by Augustine Courtauld, Jack Longland, Ebbe Munck, Harold G. Wager, Lawrence Wager, it is named after the first European to have sighted Greenland. The peak rises in an uninhabited part of the eastern coast of Greenland; the mountain is not so climbed owing to its remote location. Access is done with helicopter or ski-equipped plane. Mont Forel assumed to be the highest point List of mountain peaks of Greenland List of mountains in Greenland 2004 trip report
Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps
The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are a mountain range system in the Holm Land Peninsula, King Frederick VIII Land, northeastern Greenland. Administratively this range is part of the Northeast Greenland National Park zone; the range was named by the 1938–39 Mørkefjord Expedition after Princess Caroline-Mathilde of Denmark, wife of Prince Knud of Denmark, patron of the expedition. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps run from north to south across the western half of the Holm Land peninsula; the Princess Elizabeth Alps located to the north across the Ingolf Fjord display a similar structure. The range is bound to the north and northwest by the inner Ingolf Fjord, to the east by the flatter eastern part of Holm Land, to the west by the Vandre Valley and the Saefaxi River, to the south by the Marmorvigen and the inner Hekla Sound, the NW branch of the Scoresby Sound; the range has numerous rocky ridges that are unnamed. The highest point of the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps reaches 1,627 m at 80°28′28″N 19°36′38″W with an as high 1,618 m peak located close about 5 km to the southeast.
US Air Force maps display the same highest point reaching other sources 1,744 m. The Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in a uninhabited part of Greenland; the nearest settlement is Nord, a military outpost with an airfield located about 120 km to the north. The main glaciers in the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps are: Gaflen Glacier, on the western side. Skeen Glacier, on the western side. Spaerre Brae, a large glacier on the northern side. Tungen Glacier, on the western side; the Princess Caroline-Mathilde Alps lie in the high Arctic zone. Polar climate prevails in the area of the range, the average annual temperature in the area being -16° C; the warmest month is July when the average temperature rises to -1° C and the coldest is January with -28° C. A. K. Higgins, M. P. Smith, N. J. Soper, A. G. Leslie, J. A. Rasmussen and M. Sønderholm 2000: The Neoproterozoic Hekla Sund Basin, eastern North Greenland: a pre-Iapetan extensional sequence thrust across its rift shoulders during the Caledonian orogeny.
The Geological Society of London. 2001. Pedersen, S. A. S. Leslie, A. G. & Craig, L. E. 1995. Proterozoic and Caledonian geology of the Prinsesse Caroline Mathilde Alper, eastern North Greenland. In: Higgins, A. K. Express Report Eastern North and North-East Greenland 1995. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen, 71–86. List of mountain ranges of Greenland Pictures
Qeqertarsuaq is a port and town in Qeqertalik municipality, located on the south coast of Disko Island on the west coast of Greenland. Founded in 1773, the town is now home to a campus of the University of Copenhagen known as Arctic Station. "Qeqertarsuaq" is the Kalaallisut name for Disko Island and is now used for several other islands on Greenland, including those known as Upernavik and Herbert Island. In 2013, the town had 845 inhabitants; the remainder of the population of the island lives in the Kangerluk settlement, a few hours by boat to the northwest. The total area of Disko Island and its satellite islands is 9,700 km2. Blæsedalen valley is to the north of the town. Kangerluk is the location where researchers found a'galloping' glacier in 1999 that moves up to 100 meters a day. Traces of settlement between five and six thousand years ago have been found at Qeqertarsuaq; the settlers were paleo-Eskimos wandering south. During the 18th century, the first whalers came to Qeqertarsuaq, where they found a suitable anchorage.
The town was founded as Godhavn by the whaler Svend Sandgreen in 1773. The name was sometimes anglicized as Guthaven and the settlement was known as Lievely or Leifly, it served as the northernmost point in the enforcement of the Danish rights to whaling in the region. Whaling has been of great importance to the town over the past two centuries. Hunting and fishing are still the primary occupations for the island's inhabitants. From an early date, Godhavn shared the administration of Greenland with Godthåb. Godhavn served as the capital for North Greenland. In 1862, a new law on municipalities was passed and the so-called Directions were introduced in Greenland; the primary task of the Directions was the administration of the means set apart for social purposes: support for widows and others in need. The Directions functioned as inferior courts in case of theft and other petty crimes; the Directions took active part in the fight against the spreading of distemper. In Godhavn, they founded a kayak school for a sewing school for girls.
The Councils of Northern and Southern Greenland were summoned to a meeting in Godhavn on 3 May 1940. Following this meeting, administration for the entire island was concentrated in Godthåb; the Chief Administrative Office was abolished in 1950 at the establishment of the National Council of Greenland. With the end of government positions in town, the local economy focused more directly on hunting and fishing. On 1 January 2009, the former Qeqertarsuaq municipality was merged into the new Qaasuitsup municipality; this in turn was partitioned on 1 January 2018, at which time Qeqertarsuaq became part of the new municipality of Qeqertalik. Many of the flat basaltic mountains found on Disko Island are covered with perpetual snow; the largest is called Sermersuaq. Sermersuaq is difficult to reach in the summer. Lyngmarksbræen is much smaller, covering only about 10 km, but can be reached more in a few hours' walk. From Lyngmarksfjeld, a panoramic view of Disko Bay allows viewers to see the icebergs at Ilulissat 100 kilometers away.
Qeqertarsuaq has a dog sled rental. During the winter, Air Greenland operates air services from Qeqertarsuaq Heliport to Ilulissat and Aasiaat; when the waters of Disko Bay are navigable during summer and autumn, the heliport is closed and communication between settlements occurs only by sea via Diskoline. The ferry links Qeqertarsuaq with Ilulissat, Aasiaat and Kitsissuarsuit. Rasmus Lerdorf, creator of the computer programming language PHP, was born in Qeqertarsuaq. With 843 inhabitants in 2014, Qeqertarsuaq was the smallest town in the then-municipality of Qaasuitsup; the population has decreased by more than 22% relative to the 1990 levels and by nearly 15% relative to the 2000 levels. Húsavík, Iceland greenland.com Map of Qeqertarsuaq area
Summit Camp Summit Station, is a year-round research station on the apex of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Its coordinates are variable; the coordinates provided here are as of July 2009. The station is located 3,216 metres above sea level; the population of the station is five in wintertime, has peaked at 55 in the summer. The station is operated by the American-based CH2M HILL Polar Services, with support from the United States' National Science Foundation. A permit from the Danish Polar Center under the auspices of the Home Rule Government of Greenland is required to visit the station; the camp is located 360 km from the east coast and 500 km from the west coast of Greenland at, 200 km north-northeast of the historical ice sheet camp Eismitte. The closest town is 460 km east-southeast of the station; the station however is not part of Sermersooq municipality, but falls within the bounds of the Northeast Greenland National Park. Summit Camp consists of the Big House, Greenhouse with attached Berthing Module, a combined garage and generator building, the summertime Tent City, storage buildings.
Summit Camp was established in April 1989 in support of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two deep ice coring effort. A ski-equipped C-130 from the New York Air National Guard performed an open snow landing near the site, bringing the put-in team consisting of Mark Twickler, Jay Klink, Michael Morrison, two navigation specialists, they located the exact location chosen for the GISP2 drilling site, established a camp, laid out the runway. Subsequent flights brought in additional materials and personnel needed to build the station. Two major structures were planned and built: The Big House, an insulated panel building, elevated to minimize snow drifts. Extensive under-snow trenches were constructed to house the core handling and storage facilities. Many smaller Weatherport hut buildings and tents were erected as storage and shop areas, as well as sleeping quarters; these were taken down each season. On July 1, 1993, the bedrock was reached. A summer station only, the station had been manned year round since the early 2000s, with a winter population of 4 to 5.
The climate is classified as ice cap, with no month having a mean temperature exceeding 0°C. Typical daily maximum temperatures at Summit Camp are around − 10 °C in summer. Winter minimum temperatures are about −45 °C and only exceed −20 °C; the highest temperature at Summit Camp was 6.0 °C, recorded on June 14, 2017. On July 6th 2017 the site recorded the lowest temperature in the northern hemisphere for the month of July at −33 °C. In May 2018, Summitt was only 0.8° C away from recording the lowest temperature recorded during May in the Northern Hempishpere, at −49 °C. Whilst on the 24th of March 2019, a new record low for the month was set at −58.9 °C During the summer months the camp is accessed via Kangerlussuaq Airport with LC-130 Hercules aircraft which land on a 4,572 by 60 m snow runway, prepared and groomed for ski-equipped aircraft. Winter access is infrequent, using smaller, ski-equipped aircraft such as a Twin Otter flown by Norlandair. List of research stations in the Arctic NEEM Camp Camp Century Eismitte North Ice List of mountains in Greenland Webcam of Summit Camp Summit Camp Homepage CH2M HILL Polar Services Homepage for Summit Station Weather data of Summit Camp Documenting 2013 journey to Summit Station ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Summit Observatory WeatherPort Shelter Systems
Ejnar Mikkelsen Range
Ejnar Mikkelsen Range is a mountain range in King Christian IX Land, eastern Greenland. Administratively it is part of the Sermersooq Municipality; the range is part of the greater Watkins Range and is named after Danish polar explorer Ejnar Mikkelsen. The highest peak is one of the most impressive mountains in Greenland and has a good reputation among alpinists, it was first climbed in 1970 by Andrew Ross leading a Scottish team, for the second time in 1998 by Roland Aeschimann leading a Swiss team. The Ejnar Mikkelsen Range is a long nunatak with high peaks extending for about 23 km in a north-south direction, it is located east of the main Watkins Range on the eastern side of the Kronborg Glacier and west of the Borgtinderne, another nunatak with high peaks. Its northern end connects with the northern part of the Watkins Range; the area of this range is uninhabited. The highest point in the range is 3,282.7 m high Ejnar Mikkelsen Fjeld main peak, a massive mountain having a black rock needle at the top that marks the true summit.
None of the other peaks in the nunatak rises above 3,000 m. This summit is one of the highest summits in Greenland and it is marked as a 3,325 m peak in some sources. Ejnar Mikkelsen Fjeld; the average annual temperature in the area of the range is -14 °C. The warmest month is July when the average temperature reaches -2 °C and the coldest is February when the temperature sinks to -22 °C. List of mountain ranges of Greenland List of mountains in Greenland List of Nunataks of Greenland List of the major 3000-meter summits of North America List of Ultras of North America Syenite The Development of Mountaineering in East and North-East Greenland- An Outline History The Kap Gustav Holm Tertiary Plutonic Centre, East Greenland Tertiary Magmatism In East Greenland And Hotspot Magmatism Worldwide