Armenian wine is wine made in Armenia, in the region of South Caucasus. Armenia is one of the oldest wine producing regions of the world. Since ancient days Armenia was famous for the wine makers where original traditions were kept until this day, it is possible to learn about this from works of such philosophers, as Herodotus and Strabo. In 401–400 BC, when the Greek armies led by Xenophon "were passed" on the country Nairi, in the Armenian houses they were treated with wine and beer, kept in deep dugouts in special "karases". In karases with beer, reeds have been inserted. Archaeological excavations carried out by academic Pyatrovski in the 19th and 20th centuries have confirmed that in the 9th century BC, the area of modern-day Yerevan was a wine-making region. Archaeologists have found, in the fortress Teishebaini, a wine storehouse with 480 karases, which hold 37,000 daL of wine. During excavation in Karmir Blur and Erebuni had been found 10 wine storehouses in which were 200 karases. Still ancestors of Armenians – inhabitants of one of the most ancient states of the world – Urartu, were engaged in wine growing.
In historian certificates, that in thus one of the most ancient states in the world the special attention was given development of wine growing and fruit growing were kept. In the historical data which have reached to us manufacturing techniques of wine and beer are mentioned. During Soviet Union period the Armenian wine makers were on peak of the glory. From 1940 to 1985, manufacturing of wine increased by nine times, brandy by seventeen times, from 1960 to 1986, the production of sparkling wines increased by a factor of ten. In the 1980s Armenia annually processed an average of about 210 thousand tons of grapes from which received 14–15 million decalitres of wine. Two million from them were used in manufacturing of brandy. 37, 4% of incomes of Armenia in the field of foodstuffs were necessary for winemaking. In 1980s Armenia provided 25% of brandy made in all Soviet Union, 3% of wines were necessary on a share of Armenia. Three quarters of released production was exported to Russia. During that period the Armenian wine making has been concentrated in "Ararat-trest".
Having visited here, Maxim Gorky has told that it is easier to rise on mountain Ararat, than to leave storehouses "Ararat-trest". There, in the cut gorge, there is a museum of wine making in which collection is registered more than three thousand versions of wines, aged few centuries. There are only three similar storehouses of wines in all over the world: in France and Armenia. Today many peasants, as well as three millenniums ago, process grapes and receive wine in special premises. In wine factories the material for wine is stored in oak barrels, but in many villages kind traditions of fathers to now are used, karases are used for storage of materials of wine. Owing to its pinkish structure, Armenian oak allows receiving wines with natural taste of vanilla and dried fruits. Wines from local Armenian grades of grapes adjoining to the surface of the barrels from the Armenian oak, give rise to unique bouquet; this unique combination is impossible to reproduce in any other country of the world.
The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Armenia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world's first cultivated grapevines and neolithic wine production, over 6000 years ago. Although not a large player in the world of wine today, Armenian wine played an important role in the history of wine, it has been suggested that the domestication of the Eurasian grape first occurred in the mountainous regions of Armenia before moving to the south. During all this time they never stopped making wine, they were one of the main wine producers in the Soviet Union and have since started exporting their wine worldwide. Armenian wine spread to Africa. During the Armenian genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire during World War I, some Armenians fled to Ethiopia, where they cultivated vineyards. Many Armenian reds are sweet and rich, Ethiopian wine has a similar quality. During periods of Islamic rule, Armenians were the suppliers of alcoholic beverages, such as wine, to the Muslims, who were not allowed to distill alcohol.
In 2011 archaeologists in Armenia announced the discovery of the world's oldest-known wine production facility. Located in the Areni cave complex, it consisted of a shallow basin to press grapes, a vat for storage, fermentation jars, they found grape seeds, remains of pressed grapes, dozens of dried vines. The seeds were from Vitis vinifera, a grape still used to make wine; the cave remains date to about 4000 BC – 900 years before the earliest comparable wine remains, found in Egyptian tombs. Archaeologist Gregory Areshian of UCLA says, "The site gives us a new insight into the earliest phase of horticulture—how they grew the first orchards and vineyards.""It's the oldest proven case of documented and dedicated wine production, stretching back the horizons of this important development by thousands of years," said Gregory Areshian, co-director of the excavation and assistant director of the University of California Los Angeles's Cotsen Institute of Archaeology. In Republics of the Soviet Union the development of studying and producing technologies of wine sherry type, took place between 1930 and 1970.
The production of sherry type wines had a significant role in development of viticultural te
Austrian wines are dry white wines, though some sweeter white wines are produced. About 30% of the wines are red, made from Blaufränkisch, Pinot noir and locally bred varieties such as Zweigelt. Four thousand years of winemaking history counted for little after the "antifreeze scandal" of 1985, when it was revealed that some wine brokers had been adulterating their wines with diethylene glycol; the scandal destroyed the market for Austrian wine and compelled Austria to tackle low standards of bulk wine production, reposition itself as a producer of quality wines. The country is home to Riedel, makers of some of the most expensive wine glasses in the world; some of the best producers of Austria include Weingut F. X. Pichler and Weingut Franz Hirtzberger, Weingut Hutter, Weingut Eigl and Wellanschitz. There is archaeological evidence of grape growing in Traisental 4000 years ago. Grape seeds have been found in urns dating back to 700 BC in Zagersdorf, whilst bronze wine flagons of the Celtic La Tène culture dating to the 5th century BC have been found at Dürrnberg in Salzburg state.
Viticulture thrived under the Romans, once Marcus Aurelius Probus had overturned the ban on growing grapes north of the Alps. Both Grüner Veltliner and Welschriesling appear to have been grown around the Danube since Roman times. Viticulture suffered with the invasions of Bavarians and Avars after the fall of the Roman Empire, but from 788 the rule of Charlemagne saw considerable reconstruction of vineyards and introduction of new grape presses. Once Otto the Great had seen off the threat from Magyar incursions in 955, Austrian viticulture was nurtured by the Church and encouraged among the populace at large; the first vineyard names recorded are Kremser Sandgrube in 1208, Steiner Pfaffenberg in 1230. Rudolf IV introduced the first wine tax, Ungeld, in 1359, as Vienna established itself as a centre for wine trading on the Danube; the wine business boomed in the 16th century, but the Thirty Years War and others of the 17th century took their toll, as much due to the heavy taxation of the period as the direct disruption of war.
Various drink taxes were unified in 1780, as part of a drive by Maria Theresa and Joseph II to encourage viticulture. An imperial decree of 17 August 1784 gave birth to the distinctive Austrian tradition of inns called Heurigen. Derived from the German for "new wine", the decree allowed all winemakers to sell home-grown food with their wine all year round. Fir trees hung above the door alerted customers to the arrival of the new season's wine; the 19th century saw the arrival of all sorts of biological invaders. First there was downy mildew. One response to these fungal diseases from North America was the founding in 1860 of what became the Federal Institute for Viticulture and Pomology at Klosterneuburg; the phylloxera root aphid arrived in 1872 and wiped out most of the vineyards of central Europe. Although it took several decades for the industry to recover, it allowed lower quality grapes to be replaced with better varieties Grüner Veltliner. After World War I, Austria was the third biggest wine producer in the world, much being exported in bulk for blending with wine from Germany and other countries.
However that intensification of viticulture sowed the seeds of its own destruction. During the twentieth century Austrian wine became a high-volume, industrialised business, with much of it being sold in bulk to Germany. A run of favourable years in the early 1980s saw massive yields of wines that were light and acidic, that nobody wanted. Wine brokers discovered that these wines could be made saleable by the addition of a little diethylene glycol, more found in antifreeze, which imparted sweetness and body to the wine; the adulteration was difficult to detect chemically—the'antifreeze scandal' broke when one of them tried to claim for the cost of the chemical on his tax return. Although the amounts of glycol were less dangerous than the alcohol in the wine, only a few middlemen were involved, exports collapsed and some countries banned Austrian wine altogether; the antifreeze jokes persist. Strict new regulations restricted yields among other things, producers moved towards more red wine and a dry style of white wine, what the 1990s market would demand, the middlemen went bust forcing producers to sell direct and encouraging the expression of local terroir.
Most there was a massive change in the culture of wine production in Austria towards an emphasis on quality, as opposed to the low standards that permitted the scandal to happen in the first place. The Austrian Wine Marketing Board was created in 1986 as a response to the scandal, Austria's membership of the European Union has prompted further revisions of her wine laws, notably the new DAC system of geographical appellations launched in 2002. Today Austria lies 16th in the list of wine producing countries by volume; as can be seen from the table, Grüner Veltliner is the dominant white grape in Austria, producing dry wines ranging from short-lived Heuriger wines to Spätleses capable of long life. The ancient Welschriesling variety is used in the noble rot dessert wines of the Neusiedlersee. Neuburger was found as flotsam in the Danube in the 1850s, but is now known to be a cross between Silvaner and the ancient Roter Veltliner. Frühroter Veltliner is known as
Lebanon is among the oldest sites of wine production in the world. The Israelite prophet Hosea is said to have urged his followers to return to God so that "they will blossom as the vine, their fragrance will be like the wine of Lebanon"; the Phoenicians of its coastal strip were instrumental in spreading wine and viticulture throughout the Mediterranean in ancient times. Despite the many conflicts of the region, the country has an annual production of about 6,000,000 cases of wine. Vitis vinifera may have been domesticated in Lebanon, although it arrived from the South Caucasus via Mesopotamia or the Black Sea trade routes. Vines grew in the land of Canaan, the coastal strip of today's Lebanon, the wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom; the wines of Tyre and Sidon were famous throughout the ancient Mediterranean, although not all the cargoes reached their destination. As the first great traders of wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin—this may well be the origin of the Greek taste for retsina.
The philosophers Zeno of Citium and Chrysippus of Soli are both said to have enjoyed their wine, in fact the latter died from overindulgence. Wine played an important part in Phoenician religion, the Greek/Roman god Dionysus/Bacchus may have originated in the wine rituals of Canaan; the great temple at Heliopolis has many depictions of vines and winedrinking, most famously captured by David Roberts in pictures such as'Baalbec - Ruins of the Temple of Bacchus'. Such rituals may have influenced the Greek Bacchae, the Jewish Passover Seder feast and the Christian Eucharist; the Bacchus temple in Baalbek outlines the instrumental role that the Phoenician played in the development of the Ancient World around the Mediterranean sea. Through the widespread peaceful settlements that reached Spain. Genesis 14:18 mentions that the Phoenician King Melchizedek gave bread and wine to Abraham, Hosea 14:8 suggests "his fame shall be like the wine of Lebanon". Wine featured in Ugaritic poetry such as the Rapiuma: "Day long they pour the wine... must-wine, fit for rulers.
Wine and abundant, Select wine... The choice wine of Lebanon, Most nurtured by El." Once Lebanon became part of the Caliphate, wine production declined, although under the millet system it was tolerated among the Christian population for religious purposes. The Christians developed Arak, an ouzo-like spirit flavored with aniseed; the first winemaker in Lebanon was Chateau Joseph Spath in 1847 at aaramoun kesrouan following of winemaker at Chateau Ksara in 1857 when Jesuits planted Cinsaut vines from Algeria at Chateau Ksara near Zahlé in the central Beqaa Valley. In 1868 a French engineer, Eugène François Brun, set up Domaine des Tourelles, others followed, notably Gaston Hochar's Chateau Musar in 1930; the French influence between the World Wars promoted a culture of wine drinking, as did the sophisticated Mediterranean culture of Beirut at that time. Frenchman Yves Morard of Chateau Kefraya was arrested as a spy during the Israeli invasion, was only released when he proved to the Israelis that he knew how to make wine.
The end of the conflict in the 1990s brought a new momentum to the viticulture and we could track the renaissance of the Lebanese wines to the set up of Domaine Wardy in 1997 and Massaya in 1998 that marked the active involvement of French wine dynasties in the Bekaa Valley. Back the number of producers was around 5 and at present more than 50 wineries are active in Lebanon; the 2006 conflict, did not change the trend if some wineries were on the edge of missing the harvest and got collateral damages. However, the media coverage translated into surge in demand during the fighting as British buyers in particular bought Lebanese wine as a mark of solidarity. Lebanese winemakers have favored French grapes Cabernet Sauvignon and Rhone varietals such as Cinsaut and Grenache. There are grapes that are specific and indigenous to Lebanon such as Obaideh and Merwah Most of the major wineries have their vineyards in the southern Beqaa Valley. Chateau Ksara remains much the biggest, with 70% of all the country's production.
It is no longer connected with the Jesuit house of Tanail, it was sold in 1972 and suffered during the civil war, but has now bounced back with reds and rosés made from Rhone varietals such as Carignan and Cinsaut. Next biggest is Château Kefraya, whose majority of shares were bought by Druze politician Walid Jumblat from the De Bustros family in the late 1980s; the former winemaker, Yves Morard, has now set up Cave Kouroum nearby. Chateau Musar is the best known in the West, it was a particular favourite of Auberon Waugh. Musar achieved international recognition at the Bristol Wine Fair of 1979 and for a long time was the only Lebanese wine available in the United Kingdom; the second wine,'Hochar', is made in a lighter style for earlier drinking. Chateau Musar is known for transporting the grapes across the Front line during the civil war. Run by Ramzi and Sami Ghosn, Massaya is a boutique winery that marked a turning point because of the financial involvement of French wine dynasties and quick international market success.
Indeed, the features on CNN, BBC, Travel Channel, TV5... and in the New York Times, Decanter... are bolstering Lebanon's leading position in the Ancient World Wine category. Beside the Gold Reserve, Massaya is reputed for its Vine
With a production of 124,200 tons of wine and 25% of the population involved in wine production, Moldova has a well-established wine industry. It has a vineyard area of 148,500 hectares of which 107,800 hectares are used for commercial production; the remaining 40,700 hectares are vineyards planted in villages around the houses used to make home-made wine. Many families have their own recipes and strands of grapes that have been passed down through the generations. In 2014, Moldova was the twentieth largest wine producing country in the world. Most of the country's commercial wine production is for export. Fossils of Vitis teutonica vine leaves near the Naslavcia village in the north of Moldova indicate that grapes grew here 6 to 25 million years ago; the size of grape seed imprints found near the Varvarovca village, which date back to 2800 BC, prove that at that time the grapes were being cultivated. The grapegrowing and wine-making in the area between the Nistru and Prut rivers, which began 4000–5000 years ago, had periods of rises and falls but has survived through all the changing social and economic conditions.
By the end of the 3rd century BC, trading links were established between the local population and the Greeks and from 107 AD with the Romans, a fact which influenced the intense development of the grape-growing and wine-making. After the formation of the Moldavian feudal state in the 14th century, grape-growing began to develop and flourished in the 15th century during the kingdom of Stephen the Great, who promoted the import of high quality varieties and the improvement of the quality of wine, one of the chief exports of Moldova throughout the medieval period to Poland and Russia. After the Treaty of Bucharest in 1812, when the region became a province of the Russian Empire, the wine industry flourished again; the main varieties were the traditional ones: Rară Neagră, Galbena, Batuta Neagră, Fetească Albă, Fetească Neagră, Tămâioasa and many other local, Bulgarian and Turkish varieties. In this period, the grape growers gained governmental support and by 1837 the vineyard area in Bessarabia reached 14,000 hectares, the wine production reached 12 million litres.
The second half of the 19th century saw an intensive planting of newly introduced French varieties, such as Pinot blanc, Pinot noir, Pinot gris, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Muscat blanc. It was at this time that wines like Negru de Purcari and Romanesti, which have made Moldova famous as a fine wine producer, began to be produced. After the phylloxera damage at the end of the 19th century, it was only in 1906 that the vineyards began to recover with grafted planting material. By 1914 Bessarabia had the biggest vineyard area in the Russian Empire. Both World Wars damaged the wine industry considerably; the re-establishment of Moldavian vineyards began in the 1950s. Over 150,000 hectares were planted in 10 years, by 1960 the total vineyard area had reached 220,000 hectares. In 2006, a diplomatic conflict with Russia resulted in the 2006 Russian ban of Moldovan and Georgian wines, damaging the wine industry of Moldova as Russia remains the largest importer of Moldovan wines by far. A fresh ban was imposed in September 2013, as a result of Moldova's announcement of plans to sign a draft association treaty with the European Union.
In Moldova four regions for wine growing are to be found: Balti Codru Purcari Cahul The most important region - the Southern area - is suitable for red sweet and semi-sweet wines. White wines have a high content of alcohol. Micro-regions like Taraclia, Comrat, Ceadir-Lunga, Cazaiac, Cimislia etc. are in the southern region. Moldovan viticulture is characterized by a large variety of grapes: Only a few local varieties can still be found in Moldova today: Fetească albă: Indigenous white variety. Responsible for the fame of the Purcari wines in the 18th century, before Cabernet Sauvignon was introduced. Total area planted - 170 hectares in the Purcari region; this variety is now rare. White varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc, Aligoté, Pinot gris, Pinot blanc, Traminer, Silvaner, Müller-Thurgau, Rkatsiteli. Red varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot noir, Saperavi, Gamay. Recently: Syrah, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Montepulciano, Sémillon, Ugni blanc, Tempranillo were conditionally registered for trial.
Divin - represents the name, patented in the Republic of Moldova, of the country's brandy, produced in conformity with the classic technology of cognac production. The Moldovan wine collection "Mileștii Mici", with 2 million bottles, is the largest wine collection in the world, according to the Guinness Book, it stretches for 250 km, of which only 120 km are in use. The Cricova winery has an extensive network of underground tunnels that stretch for 120 km; the Moldova Wine Guild is a non-profit association established in August 2007 by several of Moldova’s leading private wineries, i.e. Acorex Wine Holding, Vinaria Bostavan, Chateau Vartely, DK-Intertrade, Dionysos-Mereni, Lion-Gri, Vinar
Wine in China
Wine has a long history in China. Although long overshadowed by huangjiu and the much stronger distilled spirit baijiu, wine consumption has grown since the economic reforms of the 1980s. China is now numbered among the top ten global markets for wine. Ties with French producers are strong, Ningxia wines have received international recognition. Use of wild grapes in production of alcoholic beverages has been attested at the Jiahu archaeological site. In 1995, a joint Sino-USA archaeology team including archaeologists from the Archeology Research Institute of Shandong University and American archaeologists under the leadership of Professor Fang Hui investigated the two archaeological sites 20 km to the northeast of Rizhao, discovered the remnants of a variety of alcoholic beverages including grape wine, rice wine and several mixed beverages of these wines. Out of more than two hundred ceramic pots discovered at the sites, seven were used for grape wine. Remnants of grape seeds were discovered.
If grape wine consumption was once present in Bronze Age China, however, it was replaced by consumption of a range of alcoholic beverages made from sorghum, millet and fruits such as lychee or Asian plum. In the 130s and 120s BC, a Chinese imperial envoy of the Han dynasty named Zhang Qian opened diplomatic relations with several Central Asian kingdoms, some of which produced grape wine. By the end of the second century BC, Han envoys had brought grape seeds from the wine-loving kingdom of Dayuan back to China and had them planted on imperial lands near the capital Chang'an; the Shennong Bencao Jing, a work on materia medica compiled in the late Han, states that grapes could be used to produce wine. In the Three Kingdoms era, Wei emperor Cao Pi noted that grape wine "is sweeter than the wine made using ferments and sprouted grain. One recovers from it more when one has taken too much." Grapes continued to be grown in the following centuries, notably in the northwestern region of Gansu, but were not used to produce wine on a large scale.
Wine thus remained an exotic product known by few people. Not until the Tang dynasty did the consumption of grape wines become more common. After the Tang conquest of Gaochang – an oasis state on the Silk Road located near Turfan in modern Xinjiang – in 641, the Chinese obtained the seeds of an elongated grape called "mare teat" and learned from Gaochang a "method of wine making". Several Tang poets versified on grape wine, celebrating wine from the "Western Regions" – that from Liangzhou was noted – or from Taiyuan in Shanxi, the latter of which produced wine made from the "mare teat" grape. Meng Shen's 孟詵 Materia Dietetica and the government-sponsored Newly Compiled Materia Medica record that Tang people produced fermented wine. China's "first modern winery" was founded in 1892 in Shandong province near the treaty port of Chefoo by the overseas Chinese entrepreneur Zhang Bishi. French wine was the first foreign wine imported into China. In 1980, at the beginning of Chinese economic reform, Rémy Martin ventured into China to set up the first joint-venture enterprise in Tianjin: the Dynasty Wine Ltd., the second joint-venture enterprise in China.
Over the years, the company developed over 90 brands of alcoholic beverages, its products won numerous awards both domestically and abroad. However, most of its products were exported abroad in the first two decades due to the low income of the local population, it was not until after the year 2000 when the economic boom provided the domestic population with sufficient disposable income to support the domestic market. Other companies, including China Great Wall Wine Co. Ltd and Changyu, have risen in prominence, by 2005, 90% of grape wine produced was consumed locally; as globalization has brought China onto the international economic scene, so too has its winemaking industry come onto the international wine scene. China has a long tradition of the fermentation and distillation of Chinese wine, including all alcoholic beverages and not grape wine, but is one of the most recent participants in the globalization of wine that started years ago in Paris, when several countries such as Canada realized that they may be able to produce wines as good as most French wine.
Quite Chinese grape wine has begun appearing on shelves in California and in Western Canada. While some critics have treated these wines with the same type of disregard with which Chilean and Australian wines were once treated, others have recognized a new frontier with the potential to yield some interesting finds. Others have taken notice that China is producing drinkable table wines comparable to wines from other countries. Among the latest developments is the production of organic wine in Inner Mongolia; as of 2012, a small number of large companies, such as Changyu Pioneer Wine, China Great Wall Wine Co. Ltd. and the Dynasty Wine Ltd. dominate domestic production. The total production of wine in 2004 was a 15 % increase from the previous year; the total market grew 58% between 1996 and 2001, 68% between 2001 and 2006. In 2008, wine merchant Berry Brothers and Rudd predicted that within 50 years the quality of Chinese wine will rival that of Bordeaux. Notable wine-producing regions include Beijing, Zhangjiakou in Hebei, Yibin i
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates from Canada's Okanagan Valley to Lebanon's Beqaa Valley. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is blended with Merlot and Cabernet Franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Santa Cruz Mountains, Paso Robles, Napa Valley, New Zealand's Hawkes Bay, Australia's Margaret River and Coonawarra regions, Chile's Maipo Valley and Colchagua. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s. However, by 2015, Cabernet Sauvignon had once again become the most planted wine grape, with a total of 341000ha under vine worldwide. Despite its prominence in the industry, the grape is a new variety, the product of a chance crossing between Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon blanc during the 17th century in southwestern France.
Its popularity is attributed to its ease of cultivation—the grapes have thick skins and the vines are hardy and low yielding, budding late to avoid frost and resistant to viticultural hazards such as rot and insects—and to its consistent presentation of structure and flavours which express the typical character of the variety. Familiarity and ease of pronunciation have helped to sell Cabernet Sauvignon wines to consumers when from unfamiliar wine regions, its widespread popularity has contributed to criticism of the grape as a "colonizer" that takes over wine regions at the expense of native grape varieties. The classic profile of Cabernet Sauvignon tends to be full-bodied wines with high tannins and noticeable acidity that contributes to the wine's aging potential. In cooler climates, Cabernet Sauvignon tends to produce wines with blackcurrant notes that can be accompanied by green bell pepper notes and cedar which will all become more pronounced as the wine ages. In more moderate climates the blackcurrant notes are seen with black cherry and black olive notes while in hot climates the currant flavors can veer towards the over-ripe and "jammy" side.
In parts of Australia the Coonawarra wine region of South Australia, Cabernet Sauvignon wines tend to have a characteristic eucalyptus or menthol notes. For many years, the origin of Cabernet Sauvignon was not understood and many myths and conjectures surrounded it; the word "Sauvignon" is believed to be derived from the French sauvage meaning "wild" and to refer to the grape being a wild Vitis vinifera vine native to France. Until the grape was rumored to have ancient origins even being the Biturica grape used to make ancient Roman wine and referenced by Pliny the Elder; this belief was held in the 18th century, when the grape was known as Petite Vidure or Bidure a corruption of Biturica. There was belief that Vidure was a reference to the hard wood of the vine, with a possible relationship to Carménère, once known as Grand Vidure. Another theory was. While the period when the name Cabernet Sauvignon became more prevalent over Petite Vidure is not certain, records indicate that the grape was a popular Bordeaux planting in the 18th century Médoc region.
The first estates known to have grown the variety were Château Mouton and Château d'Armailhac in Pauillac. The grape's true origins were discovered in 1996 with the use of DNA typing at the UC Davis Department of Viticulture and Enology, by a team led by Dr. Carole Meredith; the DNA evidence determined that Cabernet Sauvignon was the offspring of Cabernet franc and Sauvignon blanc and was most a chance crossing that occurred in the 17th century. Prior to this discovery, this origin had been suspected from the similarity of the grapes' names and the fact that Cabernet Sauvignon shares similar aromas with both grapes—such as the blackcurrant and pencil box aromas of Cabernet franc and the grassiness of Sauvignon blanc. In 2016 scientists at the UC Davis announced they had sequenced a draft of the whole genome of the Cabernet Sauvignon grape, the first genome of a commercial wine-producing grape to be sequenced. While not as prolific in mutating as Pinot noir, nor as used in production of offspring, Cabernet Sauvignon has been linked to other grape varieties.
In 1961, a cross of Cabernet Sauvignon and Grenache produced. Cygne blanc is a white-berried seedling of Cabernet Sauvignon, discovered in 1989 growing in a garden in Swan Valley, Western Australia. Cabernet blanc is a crossing of Cabernet Sauvignon and an unknown hybrid grape variety, discovered in Switzerland in the late 20th century. In 1977 a vine producing'bronze' grapes was found in the vineyards of Cleggett Wines in Australia, they propagated this mutant, registered it under the name of Malian, sold pale red wines under that name. In 1991 one of the Bronze Cabernet vines started producing white grapes. Cleggett registered this "White Cabernet" under the name of Shalistin. Compared to its Cabernet parent, Malian appears to lack anthocyanins in the subepidermal cells but retains them in the epidermis, whereas Shalistin has no anthocyanins in either layer; the team that went on to discover the VvMYBA1 and VvMYBA2 genes that control grape color have suggested that a gene involved in anthocyanin production has been deleted in the subepidermis of Malian, subepidermal cells invaded the epidermis to produce Shalistin.
During a ser
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used in the production of white wine. The variety originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France, but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy entry into the international wine market; the Chardonnay grape itself is neutral, with many of the flavors associated with the wine being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the lean, crisply mineral wines of Chablis, France, to New World wines with oak and tropical fruit flavors. In cool climates, Chardonnay wine tends to be medium to light body with noticeable acidity and flavors of green plum and pear. In warmer locations, the flavors become more citrus and melon, while in warm locations, more fig and tropical fruit notes such as banana and mango come out. Wines that have gone through malolactic fermentation tend to have softer acidity and fruit flavors with buttery mouthfeel and hazelnut notes.
Chardonnay is an important component of many sparkling wines around the world, including Champagne and Franciacorta in Italy. Chardonnay's popularity peaked in the late 1980s gave way to a backlash among those wine connoisseurs who saw the grape as a leading negative component of the globalization of wine. Nonetheless, it is one of the most planted grape varieties, with 210,000 hectares worldwide, second only to Airén among white wine grapes and fifth among all wine grapes. For much of its history, a connection was assumed between Pinot blanc. In addition to being found in the same region of France for centuries, ampelographers noted that the leaves of each plant have near-identical shape and structure. Pierre Galet disagreed with this assessment, believing that Chardonnay was not related to any other major grape variety. Viticulturalists Maynard Amerine and Harold Olmo proposed a descendency from a wild Vitis vinifera vine, a step removed from white Muscat. Chardonnay's true origins were further obscured by vineyard owners in Lebanon and Syria, who claimed that the grape's ancestry could be traced to the Middle East, from where it was introduced to Europe by returning Crusaders, though little external evidence supports that theory.
Another theory stated. Modern DNA fingerprinting research at University of California, now suggests that Chardonnay is the result of a cross between the Pinot noir and Gouais blanc grape varieties; the Romans are thought to have brought Gouais blanc from Croatia, it was cultivated by peasants in eastern France. The Pinot of the French aristocracy grew in close proximity to the Gouais blanc, giving both grapes ample opportunity to interbreed. Since the two parents were genetically distant, many of the crosses showed hybrid vigour and were selected for further propagation; these "successful" crosses included Chardonnay and siblings such as Aligoté, Aubin vert, Bachet noir, Franc Noir de la-Haute-Saône, Gamay Blanc Gloriod, Gamay noir, Knipperlé, Roublot and Dameron. As of 2006, 34 clonal varieties of Chardonnay could be found in vineyards throughout France, most of which were developed at the University of Burgundy in Dijon; the so-called "Dijon clones" are bred for their adaptive attributes, with vineyard owners planting the clonal variety best suited to their terroir and which will produce the characteristics that they are seeking in the wine.
Examples include the lower-yielding clones'Dijon-76','95' and'96' that produce more flavor-concentrated clusters.'Dijon-77' and'809' produce more aromatic wines with a "grapey" perfume, while'Dijon-75','78','121','124','125' and'277' are more vigorous and higher-yielding clones. New World varieties include the'Mendoza' clone, which produced some of the early California Chardonnays. The'Mendoza' clone is prone to develop millerandage known as "hens and chicks", where the berries develop unevenly. In places such as Oregon, the use of newer Dijon clones has had some success in those regions of the Willamette Valley with climates similar to that of Burgundy. Chardonnay has served as parent to several French-American hybrid grapes, as well as crossings with other V. vinifera varieties. Examples include the hybrid Chardonel, a Chardonnay and Seyval blanc cross produced in 1953 at the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. Mutations of the Chardonnay grape include the rare pink-berried'Chardonnay Rose'.
Chardonnay Blanc Musqué is found around the Mâconnais village of Clessé and sometimes confused with the'Dijon-166' clone planted in South Africa, which yields Muscat-like aromas. In the 1930s, Chardonnay was crossed with a Seibel grape to create the hybrid grape Ravat blanc. Chardonnay has a wide-ranging reputation for relative ease of cultivation and ability to adapt to different conditions; the grape is "malleable", in that it reflects and takes on the impression of its terroir and winemaker. It is a vigorous vine, with extensive leaf cover which can inhibit the energy and nutrient uptake of its grape clusters. Vineyard managers counteract this with aggressive canopy management; when Chardonnay vines are planted densely, they are forced to compete for resources and funnel energy into their grape clusters. In certain conditions, the vines can be v