Monte d'Accoddi

Monte d'Accoddi is a Neolithic archaeological site in northern Sardinia, located in the territory of Sassari near Porto Torres. The site consists of a massive raised stone platform thought to have been an altar, it was constructed by the Ozieri culture or earlier, with the oldest parts dated to around 4,000–3,650 BC. The site was discovered in 1954 in a field owned by the Segni family; the original structure was built by earlier c. 4,000–3,650 BC and has a base of 27 m by 27 m and reached a height of 5.5 m. It culminated in a platform of about 12.5 m by 7.2 m, accessible via a ramp. No chambers or entrances to the mound have been found, leading to the presumption it was an altar, a temple or a step pyramid, it may have served an observational function, as its square plan is coordinated with the cardinal points of the compass. The initial Ozieri structure was abandoned or destroyed around 3000 BC, with traces of fire found in the archeological evidence. Around 2800 BC the remains of the original structure were covered with a layered mixture of earth and stone, large blocks of limestone were applied to establish a second platform, truncated by a step pyramid, accessible by means of a second ramp, 42 m long, built over the older one.

This second temple resembles contemporary Mesopotamian ziggurats, is attributed to the Abealzu-Filigosa culture. Archeological excavations from the chalcolithic Abealzu-Filigosa layers indicate the Monte d'Accoddi was used for animal sacrifice, with the remains of sheep and swine recovered in near equal proportions, it is among the earliest known sacrificial sites in Western Europe, providing insight into the development of ritual in prehistoric society, earning it a designation as "the most singular cultic monument in the early Western Mediterranean". The site appears to have been abandoned again at the onset of the Nuragic age. Based on the evidence of architecture, ritual deposits and diagnostic pottery, G. and M. Webster have argued for the monument's status as a product of a migration event initiated from Mesopotamia, during the first half of the 4th millennium B. C. E; the surroundings of the Monte d'Accoddi have been excavated in the 1960s, have provided the signs of a considerable sacred center.

Near the south-eastern corner of the monument there is a dolmen, across the ramp stands a considerable menhir, one of several standing stones, found in the vicinity. The foundations of several small structures were excavated, several mysterious carved stones; the most impressive of these is a large boulder carved into the shape of an egg and cut through on a subtle curving three-dimensional line. The monument was reconstructed during the 1980s, it is open to the public and accessible by the old route of SS131 highway, near the hamlet of Ottava. It is 45 km from Alghero. There is no public transportation to the site; the opening times vary throughout the year. Ercole Contu, Monte d'Accoddi. Problematiche di studio e di ricerca di un singolare monumento preistorico, Oxford 1984. S. Tinè, S. Bafico, T. Mannoni, "Monte d'Accoddi e la Cultura di Ozieri", in La Cultura di Ozieri: problematiche e nuove acquisizioni, Ozieri 1989, pp. 19–36. Ercole Contu, "L'altare preistorico di Monte d'Accoddi" Sardegna Digital Library "Monte D’Accoddi: where in Italy you'll feel like you’re in Mesopotamia" G. Webster and M. Webster 2017.

Punctuated Insularity. The Archaeology of 4th and 3rd millennium Sardinia, Oxford: BAR International Series 2871. “Identifying Monte D’Accoddi, Sardinia’s 4th-millennium ziggurat”, Corsica et Baleares Antiquae XVII, 39-59

Cytochrome f

Cytochrome f is the largest subunit of cytochrome b6f complex. In its structure and functions, the cytochrome b6f complex bears extensive analogy to the cytochrome bc1 complex of mitochondria and photosynthetic purple bacteria. Cytochrome f plays a role analogous to that of cytochrome c1, in spite of their different structures; the 3D structure of Brassica rapa cyt f has been determined. The lumen-side segment of cyt f includes two structural domains: a small one above a larger one that, in turn, is on top of the attachment to the membrane domain; the large domain consists of an anti-parallel beta-sandwich and a short haem-binding peptide, which form a three-layer structure. The small domain is inserted between beta-strands F and G of the large domain and is an all-beta domain; the haem nestles between two short helices at the N terminus of cyt f. Within the second helix is the sequence motif for the c-type cytochromes, CxxCH, covalently attached to the haem through thioether bonds to Cys-21 and Cys-24.

His-25 is the fifth haem iron ligand. The sixth haem iron ligand is the alpha-amino group of Tyr-1 in the first helix. Cyt f has an internal network of water molecules; the water chain appears to be a conserved feature of cyt f. Bendall, D. S.. "The unfinished story of cytochrome f". Photosynth. Res. 80: 265–276. Doi:10.1023/B:PRES.0000030454.23940.f9. PMID 16328825. Cramer, W. A.. E.. S.. M.. B.. H.. S. & Smith, J. L.. "Structural aspects of the cytochrome b6f complex. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 26: 31–47. Doi:10.1007/BF00763218. PMC 4167668. PMID 8027021. Cytochrome+f at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Bromham and Rowde Halt railway station

Bromham and Rowde Halt was the railway station serving Bromham and Rowde in Wiltshire, England between 1909 and 1966. The station was a stop on the Devizes Branch Line, between Devizes; the single-platform halt was at Sells Green in the northeast of Seend parish, close to the Devizes–Melksham road. It handled vegetables grown in the Bromham area, as well as milk. After the completion of the Devizes line in 1858, the junction at Holt allowed the fastest route from London to the West Country; however the Devizes line lost to competition and returned to a branch line in 1900. Bromham and Rowde suffered from reduced traffic after the completion of the Patney and Chirton-Westbury line, that by-passed the Devizes Branch Line to shorten the London to Bristol journey by five miles; as a result and Rowde lost its stationmaster in 1952. The line and the halt were closed in 1966 under the Beeching cuts and the station was demolished in 1970. Crittall, Elizabeth, ed.. "Victoria County History: Wiltshire: Vol 4 pp 280–293 – Railways".

British History Online. University of London. Retrieved 9 December 2019. Oakley, Mike. Wiltshire Railway Stations. Wimborne: The Dovecote Press. Pp. 24–25. ISBN 1-904349-33-1