Mount Royal is a large volcanic-related hill or small mountain in the city of Montreal west of Downtown Montreal, Canada. The City of Montreal takes its name from Mt Royal; the hill is part of the Monteregian Hills situated between the Laurentians and the Appalachian Mountains. It gave Mons Regius, to the Monteregian chain; the hill consists of three peaks: Colline de la Croix at 233 m, Colline d'Outremont at 211 m, Westmount Summit at 201 m elevation above mean sea level. In June 2017, during the 375th anniversary of Montreal, the city formally renamed the Outremont peak Tiohtià:ke Otsira’kéhne, Mohawk for "the place of the big fire," reflecting how the hill had been used for a fire beacon by First Nations people. Mount Royal is the deep extension of a vastly eroded ancient volcanic complex, active about 125 million years ago; as a result, the tourist guidebook Michelin Guide to Montreal states. The mountain, along with the other mountains of the Monteregian Hills, was formed when the North American Plate moved westward over the New England hotspot.
By a process known as intrusion: magma intruded into the sedimentary rocks underneath the area, producing at least eight igneous stocks. The main rock type is a gabbro composed of pyroxene and variable amounts of plagioclase. During and after the main stage of intrusion, the gabbros and surrounding rocks were intruded by a series of volcanic dikes and sills. Subsequently, the surrounding softer sedimentary rock was eroded, leaving behind the resistant igneous rock that forms the mountain; the mineral montroyalite, discovered in Montreal, is named after the mountain that provided the definition sample. The first European to scale the mountain was Jacques Cartier, guided there in 1535 by the people of the village of Hochelaga, he named it in honour of his patron, Francis I of France. He wrote in his journal: "And among these fields is situated and seated the said town of Hochelaga, near to and adjoining a mountain… We named this mountain Mount Royal." On one theory, the name of the Island of Montréal derives from Mont Réal, as the mountain's name was spelled in Middle French.
However, Cartier's 1535 diary entry refers to "le mont Royal". Another argument, mentioned by the Government of Canada on its website concerning Canadian place names, is that the name Montréal was adopted because a Venetian map from 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, "Monte Real"; the name was first applied to the island and was unofficially applied to the city Ville-Marie, by the 18th century. In 1643, Paul de Chomedey, Sieur de Maisonneuve made a pilgrimage to the top of the mountain, in order to fulfill a vow made in the winter season on occasion of a great flood which swept up to the town palisades. In 1876, land owner and farmer James Swail began planning residential subdivisions on the western slope of Mount Murray, in what is now the Cote-des-Neiges district. In 1906, a large housing development was started in the area, called Northmount Heights, with homes built along what is now Decelles Street by developer Northmount Land Company. Much of this area has since been expropriated by the Université de Montréal.
In 1914–1918, the Mount Royal Tunnel was dug under the mountain by the Canadian Northern Railway, a predecessor of the Canadian National Railway. It is used by the AMT's Deux-Montagnes commuter rail line; the area was considered as a candidate for the site of Expo 67, before the exposition grounds were built on adjoining islands in the Saint Lawrence River. For the 1976 Summer Olympics, the park itself hosted the individual road race cycling event. Mount Royal is 2.5 kilometers north to south. The mountain emerges from the plains occupied by neighboring regions. Two roads cross the territory: The Camillien-Houde Way Côte-des-Neiges Road Mount Royal is home to many animal species. In particular we find: Gray Squirrels Raccoon Fox Marmot Skunk Bee Birds From the point of view of the flora, the mountain shelters a set of natural spaces and semi-natural rich in trees and herbaceous plants The first Mount Royal Cross was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfillment of a vow he made to the Virgin Mary when praying to her to stop a disastrous flood.
Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4-metre-high illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste and now owned by the city. It was converted to fibre-optic light in 1992, to LEDs in 2009; the cross is lit in white, but can now be changed to any colour, including the purple traditionally used upon the death of a pope. Beside the cross, a plaque marks the placement of a time capsule in 1992, during Montréal's 350th birthday celebration, it contains messages and drawings from 12,000 children, depicting their visions for the city in the year 2142, when the capsule is scheduled to be opened. The mountain is the site of one of Montreal's largest greenspaces; the park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and was inaugurated in 1876, although not completed to his design. Olmsted had planned to emphasize the mountainous topography through the use of vegetation. Shade trees at the bottom of the carriage path would resemble a valley; as the visitor went higher, the vegetation would get more sparse to give the illusion of exaggerated height.
However, Montreal suffered a depression in the mid-1870s and many of
Mont Rougemont is part of the Monteregian Hills in southern Quebec. It is composed of igneous rock and hornfels; the summit stands 366 m above sea level. The mountain is covered with sugar maple-dominated forest. Apple orchards and vineyards are cultivated on many of the lower slopes, much of the fruit is used to make cider; the igneous material is composed entirely of mafic and ultramafic rock such as gabbro and olivine-bearing pyroxenite. Mont Rougemont might be the deep extension of a vastly eroded ancient volcanic complex, active about 125 million years ago; the mountain was created when the North American Plate moved westward over the New England hotspot, along with the other mountains of the Monteregian Hills. It forms part of the vast Great Meteor hotspot track. Ass. pour la protection et le développement durable du mont Rougemont Nature Action Quebec Quebec in photographs Montérégie
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U. S. state of Vermont. The range runs south to north and extends 250 miles from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada; the part of the same range, in Massachusetts and Connecticut is known as The Berkshires or the Berkshire Hills and the Quebec portion is called the Sutton Mountains, or Monts Sutton in French. All mountains in Vermont are referred to as the "Green Mountains". However, other ranges within Vermont, including the Taconics—in southwestern Vermont's extremity—and the Northeastern Highlands, are not geologically part of the Green Mountains; the best-known mountains—for reasons such as high elevation, ease of public access by road or trail, or with ski resorts or towns nearby—in the range include: Mount Mansfield, 4,393 feet, the highest point in Vermont Killington Peak, 4,241 feet Mount Ellen, 4,083 feet Camel's Hump, 4,083 feet Mount Abraham, 4,017 feet Pico Peak, 3,957 feet Stratton Mountain, 3,940 feet, the mountain at which the initial ideas of both the Long Trail and the Appalachian Trail were born Jay Peak, 3,862 feet, receives the most snowfall on average in the eastern United States.
Bread Loaf Mountain, 3,835 feet Mount Wilson, 3,780 feet Glastenbury Mountain, 3,748 feet The Green Mountains are part of the Appalachian Mountains, a range that stretches from Quebec in the north to Alabama in the south. The Green Mountains are part of the New England/Acadian forests ecoregion. Three peaks—Mount Mansfield, Camel's Hump, Mount Abraham—support alpine vegetation; some of the mountains are developed for skiing and other snow-related activities. Others have hiking trails for use in summer. Mansfield, Killington and Ellen have downhill ski resorts on their slopes. All of the major peaks are traversed by the Long Trail, a wilderness hiking trail that runs from the southern to northern borders of the state and is overlapped by the Appalachian Trail for 1⁄3 of its length; the Vermont Republic known as the Green Mountain Republic, existed from 1777 to 1791, at which time Vermont became the 14th state. Vermont not only takes its state nickname from the mountains, it is named after them.
The French Monts Verts or Verts Monts is translated as "Green Mountains". This name was suggested in 1777 by Dr. Thomas Young, an American revolutionary and Boston Tea Party participant; the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College is referred to as UVM, after the Latin Universitas Viridis Montis. The Green Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger New England province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. Lemon Fair runs through the towns of Orwell, Shoreham and Cornwall, before flowing into Otter Creek; the story is that its name derives from early English-speaking settlers' phonetic approximation of'Les Monts Vert'. Green Mountain National Forest Green Mountain Boys—paramilitary infantry led by Ethan Allen that took Fort Ticonderoga during the American Revolution Green Mountain Club Griffith Lake U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green Mountains "Green Mountains"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Mont Chapman is the highest peak in the Stoke Mountains of the southern Notre Dame mountain range located in Stoke, Canada. It is accessible from trails maintained by Les Sentiers de l'Estrie. From the summit, one is able to see Mont Ham, Mont Ste-Cécile, Mont Mégantic. Neighboring Bald Peak is accessible by these same trails. Les Sentiers de l'Estrie inc. Peakbagger.com page
Mont Bellevue is a peak that rises to 333 metres situated in a public park located in the borough of Mont-Bellevue in Sherbrooke, Quebec. The park covers Mont Bellevue's parent peak, Mont John-S.-Bourque, as well as 200 hectares of land, 30 kilometers of trails, several different types of ecosystems. Claiming 20% of the total park land, it is the largest park in Sherbrooke. Belle vue translates to "beautiful view" in English; the mountain, its park, the borough in which it lies are named after "the magnificent landscape one discovers at its summit." The Université de Sherbrooke, built in 1954 used the land for sports, recreation and research. In 1959, the City of Sherbrooke constructed the first ski lift on the mountain, signaling the beginning of the development of Mont Bellevue for public recreational purposes. Between 1959 and 1975, the city reserved 45 hectares of land for alpine skiing, tennis and various trails. In 1976, the City of Sherbrooke undertook park maintenance. To this day, the City of Sherbrooke continues to improve the park with consideration for the environment through the Regroupement du Mont Bellevue organization.
In August 2013, Mont Bellevue was one of the venues for the Canada Games. In preparation for the event, the Club de vélo de montagne de Sherbrooke was granted CA $300,000 for the improvement of the park's mountain bike course. Mont Bellevue houses a small alpine skiing station that has six tracks and a chalet at which visitors may rent skiing, snowboarding, or snowshoeing equipment. Other winter activities available in the park include cross-country skiing, winter walking, snow tubing. Summer visitors may participate in hiking, mountain biking, archery, tennis and geocaching. Wildlife observers view deer and chipmunks in the park. Less observed mammals include porcupine and raccoons. Among the many types of avian species in the mountain, birders may view blue jays, wood thrush and ruffed grouse. Reptiles on the mountain include brown snakes and garter snakes, while numerous types of amphibians and insects occupy the space. A variety of wildflowers, trees, edible plants, fungus inhabit the mountain.
Striped maple American basswood Buckthorn and Japanese knotweed are among the invasive plants on the mountain. The black slug is an invasive pest native to Europe, transported to the area during the construction of the Université de Sherbrooke in the 1950s. Windows imported from England in wooden crates padded with straw are thought to have contained eggs from the pest. From there, they took to the Mont Bellevue Park, where the soil humidity is conducive to their locomotion, where their massive size and lack of shell means they outcompete native species; the black slug has few natural predators in North America, meaning it is a threat to the stability of the ecosystems on the mountain. There is concern that the molluscs might spread to other parts of town via accidental transportation by automobiles that stay for long periods of time in the Mont Bellevue or university parking areas. In 2008, residents of the Mont-Bellevue and Mont-Sainte-Anne sectors surrounding the park reported major issues with the critters, who are known for decimating gardens.
City councillors deferred their complaints to provincial ministers. In early 2009, the city drew up plans to pursue the eradication of the slugs, granting CA $12,000 to Environtel 3000 so the company could analyze the scope and distribution of the pests. However, that summer saw yet another worrisome abundance of the pest; the report revealed that 15-20% of the slugs begin their reproductive cycle early, allowing for the growth of two generations per year instead of one. Warm autumns and winters, as well as wet springs and summers, promote the growth of the slug population. Following the report, the city began the production of informative brochures detailing the steps homeowners can take to get rid of the pests on their properties. In 2012, a retired biology teacher from the Cégep de Sherbrooke admitted that he gathers the slugs from his yard, feeds them lettuce to "clean" them, boils them to get rid of their slime sautés them in butter, green onions, croutons, not unlike one would do with escargot.
However, this is advised against as the critters ones in populations that are being controlled, may contain parasites. Official website for the park Official website of the Regroupement du Parc du Mont-Bellevue
Westmount Summit is the summit of one of the three peaks of Mount Royal located in Westmount, Canada. Part of the geographical summit is located within the Montreal borough of Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce; the summit is 201 metres above sea-level. The park occupies 23.087 hectares of land at the summit, making it the largest park in Westmount. A lookout is located on its southern face, providing views over Westmount, the south shore and the Eastern Townships. McGill University owned the land on Westmount Summit in the late nineteenth century, which it used for a botanical garden. In the early twentieth century, McGill donated the land to the City of Westmount on the condition that it become a bird sanctuary. Today, there are about 180 species of bird on Westmount Summit. There are many species of wild plant and flowers located in the summit woods; the summit woods are bordered on all sides by Summit Circle, a notable residential portion of Westmount