Boston is a town and small port in Lincolnshire, on the east coast of England 100 miles north of London. It is the largest town of the wider Borough of Boston local government district; the town itself had a population of 35,124 at the 2001 census, while the borough had a total population of 66,900, at the ONS mid-2015 estimates. It is due north of Greenwich on the Prime Meridian. Boston's most notable landmark is St Botolph's Church, said to be the largest parish church in England, visible for miles around from the flat lands of Lincolnshire. Residents of Boston are known as Bostonians. Emigrants from Boston named several other settlements around the world after the town, most notably Boston, Massachusetts, in the United States; the name "Boston" is said to be a contraction of "Saint Botolph's town", "stone", or "tun" for a hamlet or farm, hence the Latin villa Sancti Botulfi "St. Botulf's village"); the town was once held to have been a Roman settlement. It is linked to the monastery established by the Saxon monk Botolph at "Icanhoe" on the Witham in AD 654 and destroyed by the Vikings in 870, but this is now doubted by modern historians.
The early medieval geography of The Fens was much more fluid than it is today and, at that time, the Witham did not flow near the site of Boston. Botolph's establishment is most to have been in Suffolk. However, he was a popular missionary and saint to whom many churches between Yorkshire and Sussex are dedicated; the 1086 Domesday Book does not mention Boston by name, but nearby settlements of the tenant-in-chief Count Alan Rufus of Brittany are covered. Its present territory was then part of the grant of Skirbeck, part of the wealthy manor of Drayton, which before 1066 had been owned by Ralph the Staller, Edward the Confessor's Earl of East Anglia. Skirbeck had two churches and one is to have been that dedicated to St Botolph, in what was Botolph's town. Skirbeck is now considered part of Boston, but the name remains, as a church parish and an electoral ward; the order of importance was the other way round, when the Boston quarter of Skirbeck developed at the head of the Haven, which lies under the present Market Place.
At that stage, The Haven was the tidal part of the stream, now represented by the Stone Bridge Drain, which carried the water from the East and West Fens. The line of the road through Wide Bargate, to A52 and A16, is to have developed on its marine silt levees, it led, as it does now, to the high ground at Sibsey, thence to Lindsey. The reason for the original development of the town, away from the centre of Skirbeck, was that Boston lay on the point where navigable tidal water was alongside the land route, which used the Devensian terminal moraine ridge at Sibsey, between the upland of East Lindsey and the three routes to the south of Boston: The coastal route, on the marine silts, crossed the mouth of Bicker Haven towards Spalding; the Sleaford route, into Kesteven, passed via Swineshead, thence following the old course of the River Slea, on its marine silt levee. The Salters' Way route into Kesteven, left Holland from Donington; this route was much more developed, in the Medieval period, by Bridge End Priory.
The River Witham seems to have joined The Haven after the flood of September 1014, having abandoned the port of Drayton, on what subsequently became known as Bicker Haven. The predecessor of Ralph the Staller owned most of both Skirbeck and Drayton, so it was a simple task to transfer his business from Drayton, but the Domesday Book of 1086 still records his source of income in Boston under the heading of Drayton, so Boston's name is famously not mentioned; the Town Bridge still maintains the pre-flood route, along the old Haven bank. After the Norman Conquest, Ralph the Staller's property was taken over by Count Alan, it subsequently came to be attached to the Earldom of Richmond, North Yorkshire, known as the Richmond Fee. It lay on the left bank of The Haven. During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Boston grew into port. In 1204, King John vested sole control over the town in his bailiff; that year or the next, he levied a "fifteenth" tax of 6.67% on the moveable goods of merchants in the ports of England: the merchants of Boston paid £780, the highest in the kingdom after London's £836.
Thus by the opening of the thirteenth century, it was significant in trade with the continent of Europe and ranked as a port of the Hanseatic League. Edward III named it a staple port for the wool trade in 1369. Apart from wool, Boston exported salt, produced locally on the Holland coast, produced up-river, lead, produced in Derbyshire and brought via Lincoln, up-river. A quarrel between the local and foreign merchants led to the withdrawal of the Hansards around 1470. Around the same time, the decline of the local guilds and shift towards domestic weaving of English wool led to a near-complete collapse of the town's foreign trade; the silting of the Haven only furthered the town's decline. At the Dissolution of the Monasteries by Henry VIII during the English Reformation, Boston's Dominican, Franciscan and Augustinian friaries—erected during the boom years of the 13th and 14th centuries—were all expropriated; the refectory of the Dominican friary was converted into a theatre in 1965 and now houses the Blackfriars Arts Centre.
Henry VIII granted the town its charter in 1545 and Boston had two Members of Parliament from 1552. The staple trade made Boston a centre of intellectual influence from the Continent, including the teachings of John Calvin that becam
Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, dragoon, or trooper; the designation of cavalry was not given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title. Cavalry had the advantage of improved mobility, a man fighting from horseback had the advantages of greater height and inertial mass over an opponent on foot. Another element of horse mounted warfare is the psychological impact a mounted soldier can inflict on an opponent; the speed and shock value of the cavalry was appreciated and exploited in armed forces in the Ancient and Middle Ages. In Europe cavalry became armoured, became known for the mounted knights.
During the 17th century cavalry in Europe lost most of its armor, ineffective against the muskets and cannon which were coming into use, by the mid-19th century armor had fallen into disuse, although some regiments retained a small thickened cuirass that offered protection against lances and sabres and some protection against shot. In the period between the World Wars, many cavalry units were converted into motorized infantry and mechanized infantry units, or reformed as tank troops. However, some cavalry still served during World War II, notably in the Red Army, the Mongolian People's Army, the Royal Italian Army, the Romanian Army, the Polish Land Forces, light reconnaissance units within the Waffen SS. Most cavalry units that are horse-mounted in modern armies serve in purely ceremonial roles, or as mounted infantry in difficult terrain such as mountains or forested areas. Modern usage of the term refers to units performing the role of reconnaissance and target acquisition. In many modern armies, the term cavalry is still used to refer to units that are a combat arm of the armed forces which in the past filled the traditional horse-borne land combat light cavalry roles.
These include scouting, skirmishing with enemy reconnaissance elements to deny them knowledge of own disposition of troops, forward security, offensive reconnaissance by combat, defensive screening of friendly forces during retrograde movement, restoration of command and control, battle handover and passage of lines, relief in place, breakout operations, raiding. The shock role, traditionally filled by heavy cavalry, is filled by units with the "armored" designation. Before the Iron Age, the role of cavalry on the battlefield was performed by light chariots; the chariot originated with the Sintashta-Petrovka culture in Central Asia and spread by nomadic or semi-nomadic Indo-Iranians. The chariot was adopted by settled peoples both as a military technology and an object of ceremonial status by the pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt as well as the Assyrian army and Babylonian royalty; the power of mobility given by mounted units was recognized early on, but was offset by the difficulty of raising large forces and by the inability of horses to carry heavy armor.
Cavalry techniques were an innovation of equestrian nomads of the Central Asian and Iranian steppe and pastoralist tribes such as the Iranic Parthians and Sarmatians. The photograph above left shows Assyrian cavalry from reliefs of 865–860 BC. At this time, the men had no spurs, saddle cloths, or stirrups. Fighting from the back of a horse was much more difficult than mere riding; the cavalry acted in pairs. At this early time, cavalry used swords and bows; the sculpture implies two types of cavalry. Images of Assyrian cavalry show saddle cloths as primitive saddles, allowing each archer to control his own horse; as early as 490 BC a breed of large horses was bred in the Nisaean plain in Media to carry men with increasing amounts of armour, but large horses were still exceptional at this time. By the fourth century BC the Chinese during the Warring States period began to use cavalry against rival states, by 331 BC when Alexander the Great defeated the Persians the use of chariots in battle was obsolete in most nations.
The last recorded use of chariots as a shock force in continental Europe was during the Battle of Telamon in 225 BC. However, chariots remained in use for ceremonial purposes such as carrying the victorious general in a Roman triumph, or for racing. Outside of mainland Europe, the southern Britons met Julius Caesar with chariots in 55 and 54 BC, but by the time of the Roman conquest of Britain a century chariots were obsolete in Britannia; the last mention of chariot use in Britain was by the Caledonians at the Mons Graupius, in 84 AD. During the classical Greek period cavalry were limited to those citizens who could afford expensive war-horses. Three types of cavalry became common: light cavalry, whose riders, armed with javelins, could harass and skirmish.
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
Charles Bertie (senior)
Captain Charles Bertie, British diplomat, was the fifth son of Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey by his first wife, Martha Cokayne. He rose to serve as Secretary to the Treasury under his brother-in-law, the Earl of Danby, from 1673 until 1679, but did not wield significant political power thereafter, he did, twice enjoy the office of Treasurer of the Ordnance before his death in 1711. Bertie was educated first at a school of Charles Croke at Amersham and probably at Westminster School. Admitted to the Middle Temple on 25 October 1658, he did not, take up a career as a barrister but went abroad in France and Switzerland for the next several years. Determined upon a diplomatic career, Bertie served as attaché at Madrid from 1664 to 1665 under Sir Richard Fanshawe, who wrote favorably of him to the King, he graduated M. A. from Oxford University in 1665, was incorporated at Cambridge University in 1667. He was subsequently commissioned both as a second lieutenant in the Royal Navy and as a captain in the Coldstream Guards in 1668.
Bertie traveled through Scandinavia and Prussia and Poland in 1670, was named envoy-extraordinary to Denmark in March 1671. He left the following month for Denmark, by way of Hamburg, returned home in February 1672 after the completion of his negotiations. In 1673, Bertie's brother-in-law, the Viscount Latimer, was appointed Lord High Treasurer, providing Bertie with a new route for advancement, he was appointed Secretary to the Treasury and served as his brother-in-law's administrator there until 1679. He purchased an estate at Uffington, Lincolnshire in 1673, in the following year married Mary, daughter of Peter Tryon and widow of Sir Samuel Jones, by whom he had two children: Charles Bertie Elizabeth Bertie, married on 8 June 1693 Charles Mildmay, 18th Baron FitzWalterBertie was eager to secure additional treasury offices, obtained a reversion to the office of Treasurer of the Ordnance in 1675 and to the office of Auditor of the Receipt of the Exchequer the following year, he attempted to enter the House of Commons at a by-election at Grimsby in April 1675, but was defeated.
However, in February 1678, he was returned for Stamford in another by-election. Storm clouds had, begun to gather around his brother-in-law and patron, now Earl of Danby; as Lord High Treasurer, though anti-French, had been involved in Charles II's collection of a subsidy from Louis XIV, in exchange for English neutrality. With the rupture of Anglo-French relations in 1678, through the agency of the disaffected Ralph Montagu, attempted by releasing several of his letters to make Danby the scapegoat for the policy. Bertie opposed Danby's impeachment, but to no avail, his support for Danby cost him his seat in January 1679. Bertie himself became embroiled in the controversy over the distribution of secret service money, in May, upon refusing to testify without the King's command, was placed in the custody of the Serjeant-at-Arms of the British House of Commons, where he remained until Parliament was dissolved in July. Appointed envoy-extraordinary to Germany in summer 1680, Bertie was thus out of the country when a new Parliament was convened in October.
He traveled through many of the German states before being recalled after the dissolution of the Oxford Parliament in March 1681. Returning to England in June, he succeeded that August as Treasurer of the Ordnance. With the accession of James II, Bertie was again returned as Member of Parliament for Stamford. Around this time, he built a new country house in Uffington, was appointed to local posts in Boston and Stamford. Bertie kept the favour of James throughout his change of policy and the issue of the Declaration of Indulgence, was a court candidate for the abortive 1688 elections. However, he was in Yorkshire with Danby, he went down to London in October to allay James' fears, was considered as a mediator between James and Danby. His connection with Danby allowed him to retain influence after the Glorious Revolution and he continued to hold his seat in Parliament, he supported Danby's proposal to settle it upon Mary. Although Danby, now Marquess of Carmarthen, had now returned to eminence, Bertie was unable to achieve significant political power, being passed over as Secretary to the Treasury in 1691.
He held a number of minor posts, including secretary to the Justice in Eyre south of the Trent in 1693. While he signed the Association in 1696, he remained a reliable Tory, opposing the attainder of Sir John Fenwick that year. With the final fall of Carmarthen, now Duke of Leeds, in 1699, Bertie lost his office as Treasurer of the Ordnance to Harry Mordaunt, but regained it in 1702 with the accession of Anne, his support for an Occasional Conformity Bill in 1704 was the cause of his dismissal in 1705. Bertie opposed the impeachment of Henry Sacheverell in 1710, he had suffered from a "bad stomach" for much of that year, died in March 1711, was buried at Uffington. His son Charles replaced him as Member of Parliament for Stamford. Handley, Stuart. "Bertie, Charles". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 September 2007
Second Battle of Newbury
The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on 27 October 1644, in Speen, adjoining Newbury in Berkshire. The battle was fought close to the site of the First Battle of Newbury, which took place in late September the previous year; the combined armies of Parliament inflicted a tactical defeat on the Royalists, but failed to gain any strategic advantage. In the early months of 1644, the Parliamentarians had won victories at Cheriton in the south of England and Nantwich in the northwest, they had secured the allegiance of the Scottish Covenanters, who sent an army into the north east. These developments both distracted the Royalists and weakened their forces around Oxford, King Charles's wartime capital. Early in June, the Parliamentarian armies of the Earl of Essex and Sir William Waller threatened to surround Oxford. King Charles made, he was still in danger but on 6 June and Waller conferred at Stow-on-the-Wold and fatally decided to divide their armies. While Waller continued to shadow the King, Essex marched into the West Country, to relieve Lyme Regis, under siege, to subdue Devon and Cornwall.
This allowed the King to return to Oxford to collect reinforcements. On 29 June, he won a victory over Waller at Cropredy Bridge. Waller's army, most of, unwilling to serve far from its home areas in London and the southeast, was subsequently crippled for several weeks by desertions and threatened mutinies; the King was free to march after Essex's army. Essex was soon trapped against the coast at Lostwithiel, he relied on support from the Parliamentarian navy, but contrary winds prevented the Parliamentarian ships leaving Portsmouth. Although Essex himself escaped in a fishing boat and his cavalry broke out of encirclement, the rest of his army was forced to surrender on 2 September, losing their arms and equipment; the troops were paroled, but suffered from exposure and attacks by country people during their march to Portsmouth. Although they were re-equipped, only 4,000 infantry were fit for service. On 2 July however, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians in the north had defeated King Charles's nephew Prince Rupert at the Battle of Marston Moor.
This victory gave them control of the north, released the Army of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester to serve in the south of England, once the city of York surrendered on 16 July. After the victory at Lostwithiel, King Charles first probed the Parliamentarian defences at Plymouth marched back across the southern counties of England to relieve several garrisons, isolated while he had been campaigning in the west, he was joined by Prince Rupert, who gave his account of his defeat at Marston Moor. Charles ordered Rupert to march into Gloucestershire, in an attempt to draw some of the Parliamentarian armies after him; the Earl of Essex kept his three armies together, the result of Rupert's manoeuvre was to divide the Royalist forces, rather than those of Parliament. On 22 October, Charles relieved Donnington Castle, he knighted Lieutenant Colonel John Boys, the commander of its garrison, promoted him to colonel. He hoped to relieve Basing House next, but the combined Parliamentarian armies were too strong for him to risk an advance.
He therefore waited around Newbury for Rupert, another detachment under the Earl of Northampton, sent to relieve Banbury, to rejoin him. Charles' army held three strong points: Donnington Castle north of Newbury, Shaw House northeast of the town and the village of Speen to the west; the River Kennet prevented the Parliamentarians making any outflanking move to the south, but the small River Lambourn divided the Royalists at Speen and Newbury from those at Shaw and Donnington Castle. Shaw House and its grounds, which included some Iron Age embankments which were incorporated into the defences, were defended by Lord Astley, with three "tertias" or brigades of infantry under his son, Sir Bernard Astley, Colonel Thomas Blagge and Colonel George Lisle. Speen was held by Rupert's brother Prince Maurice, with a mixed detachment from the Royalist forces from the west country. Charles's cavalry under George, Lord Goring were in reserve, they were divided into four brigades under Goring himself, Lord Wentworth, the Earl of Cleveland and Sir Humphrey Bennett.
The Earl of Brentford was the Lord General, Charles's deputy Lord Hopton commanded the artillery. Early on 26 October, the combined Parliamentarian armies advanced to Clay Hill, a few miles east of Newbury, where they set up an artillery battery. Intermittent exchanges of cannon fire took place throughout the day. Essex had been taken ill, Waller and Manchester decided that a frontal attack on Donnington Castle and Shaw House would be too costly, they opted instead to divide their forces. While Manchester demonstrated with 7,000 infantry against Shaw House, Waller took 12,000 men on a long march of 13 miles around the Royalist position to fall on Speen from the west, it was intended that on hearing the opening cannonade from Waller's guns, Manchester would put in a full-scale attack on Shaw House. Waller camped overnight far to the north, his force broke camp and resumed its outflanking move on 27 October while Manchester launched a diversionary attack on Shaw House. Although the Royalists at Donnington Castle observed Waller's movement, sent a small detachment of cavalry to harry his rearguard, the troops at Speen were not warned of t
Battle of Naseby
The Battle of Naseby was a decisive engagement of the First English Civil War, fought on 14 June 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I and the Parliamentarian New Model Army, commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell. It was fought near the village of Naseby in Northamptonshire. After the Royalists stormed the Parliamentarian town of Leicester on 31st May 1645, Fairfax was ordered to lift his siege of Oxford, the Royalist capital, engage the King's main army. Eager to bring the Royalists to battle, Fairfax set off in pursuit of the Royalist army, heading to recover the north; the King, faced with retreating north with Fairfax close behind, or giving battle, decided to give battle, fearing a loss of morale if his army continued retreating. After hard fighting, the Parliamentarian army had destroyed the Royalist force, which suffered 7,000 casualties out of 7,400 effectives. Charles lost the bulk of his veteran infantry and officers, all of his artillery and stores, his personal baggage and many arms, ensuring the Royalists would never again field an army of comparable quality.
Captured in the baggage train were the King's private papers, revealing to the fullest extent his attempts to draw Irish Catholics and foreign mercenaries into the war. Publication of these papers gave Parliament an added moral cause in fighting the war to a finish. Within a year, Parliament had won the first civil war. After a disappointing performance by the Parliamentarian armies at the Second Battle of Newbury at the end of the 1644 campaign season, where they failed to inflict a decisive defeat on the Royalists, Parliament reformed its armies into the New Model Army, not subject to interference from local associations of counties. At the same time, Oliver Cromwell worked to push the Self-denying Ordinance through Parliament; this legislation, which forbade members of the Lords or Commons from holding command in the army, was intended to improve unity among the bickering Parliamentarian commanders, by preventing conflicts of interest. In practice, it was engineered to remove hereditary peers, many of whom were not hardline anti-Royalists, from their commands as, unlike elected Members of Parliament, they could not resign their political seats to take a commission.
At the beginning of 1645, most of King Charles's advisers urged him to attack the New Model Army while it was still forming. However, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, appointed General of the Army, therefore the King's chief military adviser, proposed instead to march north to recover the North of England and join forces with the Royalists in Scotland under the Marquess of Montrose; this course was adopted though the King's army had to be weakened by leaving a detachment under Lord Goring, the Lieutenant General of Horse, to hold the West Country and maintain the Siege of Taunton, in Somerset. At the same time, after the New Model Army had abandoned its attempt to relieve Taunton, Parliament's Committee of Both Kingdoms had directed Fairfax, its commander, to besiege Oxford, the King's wartime capital. Charles welcomed this move, as Fairfax would be unable to interfere with his move north. At the end of May he was told that Oxford was short of provisions and could not hold out long. To distract Fairfax, the Royalists stormed the Parliamentarian garrison at Leicester on 31 May.
Having done so, Prince Rupert and the King's council reversed their former decision and marched south to relieve Oxford. They sent messages ordering Goring to rejoin them. Parliament had indeed been alarmed by the loss of Leicester, Fairfax was now instructed to abandon the siege of Oxford and engage the King's main army, he accordingly marched north from Oxford on 5 June. His leading detachments of horse clashed with Royalist outposts near Daventry on 12 June, alerting the King to his presence. On 13 June, the Royalists, who were now making for Newark so as to receive reinforcements, were at Market Harborough. Fairfax was eager to engage them, held a council of war, during which Oliver Cromwell, re-appointed the army's Lieutenant General, arrived with some cavalry reinforcements; the New Model Army moved in pursuit of the Royalist army, late in the day Commissary General Henry Ireton attacked a Royalist outpost at Naseby, 6 miles to the south of the main body of the King's army. The King now had to accept retreat with Fairfax in close pursuit.
Early on 14 June, ignoring Rupert's advice and urged on by Secretary of State Lord Digby, the King was persuaded that any retreat would lower morale and took the former course. The morning of 14 June was foggy; the Royalist army occupied a strong position on a ridge between the villages of Little Oxendon and East Farndon about 2 miles south of Market Harborough. The Royalist scoutmaster, Sir Francis Ruce, was sent out to find the Parliamentarian army and rode south for two or three miles but saw no sign of it through negligence. Rupert himself moved forward and saw some Parliamentarian cavalry retiring, he ordered the Royalist army to advance. Fairfax considered occupying the northern slopes of Naseby ridge. Cromwell believed that this position was too strong, that the Royalists would refuse battle rather than attack it, he is said to have sent a message to Fairfax, saying, "I beseech you, withdraw to yonder hill, which may provoke the enemy to charge us". Fairfax agreed, moved his army back slightly.
The Royalists did not see Fairfax's pos