Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids with melting points above about 40 °C, melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents. Natural waxes of different types occur in petroleum. Waxes are organic compounds. Natural waxes may contain unsaturated bonds and include various functional groups such as fatty acids and secondary alcohols, ketones and fatty acid esters, aromatic compounds may be present. Synthetic waxes consist of homologous series of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons that lack functional groups. Waxes are synthesized by many animals; those of animal origin consist of wax esters derived from a variety of carboxylic acids and fatty alcohols. In waxes of plant origin, characteristic mixtures of unesterified hydrocarbons may predominate over esters; the composition depends not only on species, but on geographic location of the organism. The best known animal wax is beeswax used in constructing the honeycombs of honeybees, but other insects secrete waxes.
A major component of the beeswax is myricyl palmitate, an ester of triacontanol and palmitic acid. Its melting point is 62-65 °C. Spermaceti occurs in large amounts in the head oil of the sperm whale. One of its main constituents is another ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. Lanolin is a wax obtained from wool. Plants secrete waxes into and on the surface of their cuticles as a way to control evaporation and hydration; the epicuticular waxes of plants are mixtures of substituted long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, containing alkanes, alkyl esters, fatty acids and secondary alcohols, ketones, aldehydes. From the commercial perspective, the most important plant wax is carnauba wax, a hard wax obtained from the Brazilian palm Copernicia prunifera. Containing the ester myricyl cerotate, it has many applications, such as confectionery and other food coatings and furniture polish, floss coating, surfboard wax. Other more specialized vegetable waxes include ouricury wax. Plant and animal based waxes or oils can undergo selective chemical modifications to produce waxes with more desirable properties than are available in the unmodified starting material.
This approach has relied on green chemistry approaches including olefin metathesis and enzymatic reactions and can be used to produce waxes from inexpensive starting materials like vegetable oils. Although many natural waxes contain esters, paraffin waxes are hydrocarbons, mixtures of alkanes in a homologous series of chain lengths; these materials represent a significant fraction of petroleum. They are refined by vacuum distillation. Paraffin waxes are mixtures of saturated n- and iso- alkanes and alkyl- and naphthene-substituted aromatic compounds. A typical alkane paraffin wax chemical composition comprises hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2, such as hentriacontane, C31H64; the degree of branching has an important influence on the properties. Microcrystalline wax is a lesser produced petroleum based wax that contains higher percentage of isoparaffinic hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons. Millions of tons of paraffin waxes are produced annually, they are used in foods, in candles and cosmetics, as non-stick and waterproofing coatings and in polishes.
Montan wax is a fossilized wax extracted from lignite. It is hard, reflecting the high concentration of saturated fatty acids and alcohols. Although dark brown and odorous, they can be purified and bleached to give commercially useful products; as of 1995, about 200 million kilograms/y were consumed. Polyethylene waxes are manufactured by one of three methods: 1- direct polymerization of ethylene; each production technique generates products with different properties. Key properties of low molecular weight polyethylene waxes are viscosity and melt point. Polyethylene waxes produced by means of degradation or recovery from polyethylene resin streams contain low molecular weight materials that must be removed to prevent volatilization and potential fire hazards during use. Polyethylene waxes manufactured by this method are stripped of low molecular weight fractions to yield a flash point > 500°F. Many polyethylene resin plants produce a low molecular weight stream referred to as Low Polymer Wax. LPW is unrefined and contains volatile oligomers, corrosive catalyst and may contain other foreign material and water.
Refining of LPW to produce a polyethylene wax involves removal of hazardous catalyst. Proper refining of LPW to produce polyethylene wax is important when being used in applications requiring FDA or other regulatory certification. Waxes are consumed industrially as components of complex formulations for coatings; the main use of polyethylene and polypropylene waxes is in the formulation of colourants for plastics. Waxes confer matting effects and wear resistance to paints. Polyethylene waxes are incorporated into inks in the form of dispersions to decrease friction, they are employed as release agents, find use as slip agents in furniture, confer corrosion resistance. Waxes such as paraffin wax or beeswax, hard fats such as tallow are used to make can
Ione is a city in Amador County, United States. The population was 7,918 at the 2010 census, up from 7,129 in 2000. Once known as "Bed-Bug" and "Freeze Out," Ione was an important supply center on the main road to the Mother Lode and Southern Mines during the California Gold Rush. Ione is the historical home of an indigenous people of California. In 1840, the future town site became part of the Mexican land grant Rancho Arroyo Seco in Alta California; the town is located in the fertile Ione Valley, believed to have been named by Thomas Brown around 1849 after one of the heroines in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's drama The Last Days of Pompeii, but conflicting legends and sources for the name exist. During the days of the Gold Rush, the miners knew the town by the names of "Bedbug" and "Freezeout." Unlike other communities in Amador County, which were founded on gold mining, Ione was a supply center and rail stop, agricultural hub. The town of Ione continued to prosper after its gold rush founding; the first school was built in 1853.
The historic Methodist Church was organized in 1853 and the structure was completed in 1862. The first flour mill was built in 1855; the first brick building was built by Daniel Stewart, D. Stewart Company Store, in 1855 for his general merchandise store and is still owned and operated by the same family. In March 1865, Camp Jackson was built nearby, garrisoned by Company D, 2nd California Volunteer Cavalry, who stayed for three months until moving on to a new post. At the centennial of 1876, Ione had a population of about 600 which included about 100 Chinese who lived in Ione's Chinatown; the town included one public school, 4 churches, 4 general stores, one meat market, one laundry, one brewery, a restaurant, millinery shop, an art gallery, six saloons, a drug store and barber shop, many other business establishments. The centennial celebrated the completion of the railroad to the town of Ione; the centennial celebration was the beginning of. This annual celebration has been held during the month of May every year since that first Centennial celebration in 1876 and is now held on the second full weekend in May every year.
The first post office opened in 1852. The City of Ione was incorporated as a General Law City in 1953. Ione has historical points of interest. Three are listed as California Historical Landmarks: The Preston School of Industry, known as The Castle, was built between 1890-1894 to serve as a school for juveniles referred by the courts; the Castle is not in use, but the Preston Castle Foundation is working to help restore it. Community Methodist Church of Ione D. Stewart Company Store Dave Brubeck, the famous jazz pianist, was raised in Ione and in 1998 scored a video tour of the castle called "A Castle's Song", sold through KVIE to help fund the restoration efforts. Ione is located at 38°21′10″N 120°55′58″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which 4.8 square miles is land and 0.015 square miles is water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Ione has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Ione had a population of 7,918. The population density was 1,656.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Ione was 5,826 White, 824 African American, 173 Native American, 110 Asian, 21 Pacific Islander, 678 from other races, 286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,991 persons; the Census reported that 3,746 people lived in households, 12 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 4,160 were institutionalized. There were 1,466 households, out of which 482 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 810 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 159 had a female householder with no husband present, 77 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 84 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 6 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 335 households were made up of individuals and 143 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56. There were 1,046 families; the population was spread out with 1,060 people under the age of 18, 648 people aged 18 to 24, 2,880 people aged 25 to 44, 2,550 people aged 45 to 64, 780 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 310.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 366.5 males. There were 1,635 housing units at an average density of 342.1 per square mile, of which 1,466 were occupied, of which 1,026 were owner-occupied, 440 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4.2%. 2,574 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,172 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,129 people, 1,081 households, 780 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,502.6 people per square mile. There were 1,155 housing units at an average density of 243.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 57.90% White, 17.83% Black or African American, 2.30% Native American, 1.68% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 18.12% from
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons are examples of group 14 hydrides. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups called hydrocarbyls; because carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost shell carbon has four bonds to make, is only stable if all 4 of these bonds are used. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons. Most hydrocarbons found on Earth occur in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form limitless chains; as defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, the classifications for hydrocarbons are: Saturated hydrocarbons are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species. They are composed of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen; the formula for acyclic saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2. The most general form of saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n +2.
Those with one ring are the cycloalkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the basis of petroleum fuels and are found as either linear or branched species. Substitution reaction is their characteristics property. Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae are called structural isomers; as given in the example of 3-methylhexane and its higher homologues, branched hydrocarbons can be chiral. Chiral saturated hydrocarbons constitute the side chains of biomolecules such as chlorophyll and tocopherol. Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more triple bonds between carbon atoms; those with double bond are called alkenes. Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n; those containing triple bonds are called alkyne. Those with one triple bond have the formula CnH2n−2. Aromatic hydrocarbons known as arenes, are hydrocarbons that have at least one aromatic ring. Hydrocarbons can be gases, waxes or low melting solids or polymers; because of differences in molecular structure, the empirical formula remains different between hydrocarbons.
This inherent ability of hydrocarbons to bond to themselves is known as catenation, allows hydrocarbons to form more complex molecules, such as cyclohexane, in rarer cases, arenes such as benzene. This ability comes from the fact that the bond character between carbon atoms is non-polar, in that the distribution of electrons between the two elements is somewhat due to the same electronegativity values of the elements, does not result in the formation of an electrophile. With catenation comes the loss of the total amount of bonded hydrocarbons and an increase in the amount of energy required for bond cleavage due to strain exerted upon the molecule. In simple chemistry, as per valence bond theory, the carbon atom must follow the 4-hydrogen rule, which states that the maximum number of atoms available to bond with carbon is equal to the number of electrons that are attracted into the outer shell of carbon. In terms of shells, carbon consists of an incomplete outer shell, which comprises 4 electrons, thus has 4 electrons available for covalent or dative bonding.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic like lipids. Some hydrocarbons are abundant in the solar system. Lakes of liquid methane and ethane have been found on Titan, Saturn's largest moon, confirmed by the Cassini-Huygens Mission. Hydrocarbons are abundant in nebulae forming polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds. Hydrocarbons are a primary energy source for current civilizations; the predominant use of hydrocarbons is as a combustible fuel source. In their solid form, hydrocarbons take the form of asphalt. Mixtures of volatile hydrocarbons are now used in preference to the chlorofluorocarbons as a propellant for aerosol sprays, due to chlorofluorocarbons' impact on the ozone layer. Methane and ethane are gaseous at ambient temperatures and cannot be liquefied by pressure alone. Propane is however liquefied, exists in'propane bottles' as a liquid. Butane is so liquefied that it provides a safe, volatile fuel for small pocket lighters. Pentane is a colorless liquid at room temperature used in chemistry and industry as a powerful nearly odorless solvent of waxes and high molecular weight organic compounds, including greases.
Hexane is a used non-polar, non-aromatic solvent, as well as a significant fraction of common gasoline. The C6 through C10 alkanes and isomeric cycloalkanes are the top components of gasoline, jet fuel and specialized industrial solvent mixtures. With the progressive addition of carbon units, the simple non-ring structured hydrocarbons have higher viscosities, lubricating indices, boiling points, solidification temperatures, deeper color. At the opposite extreme from methane lie the heavy tars that remain as the lowest fraction in a crude oil refining retort, they are collected and utilized as roofing comp
A fossil is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, objects preserved in amber, petrified wood, coal, DNA remnants; the totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, evolutionary significance. Specimens are considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old; the oldest fossils are around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils; the development of radiometric dating techniques in the early 20th century allowed scientists to quantitatively measure the absolute ages of rocks and the fossils they host. There are many processes that lead to fossilization, including permineralization and molds, authigenic mineralization and recrystallization, adpression and bioimmuration.
Fossils vary in size from one-micrometre bacteria to dinosaurs and trees, many meters long and weighing many tons. A fossil preserves only a portion of the deceased organism that portion, mineralized during life, such as the bones and teeth of vertebrates, or the chitinous or calcareous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Fossils may consist of the marks left behind by the organism while it was alive, such as animal tracks or feces; these types of fossil are called trace ichnofossils, as opposed to body fossils. Some fossils are called chemofossils or biosignatures; the process of fossilization varies according to external conditions. Permineralization is a process of fossilization; the empty spaces within an organism become filled with mineral-rich groundwater. Minerals precipitate from the groundwater; this process can occur in small spaces, such as within the cell wall of a plant cell. Small scale permineralization can produce detailed fossils. For permineralization to occur, the organism must become covered by sediment soon after death, otherwise decay commences.
The degree to which the remains are decayed when covered determines the details of the fossil. Some fossils consist only of skeletal teeth; this is a form of diagenesis. In some cases, the original remains of the organism dissolve or are otherwise destroyed; the remaining organism-shaped hole in the rock is called an external mold. If this hole is filled with other minerals, it is a cast. An endocast, or internal mold, is formed when sediments or minerals fill the internal cavity of an organism, such as the inside of a bivalve or snail or the hollow of a skull; this is a special form of mold formation. If the chemistry is right, the organism can act as a nucleus for the precipitation of minerals such as siderite, resulting in a nodule forming around it. If this happens before significant decay to the organic tissue fine three-dimensional morphological detail can be preserved. Nodules from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek fossil beds of Illinois, USA, are among the best documented examples of such mineralization.
Replacement occurs. In some cases mineral replacement of the original shell occurs so and at such fine scales that microstructural features are preserved despite the total loss of original material. A shell is said to be recrystallized when the original skeletal compounds are still present but in a different crystal form, as from aragonite to calcite. Compression fossils, such as those of fossil ferns, are the result of chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules composing the organism's tissues. In this case the fossil consists of original material, albeit in a geochemically altered state; this chemical change is an expression of diagenesis. What remains is a carbonaceous film known as a phytoleim, in which case the fossil is known as a compression. However, the phytoleim is lost and all that remains is an impression of the organism in the rock—an impression fossil. In many cases, however and impressions occur together. For instance, when the rock is broken open, the phytoleim will be attached to one part, whereas the counterpart will just be an impression.
For this reason, one term covers the two modes of preservation: adpression. Because of their antiquity, an unexpected exception to the alteration of an organism's tissues by chemical reduction of the complex organic molecules during fossilization has been the discovery of soft tissue in dinosaur fossils, including blood vessels, the isolation of proteins and evidence for DNA fragments. In 2014, Mary Schweitzer and her colleagues reported the presence of iron particles associated with soft tissues recovered from dinosaur fossils. Based on various experiments that studied the interaction of iron in haemoglobin with blood vessel tissue they proposed that solution hypoxia coupled with iron chelation enhances the stability and preservation of soft tissue and provides the basis for an explanation for the unforeseen preservation of fossil soft tissues. However, a older study based on eight taxa ranging in time from the Devonian to the Jurassic found that reasonably well-preserved fibrils that represent collagen were preser
Glycerides, more known as acylglycerols, are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol has three hydroxyl functional groups, which can be esterified with one, two, or three fatty acids to form monoglycerides and triglycerides. Vegetable oils and animal fats contain triglycerides, but are broken down by natural enzymes into mono and diglycerides and free fatty acids and glycerol. Soaps are formed from the reaction of glycerides with sodium hydroxide; the product of the reaction is glycerol and salts of fatty acids. Fatty acids in the soap emulsify the oils in dirt. Partial glycerides are esters of glycerol with fatty acids, where not all the hydroxyl groups are esterified. Since some of their hydroxyl groups are free their molecules are polar. Partial glycerides may be diglycerides. Short chain partial glycerides are more polar than long chain partial glycerides, have excellent solvent properties for many hard-to-solubilize drugs, making them valuable as excipients in improving the formulation of certain pharmaceuticals.
The most common forms of acylglycerol are triglycerides, having high caloric value and yielding twice as much energy per gram as carbohydrate. An acylglyceride linkage is the covalent bond between the organic acid groups and one of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol
A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution. A solvent is a liquid but can be a solid, a gas, or a supercritical fluid; the quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies with temperature. Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning, as paint thinners, as nail polish removers and glue solvents, in spot removers, in detergents and in perfumes. Water is a solvent for the most common solvent used by living things. Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical and gas industries, including in chemical syntheses and purification processes; when one substance is dissolved into another, a solution is formed. This is opposed to the situation. In a solution, all of the ingredients are uniformly distributed at a molecular level and no residue remains. A solvent-solute mixture consists of a single phase with all solute molecules occurring as solvates, as opposed to separate continuous phases as in suspensions and other types of non-solution mixtures.
The ability of one compound to be dissolved in another is known as solubility. In addition to mixing, the substances in a solution interact with each other at the molecular level; when something is dissolved, molecules of the solvent arrange around molecules of the solute. Heat transfer is involved and entropy is increased making the solution more thermodynamically stable than the solute and solvent separately; this arrangement is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent and solute, such as hydrogen bonding, dipole moment and polarizability. Solvation does not cause a chemical chemical configuration changes in the solute. However, solvation resembles a coordination complex formation reaction with considerable energetics and is thus far from a neutral process. Solvents can be broadly classified into two categories: non-polar. A special case is mercury; the dielectric constant of the solvent provides a rough measure of a solvent's polarity. The strong polarity of water is indicated by its high dielectric constant of 88.
Solvents with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are considered to be nonpolar. The dielectric constant measures the solvent's tendency to cancel the field strength of the electric field of a charged particle immersed in it; this reduction is compared to the field strength of the charged particle in a vacuum. Heuristically, the dielectric constant of a solvent can be thought of as its ability to reduce the solute's effective internal charge; the dielectric constant of a solvent is an acceptable predictor of the solvent's ability to dissolve common ionic compounds, such as salts. Dielectric constants are not the only measure of polarity; because solvents are used by chemists to carry out chemical reactions or observe chemical and biological phenomena, more specific measures of polarity are required. Most of these measures are sensitive to chemical structure; the Grunwald–Winstein mY scale measures polarity in terms of solvent influence on buildup of positive charge of a solute during a chemical reaction.
Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent on UV-absorption maxima of a salt pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion. Donor number and donor acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base; the Hildebrand parameter is the square root of cohesive energy density. It can not accommodate complex chemistry. Reichardt's dye, a solvatochromic dye that changes color in response to polarity, gives a scale of ET values. ET is the transition energy between the ground state and the lowest excited state in kcal/mol, identifies the dye. Another correlated scale can be defined with Nile red; the polarity, dipole moment and hydrogen bonding of a solvent determines what type of compounds it is able to dissolve and with what other solvents or liquid compounds it is miscible. Polar solvents dissolve polar compounds best and non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar compounds best: "like dissolves like".
Polar compounds like sugars or ionic compounds, like inorganic salts dissolve only in polar solvents like water, while non-polar compounds like oils or waxes dissolve only in non-polar organic solvents like hexane. Water and hexane are not miscible with each other and will separate into two layers after being shaken well. Polarity can be separated to different contributions. For example, the Kamlet-Taft parameters are dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bonding acidity and hydrogen-bonding basicity; these can be calculated from the wavelength shifts of 3–6 different solvatochromic dyes in the solvent including Reichardt's dye and diethylnitroaniline. Another option, Hansen's parameters, separate the cohesive energy density into dispersion and hydrogen bonding contributions. Solvents with a dielectric constant (more relative
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. In its forms, it is called a gramophone or, since the 1940s, a record player; the sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones; the phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound, his phonograph recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder.
A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, predominantly used in many languages. Improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, the sound and equalization systems; the disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the 1980s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined due to the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc, other digital recording formats. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists, have undergone a revival in the 2010s.
The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl. Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world. In more modern usage, the playback device is called a "turntable", "record player", or "record changer"; when used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are colloquially called "decks". In electric phonographs, the motions of the stylus are converted into an analogous electrical signal by a transducer converted back into sound by a loudspeaker; the term phonograph was derived from the Greek words φωνή and γραφή. The similar related terms gramophone and graphophone have similar root meanings; the roots were familiar from existing 19th-century words such as photograph and telephone. The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonography, which referred to a system of phonetic shorthand. Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording, involving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.
In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes different machines. "Talking machine" had earlier been used to refer to complicated devices which produced a crude imitation of speech, by simulating the workings of the vocal cords and lips – a potential source of confusion both and now. In British English, "gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc records, which were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in 1910 an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term. The term "phonograph" was restricted to machines that used cylinder records. "Gramophone" referred to a wind-up machine. After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, EPs, the common name became "record player" or "turntable".
The home record player was part of a system that included a radio and might play audiotape cassettes. From about 1960, such a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" or a "stereo". In American English, "phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder