France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Sežana is a town in the Slovenian Littoral region of Slovenia, near the border with Italy. It is the seat of the Municipality of Sežana. Sežana is located on the Karst Plateau, 17 kilometres from Trieste, 80 km from Ljubljana, the capital city of Slovenia. Sežana was attested in written sources in 1152 as in Cesan; the name is of unclear origin. The early transcriptions do not support a connection with Saint Susanna or with the Friulian toponym Susáns; the presumed suffix -ana would indicate a Romance origin, making possible a derivation from the Latin personal name Sessius. Another possibility is derivation from the estate name *Sextiānum, a Lombard origin of the name has been suggested. In the 19th century the names Sessana and Sehsana were in official use; until 1918, the town was part of the Austrian monarchy, head of the district of the same name, one of the 11 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in the Austrian Littoral province. Sežana remained a small and rather insignificant village until the mid-19th century, when the Austrian Southern Railway, connecting Vienna to Trieste, was built next to it.
Sežana thus became connected to major traffic and soon emerged as the most important center on the Karst Plateau, together with Opicina. After 1918, it was included in the Province of Trieste. During the Fascist period, the population was subjected to a violent Italianization policy, many locals joined the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR. During World War II after 1943, the area became a battlefield between the Partisan resistance and the Fascist and Nazi German forces. In May 1945, Sežana was liberated by the Yugoslav partisans. Between June 1945 and September 1947, it was administered by the British and U. S. Army. In 1947, it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and in 1991 of independent Slovenia; the Sežana railway station was opened in 1857, forms part of the Vienna–Trieste railway. Since 1947, it has been that railway's border crossing point between Italy. Many industrial enterprises are located in Sežana, including larger companies as well as many smaller enterprises.
Sežana is a center for the tourism industry. Its location between Ljubljana and the Adriatic coast and many important tourist sights in the vicinity, such as the Lipica Stud Farm, Postojna Cave, Škocjan Caves, Vilenica Cave, the fortified village of Štanjel, make Sežana an attractive tourist destination. Sežana is an important agricultural center. Botanical GardenMemorial Room commemorating the poet Srečko Kosovel walking trail from Sežana to Tomaj dedicated to the poetKarst Living museum Tabor nature trail The parish church in the town is dedicated to Saint Martin and was built in 1878 on the site of an older church from the early 16th century, after it became an independent parish. Montbrison, France Rab, Croatia Gevgelija, North Macedonia Sant'Ambrogio di Valpolicella, Italy Sant'Ambrogio sul Garigliano, Italy Pardubice, Czech Republic Gornji Milanovac, Serbia Sežana travel guide from Wikivoyage Sežana at Geopedia Sežana, official page of municipality The town of Sezana, about the town of Sezana
Pierre Louis Joseph Boulez CBE was a French composer, conductor and founder of institutions. He was one of the dominant figures of the post-war classical music world. Born in Montbrison in the Loire department of France, the son of an engineer, Boulez studied at the Conservatoire de Paris with Olivier Messiaen, with Andrée Vaurabourg and René Leibowitz, he began his professional career in the late 1940s as music director of the Renaud-Barrault theatre company in Paris. As a young composer in the 1950s he became a leading figure in avant-garde music, playing an important role in the development of integral serialism and controlled chance music. From the 1970s onwards he pioneered the electronic transformation of instrumental music in real time, his tendency to revise earlier compositions meant that his body of completed works was small, but it included pieces regarded by many as landmarks of twentieth-century music, such as Le Marteau sans maître, Pli selon pli and Répons. His uncompromising commitment to modernism and the trenchant, polemical tone in which he expressed his views on music led some to criticise him as a dogmatist.
In parallel with his activities as a composer Boulez became one of the most prominent conductors of his generation. In a career lasting more than sixty years he held the positions of chief conductor of the New York Philharmonic and the BBC Symphony Orchestra, music director of the Ensemble Intercontemporain and principal guest conductor of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Cleveland Orchestra, he made frequent guest appearances with many of the world's other great orchestras, including the Vienna Philharmonic, the Berlin Philharmonic and the London Symphony Orchestra. He was known for his performances of the music of the first half of the twentieth century—including Debussy and Ravel and Bartók, the Second Viennese School—as well as that of his contemporaries, such as Ligeti and Carter, his work in the opera house included the Jahrhundertring—the production of Wagner's Ring cycle for the centenary of the Bayreuth Festival—and the world premiere of the three-act version of Alban Berg's Lulu.
His recorded legacy is extensive. He founded a number of musical institutions in Paris, including the Domaine Musical, the Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique, the Ensemble Intercontemporain and the Cité de la Musique, as well as the Lucerne Festival Academy in Switzerland. Pierre Boulez was born on 26 March 1925, in Montbrison, a small town in the Loire department of east-central France, to Léon and Marcelle Boulez, he was the third of four children: an older sister and younger brother, Roger were preceded by a first child called Pierre, who died in infancy. Léon, an engineer and technical director of a steel factory, is described by biographers as an authoritarian figure, but with a strong sense of fairness; the family prospered, moving in 1929 from the apartment above a pharmacy, where Boulez was born, to a comfortable detached house, where he spent most of his childhood. From the age of seven Boulez went to school at the Institut Victor de Laprade, a Catholic seminary where the thirteen-hour school day was filled with study and prayer.
By the age of eighteen he had repudiated Catholicism although in life he described himself as an agnostic. As a child he took piano lessons, played chamber music with local amateurs and sang in the school choir. After completing the first part of his baccalaureate a year early he spent the academic year of 1940–41 at the Pensionnat St. Louis, a boarding school in nearby Saint-Étienne; the following year he took classes in advanced mathematics at the University of Lyon with a view to gaining admission to the École Polytechnique in Paris. His father hoped, he was in Lyon when the Vichy government fell, the Germans took over and the city became a centre of the resistance. It was in Lyon that Boulez first heard an orchestra, saw his first operas and met the well-known soprano Ninon Vallin, who asked him to play for her. Impressed by his ability, she persuaded Léon to allow his son to apply to the Conservatoire in Lyon; the selection board rejected him but Boulez was determined to pursue a career in music.
The following year, with his sister's support in the face of opposition from his father, he studied the piano and harmony with Lionel de Pachmann. "Our parents were strong, but we were stronger than they", Boulez said. In fact, when he moved to Paris in the autumn of 1943, hoping to enrol at the Conservatoire de Paris, Léon accompanied him, helped him to find a room and subsidised him until he could earn a living. In October 1943, he auditioned unsuccessfully for the advanced piano class at the Conservatoire, but he was admitted in January 1944 to the preparatory harmony class of Georges Dandelot, his progress was so rapid that by May 1944, Dandelot's report describes him as "the best of the class". Around the same time he was introduced to Andrée Vaurabourg, wife of the composer Arthur Honegger, between April 1944 and May 1946 he studied counterpoint with her, he enjoyed working with her and she remembered him as an exceptional student, using his exercises as models in advanced counterpoint until the end of her teaching career.
In the autumn he joined Olivier Messiaen's advanced harmony class at the Conservatoire and attended the private seminars which Mess
2016 World Figure Skating Championships
The 2016 ISU World Figure Skating Championships took place March 28 – April 3, 2016 in Boston, Massachusetts. Figure skaters competed for the title of World champion in men's singles, ladies' singles and ice dancing; this marked the first time. The competition determined the number of athlete slots for each federation at the 2017 World Championships; the World Figure Skating Championships is the sport's most important annual competition sanctioned by the International Skating Union. In June 2013, the city of Boston was announced as the host city of the 2016 event; the competition was organized by U. S. Figure Skating, the Skating Club of Boston served as the local organizing committee. Founded in 1912, it is the third-oldest skating club in the United States and is a founding member of U. S. Figure Skating; the TD Garden was the primary arena for the 2016 ISU World Figure Skating Championships. The venue hosted all several practice sessions; the second official practice venue for the event was DCR Steriti Rink.
The TD Garden is a multipurpose arena located in Massachusetts. The arena hosted a maximum capacity of 15,000 seats for the event; the TD Garden serves as the home arena for two of Boston's professional sports teams, the Boston Celtics and the Boston Bruins. DCR Steriti Rink is a local area rink managed by the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, it is a short distance from the main venue. This rink was open only to credentialed participants of the event; the following new ISU best scores were set during this competition: Argentina was represented by a skater at the ISU World Championships for the first time in history. Skaters were eligible for the event if they represented an ISU member nation and had reached the age of 15 before 1 July 2015 in their place of birth. National associations selected their entries according to their own criteria but the ISU mandated that their selections achieved a minimum technical elements score at an international event prior to the World Championships.
Based on the results of the 2015 World Championships, each ISU member nation can field one to three entries per discipline. Member nations began announcing their selections in December 2015; the ISU published a complete list of entries on March 8, 2016. The Men's short program was held on March 30; the free skate was held on April 1. The Ladies short program was held on March 31; the free skate took place on April 2, 2016. Gracie Gold took a 2.45 point lead after the short program. Anna Pogorilaya edged out Evgenia Medvedeva for second place by 0.22. Ashley Wagner, the US Nationals bronze medalist, was just out of medal position, 0.60 behind Medvedeva. The 2015 World bronze medalist Elena Radionova was in fifth, while former World champion Mao Asada was in ninth. Defending world champion Elizaveta Tuktamysheva was not selected by her federation for the event after finishing 8th at the Russian Championships. In the free skate, Medvedeva had a record-setting score of 150.10 to win the gold medal. Wagner moved into second place to win the United States' first World Championship ladies medal since 2006.
Pogorilaya finished third ahead of Gold. The pairs short program was held on April 1 and the free skate on April 2; the short dance was held on March 30. 2015 World champions Gabriella Papadakis and Guillaume Cizeron of France obtained a small gold medal for the short dance for the first time in their career. They were followed by two American teams. 2011 World bronze medalists Maia Shibutani / Alex Shibutani placed second while 2015 silver medalists Madison Chock / Evan Bates took the third position, 2.24 behind the Shibutanis. The free dance was held on March 31, 2016. Papadakis/Cizeron set a new world record for the free dance and they won their second consecutive world title; the Shibutanis returned to the world podium four years after their first medal. Chock/Bates took the bronze medal, marking the third time that the U. S. has finished with two ice dancing teams on the World podium. Cappellini/Lanotte rose to fourth. Medals for overall placement: Small medals for placement in the short segment: Small medals for placement in the free segment: Table of medals for overall placement: Table of small medals for placement in the short segment: Table of small medals for placement in the free segment: Official website 2016 World Championships at the International Skating Union Entries and results
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies. This phenomenon is accompanied or followed by regional malnutrition, starvation and increased mortality; every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout history. In the 19th and 20th century, it was Southeast and South Asia, as well as Eastern and Central Europe that suffered the most deaths from famine; the numbers dying from famine began to fall from the 2000s. Some countries in sub-Saharan Africa, continue to have extreme cases of famine. Since 2010, Africa has been the most affected continent in the world; as of 2017, the United Nations has warned some 20 million are at risk in South Sudan, Somalia and Yemen. The distribution of food has been affected by conflict. Most programmes now direct their aid towards Africa. According to the United Nations humanitarian criteria if there are food shortages with large numbers of people lacking nutrition, a famine is declared only when certain measures of mortality and hunger are met.
The criteria are: At least 20% of households in an area face extreme food shortages with a limited ability to cope The prevalence of acute malnutrition in children exceeds 30% The death rate exceeds two people per 10,000 people per dayThe declaration of a famine carries no binding obligations on the UN or member states, but serves to focus global attention on the problem. The cyclical occurrence of famine has been a mainstay of societies engaged in subsistence agriculture since the dawn of agriculture itself; the frequency and intensity of famine has fluctuated throughout history, depending on changes in food demand, such as population growth, supply-side shifts caused by changing climatic conditions. Famine was first eliminated in Holland and England during the 17th century, due to the commercialization of agriculture and the implementation of improved techniques to increase crop yields. In the 16th and 17th century, the feudal system began to break down, more prosperous farmers began to enclose their own land and improve their yields to sell the surplus crops for a profit.
These capitalist landowners paid their labourers with money, thereby increasing the commercialization of rural society. In the emerging competitive labour market, better techniques for the improvement of labour productivity were valued and rewarded, it was in the farmer's interest to produce as much as possible on their land in order to sell it to areas that demanded that product. They produced guaranteed surpluses of their crop every year. Subsistence peasants were increasingly forced to commercialize their activities because of increasing taxes. Taxes that had to be paid to central governments in money forced the peasants to produce crops to sell. Sometimes they produced industrial crops, but they would find ways to increase their production in order to meet both their subsistence requirements as well as their tax obligations. Peasants used the new money to purchase manufactured goods; the agricultural and social developments encouraging increased food production were taking place throughout the 16th century, but took off in the early 17th century.
By the 1590s, these trends were sufficiently developed in the rich and commercialized province of Holland to allow its population to withstand a general outbreak of famine in Western Europe at that time. By that time, the Netherlands had one of the most commercialized agricultural systems in Europe, they grew many industrial crops such as flax and hops. Agriculture became specialized and efficient; the efficiency of Dutch agriculture allowed for much more rapid urbanization in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries than anywhere else in Europe. As a result and wealth increased, allowing the Netherlands to maintain a steady food supply. By 1650, English agriculture had become commercialized on a much wider scale; the last peacetime famine in England was in 1623–24. There were still periods of hunger, as in the Netherlands, but no more famines occurred. Common areas for pasture were enclosed for private use and large scale, efficient farms were consolidated. Other technical developments included the draining of marshes, more efficient field use patterns, the wider introduction of industrial crops.
These agricultural developments led to wider prosperity in increasing urbanization. By the end of the 17th century, English agriculture was the most productive in Europe. In both England and the Netherlands, the population stabilized between 1650 and 1750, the same time period in which the sweeping changes to agriculture occurred. Famine still occurred in other parts of Europe, however. In East Europe, famines occurred as late as the twentieth century; because of the severity of famine, it was a chief concern for other authorities. In pre-industrial Europe, preventing famine, ensuring timely food supplies, was one of the chief concerns of many governments, although they were limited in their options due to limited levels of external trade and an infrastructure and bureaucracy too rudimentary to effect real relief. Most governments were concerned by famine because it could lead to revolt and other forms of social disruption. By the mid-19th century and the onset of the Industrial Revolution, it became possible for governments to alleviate the effects of famine through price controls, large scale importation of food products from foreign markets, rationing, regulation of production and charity.
The Great Famine of 1845 in Ireland was one of the first famines to feature such intervention, although the government respon
Appellation d'origine contrôlée
The appellation d'origine contrôlée is the French certification granted to certain French geographical indications for wines, cheeses and other agricultural products, all under the auspices of the government bureau Institut national des appellations d'origine, now called Institut national de l'origine et de la qualité. It is based on the concept of terroir; the origins of AOC date to the year 1411. The first French law on viticultural designations of origin dates to August 1, 1905, whereas the first modern law was set on May 6, 1919, when the Law for the Protection of the Place of Origin was passed, specifying the region and commune in which a given product must be manufactured, has been revised on many occasions since then. On July 30, 1935, the Comité National des appellations d'origine, with representatives of the government and the major winegrowers, was created to manage the administration of the process for wines at the initiative of deputy Joseph Capus. In the Rhône wine region Baron Pierre Le Roy Boiseaumarié, a trained lawyer and winegrower from Châteauneuf-du-Pape obtained legal recognition of the "Côtes du Rhône" appellation of origin in 1936.
After World War II the committee became the public-private Institut National des Appellations d'Origine. The AOC seal was mandated by French laws in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. On July 2, 1990, the scope of work of the INAO was extended beyond wines to cover other agricultural products. AOCs vary in size; some cover vast expanses with a variety of climatic and soil characteristics, while others are small and uniform. For example, the Côtes du Rhône AOC "covers some 400 square kilometres, but within its area lies one of the smallest AOCs, Château-Grillet, which occupies less than 4 hectares of land." The INAO guarantees that all AOC products will hold to a rigorous set of defined standards. The organization stresses that AOC products will be produced in a consistent and traditional manner with ingredients from classified producers in designated geographical areas; the products must further be aged at least in the respective designated area. Under French law, it is illegal to manufacture and sell a product under one of the AOC-controlled geographical indications if it does not comply with the criteria of the AOC.
AOC products can be identified by a seal, printed on the label in wines, with cheeses, on the rind. To prevent any possible misrepresentation, no part of an AOC name may be used on a label of a product not qualifying for that AOC; this strict label policy can lead to confusion in cases where towns share names with appellations. If the town of origin of a product contains a controlled appellation in its name, the producer is enjoined from listing anything more than a cryptic postal code. For example, there are a dozen townships in l'Aude that have Cabardès in their names, several of which are not within the geographical boundaries of the Cabardès AOC. Any vineyard that produces wine in one of those towns must not mention the name of the town of origin on the product labels. There are over 300 French wines entitled to the designation AOC on their label. Legislation concerning the way vineyards are identified makes recognizing the various AOCs challenging for wine drinkers not accustomed to the system.
Distinguishing classifications requires knowledge of esoteric label laws such as "Unless the wine is from a Premier Cru vineyard, the vineyard name must be printed in characters no more than half the height of the ones used for the village name"On the other hand, while the process of label approval is enforced to the millimetre, the quality control for the wine in the bottle is much less strict. While a blind taster must approve the wine for it to receive AOC classification, this tasting occurs before the product is bottled, by a local expert who may well have ties to the local vintners. If the taster is objective, the wine sample may not be representative of the actual product, there is no way to verify that the finished bottled product is the same as the original AOC sample. In 1925, Roquefort became the first cheese to be awarded an AOC label, since over 40 cheeses have been assigned AOC status. On August 15, 1957, the National Assembly gave AOC status to the poultry of Bresse. In 2006, it awarded AOC status to salt marsh lamb raised in the Bay of the Somme.
In 1981, the AOC label was given to Haute-Provence Lavender Essential Oil. It refers to a high-quality production and concerns only the essential oil of fine lavender - Lavandula angustifolia; the fields must be located within a specific territory at a minimum altitude of 800 meters. This geographic area covers 284 communities in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme and Vaucluse regions. Lentils from Le Puy-en-Velay have AOC status. Honey from the island of Corsica has been given AOC status. There are six certified varietals of Corsican honey: Printemps, Maquis de printemps, Miellats du maquis, Châtaigneraie, Maquis d'été, Maquis d'automne. France recognizes the Charente, Charente-Maritime, Deux-Sèvres and Vendée AOC regions for butter; the Beurre Charentes-Poitou has been assigned AOC status in 1979. Armagnac, Calvados and Martinique Rhum Agricole all have AOC status. Many other countries have based their controlled place name systems on th