Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Peretola is a suburb of Florence, located on the northern extremity of the Florentine commune. It belongs administratively to Quartiere 5 - Rifredi, it lend its name to the nearby international airport and is claimed as the birthplace of Amerigo Vespucci. The village of Peretola was founded in the Middle Ages, it was developed during the Florentine Renaissance of the 15th century, as it sat in a strategic location between two great communication roads, the via Pistoiese and the via Pratese. For much of its history, the village of Peretola was a dependency of the autonomous commune of Brozzi, until 1928, when the latter's communal status was suppressed and its territories partitioned. Peretola fell into portion assigned to the commune of Florence, was integrated into the administrative ward of Quartiere 5. A house in Peretola is claimed to be the original home of the Vespucci family, birthplace of the celebrated navigator Amerigo Vespucci. Peretola is the native village of Tommaso Masini, nicknamed the "Zoroaster of Peretola", a friend and collaborator of Leonardo da Vinci.
Giovanni Boccaccio set the tale of "Chichibio e la gru" in the village of Peretola. Niccolò Machiavelli, in his novella, Belfagor arcidiavolo, tells the story of a demon, sent from Hell to Florence to investigate the excuses of its incorrigibly corrupt and wicked citizens; the demon sets himself up in grand style with a Florentine wife, but finds himself overwhelmed by her demands and flees to Peretola to seek refuge and restore his peace of mind. Machiavelli characterizes Peretola as a small rural paradise, an escape from the morass of Florence, a pleasant haven for the devil; the old village of Peretola is composed of narrow streets, typical of a Tuscan country village, dotted with shrines, a typical rural housing scheme organized around numerous short courtyards. Some of these courtyards date from the 14th century. Peretola's center is at Piazza Garibaldi, on which sits the old Church of Santa Maria a Peretola, with its 1443 terra-cotta tabernacle by Luca della Robbia and a 1446 baptismal fountain by Francesco di Simone Ferrucci.
Nearby is the Oratorio della Santissima Annunziata, built in 1821, a rare example of neoclassical architecture in the region. Just outside the old village is the 1510 chapel of Santa Maria Vergine della Pietà, with an octagonal-shaped dome, in imitation of the Florence cathedral. Nicknamed la cupolina, the chapel was once in open fields, but now is circulated by vehicular traffic from the via Pratese
Metropolitan City of Florence
The Metropolitan City of Florence is a metropolitan city in the Tuscany region, Italy. Its capital is the city of Florence, it replaced the Province of Florence. It was first created by the reform of local authorities and established by the Law 56/2014, it has been operative since January 1, 2015. The Metropolitcan City of Florence is bordered by the Metropolitan City of Bologna in the north, the province of Ravenna and Forlì-Cesena in the north-east, the province of Prato and Lucca in the north-west, the province of Pisa in the west, the province of Siena in the south and the province of Arezzo in the east and southeast. Much of its territory lies in the plain of the Arno river and has thus become an exurban sprawl around the city of Florence; the northeastern part of the metropolitcan city, in the Apennines, remains less developed. Romagna Granducale is the name given to the region lying on the northern slopes of Apennines. Corn and silk are the chief products in the valley regions. Silk manufacturing was an important industry in the medieval times.
The well known Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci was born in the village of Anchiano, a part of the Metropolitican City of Florence. The capital Florence is a large tourist centre; the Metropolitan City receives large number of tourists every year. The capital city Florence has been recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Site. Major tourist attractions of the city are Piazza del Duomo, Duomo of Santa Maria del Fiore, the Baptistery of San Giovanni, Giotto's Bell Tower, the Loggia del Bigallo and Museo dell'Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore, Ponte Vecchio and many others. Sights in Barberino di Mugello include Palazzo Pretorio; the Certosa del Galluzzo houses artworks by Pontormo. Giovanni Boccaccio's hometown Certaldo is home to the Palazzo Pretorio and Boccaccio’s House, while Vinci, birthplace of Leonardo da Vinci, houses a museum dedicated to the Italian polymath. Sesto Fiorentino is known for the Etruscan tomb “La Montagnola”. Wholesale and retail is the largest sector in the Metropolitan City: As of 2008 29% of the firms in the former Province of Florence were involved in it.
Manufacturing, real estate and agriculture are the next important ones with a percentage share of about 19.5%, 14%, 13.6% and 8% respectively. Tourism is an important industry. Empoli is known for its ancient glass-making industry. Domenico, Roy Palmer; the Regions of Italy: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-30733-1. Cooke, Philip. Creative Regions: Technology and Knowledge Entrepreneurship. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-07865-3. Media related to Metropolitan city of Florence at Wikimedia Commons
Sid Meier's Civilization VI is a turn-based strategy 4X video game developed by Firaxis Games, published by 2K Games, distributed by Take-Two Interactive. The latest entry into the Civilization series, it was released on Microsoft Windows and macOS in October 2016, with ports for Linux in February 2017, iOS in December 2017, Nintendo Switch, the game's only console release, in November 2018. To previous instalments, the goal for the player is to develop a civilization from an early settlement through many millennia to become a world power and achieve one of several victory conditions, such as through military domination, technological superiority, or cultural influence, over the other human and computer controlled opponents. Players do this by exploring the world, founding new cities, building city improvements, deploying military troops to attack and defend from others, researching new technologies and cultural civics, engaging in trade and negotiations with other world leaders. A critical design focus was to avoid having the player follow a pre-set path of improvements towards their civilization which they had observed from earlier games.
Civilization VI places more emphasis on the terrain by "unstacking" city improvements from the main city space and giving bonuses for placing improvements near certain terrains. Other new features include research on the game's technology tree based on nearby terrain, a similar technology tree for cultural improvements and a better government civics structure for those playing on a cultural victory path, new artificial intelligence mechanics for computer-controlled opponents that include secret goals and randomized engagements to disrupt an otherwise stable game; the game's first major expansion, Civilization VI: Rise and Fall, was released in February 2018, a second expansion, Civilization VI: Gathering Storm, followed in February 2019. Civilization VI is a turn-based strategy video game in which one or more players compete alongside computer-controlled AI opponents to grow their individual civilization from a small tribe to control of the entire planet across several periods of development.
This can be accomplished by achieving one of several victory conditions, all based on the 4X gameplay elements, "eXplore, eXpand, eXploit, eXterminate". Players found cities, gather nearby resources to build and expand them by adding various city improvements, build military units to explore and attack opposing forces, while managing the technology development and government civics for their civilization and their diplomatic relationships with the other opponents. Civilization VI builds upon the general gameplay of Civilization V, including continuing the use of the hex-based grid introduced in Civilization V. New to Civilization VI is the idea of "city unstacking": some improvements to cities must be placed in the hexes in the bounds of the city but not within the city's space itself, whereas in previous games, all improvements were considered stacked on the same map hex or square that the city was located in; the player must assign specific hexes as "districts" in the city, which have certain limitations but grant bonuses for improvements placed in that district.
For example, the encampment district specializes a city for training military units, allows for the construction of further buildings that grant production and experience bonuses to said units. Such encampments may not be placed next to the main city center. Other improvements gain bonuses for being placed in appropriate terrain - campuses benefit from being placed adjacent to forest or jungle hexes, reflecting on scientific advance from studying the diversity of species within such biomes. Players can opt to attack specific districts of a city instead of the city center, which can affect the city's operation; these districts may add new strategies to the city's defense. For example, with a military encampment in place, attacking forces approaching a city are not only subject to ranged attacks from the city center, but from the encampment; the attacking forces may need to take the encampment first before they can strike the city center. In order to reduce congestion on the map, players are able to perform a limited amount of unit stacking, but are only able to stack similar unit types or symbiotic units.
For example, a warrior unit can be assigned to a builder unit to protect that unit from barbarians in the early game. The game's technology tree, now known as the active research system, has been modified to help boost technology research if the player has access to appropriate improvements or resources. For example, having built a quarry helps boost the research into masonry. Technologies based on having access to water, such as sailing, would be limited if the player started in the middle of a continent. A new feature, Eureka Moments, is able to increase the player's progress towards certain technologies after completing a specific in-game task: for example, discovering a Natural Wonder would contribute towards the Astrology technology improvement. Past iterations of the game were found to be difficult to win if one chose to follow a Cultural victory route. To help balance the game towards Cultural victories, a new Civics tree has been introduced; the Civics tree brings in the cultural improvements that were part of the technology tree in earlier Civilization games into a separate mechanic.
Culture gained from cities is used to build on the Civics tree in the same manner Science from cities builds up the Technology tree. Completing certain Civics will unlock policies towards the civilization's government. In Civilization VI, the government is defined by placing appropriate and available policies, represented as policy cards, into a number of slots divided between Mi
The chickpea or chick pea is an annual legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. Its different types are variously known as gram or Bengal gram, garbanzo or garbanzo bean, Egyptian pea. Chickpea seeds are high in protein, it is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and 7500-year-old remains have been found in the Middle East. Chickpea is a key ingredient in hummus and chana masala, it can be ground into flour to make falafel, it is used in salads and stews, curry and other meal products like channa. The chickpea is important in Indian and Middle Eastern cuisine, in 2016, India produced 64% of the world's total chickpeas; the name "chickpea" traces from 13th century French chiche and cicer, the Latin term for "chickpea". The term chich-pease, used in the 1500s, derived from the Old French term for chick-pea; the word garbanzo, from an alteration of Old Spanish arvanço, came first to English as garvance in the 17th century, being anglicized to calavance, though it came to refer to a variety of other beans.
The current form garbanzo comes directly from modern Spanish. Domesticated chickpeas have been found in the aceramic levels of Jericho along with Çayönü in Turkey and in Neolithic pottery at Hacilar, Turkey, they were found in the late Neolithic at Thessaly, Kastanas and Dimini, Greece. In southern France, Mesolithic layers in a cave at L'Abeurador, Hérault, have yielded wild chickpeas carbon dated to 6790±90 BC. Chickpeas are mentioned in Charlemagne's Capitulare de villis as cicer italicum, as grown in each imperial demesne. Albertus Magnus mentions red and black varieties. Nicholas Culpeper noted more nourishing. Ancient people associated chickpeas with Venus because they were said to offer medical uses such as increasing sperm and milk, provoking menstruation and urine, helping to treat kidney stones. "White cicers" were thought to be strong and helpful. In 1793, ground-roast chickpeas were noted by a German writer as a substitute for coffee in Europe. In the First World War, they were grown for this use in some areas of Germany.
They are still sometimes brewed instead of coffee. Sequencing of the chickpea genome has been completed for 90 chickpea genotypes, including several wild species. A collaboration of 20 research organizations, led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, sequenced CDC Frontier, a kabuli chickpea variety, identified more than 28,000 genes and several million genetic markers; the plant has small, feathery leaves on either side of the stem. Chickpeas are a type of pulse, with one seedpod containing three peas, it has white flowers with violet, or pink veins. Several varieties of chickpea are cultivated throughout the world. Desi chana resembles both seeds found on archaeological sites and the wild plant ancestor of domesticated chickpeas, Cicer reticulatum, which only grows in southeast Turkey, where chickpeas are believed to have originated. Desi chana has darker seeds and a rough coat, they are grown in Pakistan and other parts of South Asia, as well as in Ethiopia and Iran.
Desi means'country' or'native' in Hindustani. Desi chana can be green or speckled; this variety is split to make chana dal. Garbanzo beans or'kabuli' chana are lighter-coloured and with a smoother coat, are grown in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Northern Africa, South America, South Asia; the name means "from Kabul" in Hindi and Urdu, this variety was thought to come from Kabul, Afghanistan when it was introduced to India in the 18th century. An uncommon black chickpea, ceci neri, is grown only in southeastern Italy, it is around the same size as garbanzo beans. Chickpeas are rapidly boiled for 10 minutes and simmered for a longer period. Dried chickpeas need a long cooking time but will fall apart when cooked longer. If soaked for 12–24 hours before use, cooking time can be shortened by around 30 minutes. Chickpeas can be pressure cooked or sous vide cooked at 90 °C. Mature chickpeas can be cooked and eaten cold in salads, cooked in stews, ground into flour and shaped in balls and fried as falafel, made into a batter and baked to make farinata or cecina, or fried to make panelle.
Chickpea flour is known as gram flour or besan in South Asia and used in South Asian cuisine. Chickpeas are popular in the Iberian Peninsula. In Portugal, they are one of the main ingredients in rancho, eaten with pasta and meat, including Portuguese sausages, or with rice, they are used in soup. In Spain, they are used cold in salads, as well as in cocido madrileño. In Italy, chickpeas are eaten in soup. In southern Italy, chickpea flour is made into a batter for a sort of crepe. In Egypt, chickpeas are used as a topping for kushari. Ḥummuṣ is the Arabic word for chickpeas, which are cooked and ground into a paste and mixed with ṭaḥīna, the blend called ḥummuṣ bi ṭaḥīna. Chickpeas are roasted and eaten as a snack, such as leblebi. By the end of the 20th century, hummus had become commonplace in American cuisine. By 2010, 5% of Americans consumed hummus on a regular basis, it was present in 17% of American households. Chickpeas and Bengal grams are used to make curries and are one of the most popular vegetarian foods in South Asia and in diaspora communities of many other countries served w
Modena is a city and comune on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. An ancient town, seat of an archbishop, it is known for its automotive industry since the factories of the famous Italian sports car makers Ferrari, De Tomaso, Lamborghini and Maserati are, or were, located here and all, except Lamborghini, have headquarters in the city or nearby. One of Ferrari's cars, the 360 Modena, was named after the town itself; the University of Modena, founded in 1175 and expanded by Francesco II d'Este in 1686, has traditional strengths in economics and law and is the second oldest athenaeum in Italy. Italian military officers are trained at the Military Academy of Modena, housed in the Baroque Ducal Palace; the Biblioteca Estense houses 3,000 manuscripts. The Cathedral of Modena, the Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande are a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1997. Modena is known in culinary circles for its production of balsamic vinegar.
Famous Modenesi include Mary of the Queen consort of England and Scotland. Modena lies on the Pianura Padana, is bounded by the two rivers Secchia and Panaro, both affluents of the Po River, their presence is symbolized by the Two Rivers Fountain by Giuseppe Graziosi. The city is connected to the Panaro by the Naviglio channel; the Apennines begin some 10 kilometres from the city, to the south. The commune is divided into four circoscrizioni; these are: Centro storico Crocetta Buon Pastore San Faustino Modena has a humid subtropical climate, with continental influences. It has an average annual precipitation of 809 millimetres. Summers are warm and winters are chilly and wetter, with the possibility of snowfall; this climate is described by the Köppen climate classification as Cfa. From 1946 to 1992, Modena had an uninterrupted consecutive series of Communist mayors. From the 1990s, the city has been governed by center-left coalitions. At the April 2006 elections, the city of Modena gave about 50% of its votes to the Democratic Party.
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council, composed by 35 members elected every five years. Modena's executive body is the City Committee composed by 9 assessors, the deputy-mayor and the mayor; the current mayor of Modena is member of the Democratic Party of Italy. The territory around Modena was inhabited by the Villanovans in the Iron Age, by Ligurian tribes and the Gaulish Boii. Although the exact date of its foundation is unknown, it is known that it was in existence in the 3rd century BC, for in 218 BC, during Hannibal's invasion of Italy, the Boii revolted and laid siege to the city. Livy described it as a fortified citadel; the outcome of the siege is not known, but the city was most abandoned after Hannibal's arrival. Mutina was refounded as a Roman colony in 183 BC, to be used as a military base by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, causing the Ligurians to sack it in 177 BC. Nonetheless, it was rebuilt, became the most important centre in Cisalpine Gaul, both because of its strategic importance and because it was on an important crossroads between Via Aemilia and the road going to Verona.
In the 1st century BC Mutina was besieged twice. The first siege was by Pompey in 78 BC; the city surrendered out of hunger, Brutus fled, only to be slain in Regium Lepidi. In the civil war following Caesar's assassination, the city was besieged again, this time by Mark Antony, in 44 BC, defended by Decimus Junius Brutus. Octavian relieved the city with the help of the Senate. Cicero called it Mutina splendidissima in his Philippics; until the 3rd century AD, it kept its position as the most important city in the newly formed province Aemilia, but the fall of the Empire brought Mutina down with it, as it was used as a military base both against the barbarians and in the civil wars. It is said that Mutina was never sacked by Attila, for a dense fog hid it, but it was buried by a great flood in the 7th century and abandoned; as of December 2008, Italian researchers have discovered the pottery center where the oil lamps that lit the ancient Roman empire were made. Evidence of the pottery workshops emerged in Modena, in central-northern Italy, during construction work to build a residential complex near the ancient walls of the city.
"We found a large ancient Roman dumping filled with pottery scraps. There were vases, bricks, but most of all, hundreds of oil lamps, each bearing their maker's name", Donato Labate, the archaeologist in charge of the dig, stated, its exiles founded a new city a few miles to the northwest, still represented by the village of Cittanova. About the end of the 9th century, Modena
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more Leonardo da Vinci or Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, painting, architecture, music, engineering, anatomy, astronomy, writing and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology and architecture, he is considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal. Many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man", an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination", he is considered one of the most diversely talented individuals to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent in recorded history, "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci notes that, while there is much speculation regarding his life and personality, his view of the world was logical rather than mysterious, although the empirical methods he employed were unorthodox for his time.
Leonardo was born out of wedlock to notary Piero da Vinci and a peasant woman named Caterina in Vinci in the region of Florence, he was educated in the studio of Florentine painter Andrea del Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan, he worked in Rome and Venice, he spent his last years in France at the home awarded to him by Francis I of France. Leonardo is renowned as a painter; the Mona Lisa is the most famous of his works and the most parodied portrait, The Last Supper is the most reproduced religious painting of all time. His drawing of the Vitruvian Man is regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro coin, T-shirts, his painting Salvator Mundi sold for $450.3 million at a Christie's auction in New York on 15 November 2017, the highest price paid for a work of art. 15 of his paintings have survived. These few works compose a contribution to generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary Michelangelo, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, his thoughts on the nature of painting.
Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, a type of armoured fighting vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine, the double hull. Few of his designs were constructed or feasible during his lifetime, as the modern scientific approaches to metallurgy and engineering were only in their infancy during the Renaissance; some of his smaller inventions, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire. A number of his most practical inventions are displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci, he made substantial discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, geology and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on science. Leonardo was born on 15 April 1452 "at the third hour of the night" in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno river in the territory of the Medici-ruled Republic of Florence.
He was the out-of-wedlock son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, Caterina, a peasant. Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense—"da Vinci" meaning "of Vinci"; the inclusion of the title "ser" indicated. Little is known about Leonardo's early life, he spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, from 1457 lived in the household of his father and uncle in the small town of Vinci. His father had married a 16-year-old girl named Albiera Amadori, who loved Leonardo but died young in 1465 without children; when Leonardo was 16, his father married again to 20-year-old Francesca Lanfredini, who died without children. Piero's legitimate heirs were born from his third wife Margherita di Guglielmo and his fourth and final wife, Lucrezia Cortigiani. In all, Leonardo had 12 half-siblings, who were much younger than he was and with whom he had few contacts, but they caused him difficulty after his father's death in the dispute over the inheritance.
Leonardo received an informal education in Latin and mathematics. In life, Leonardo recorded only two childhood incidents. One, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face; the second occurred while he was exploring in the mountains: he discovered a cave and was both terrified that some great monster might lurk there and driven by curiosity to find out what was inside. Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture. Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells a story of Leonardo as a young man: A local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Leonardo responded with a