Umbria is a region of central Italy. It includes Lake Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, is crossed by the River Tiber; the regional capital is Perugia. Umbria is known for its landscapes, history, culinary delights, artistic legacy, influence on culture; the region is characterized by hills, mountains and historical towns such as the university centre of Perugia, Assisi, a World Heritage Site associated with St. Francis of Assisi, the Basilica of San Francesco and other Franciscan sites, works by Giotto and Cimabue, Terni; the hometown of Santa Rita, the hometown of St. Valentine, the hometown of St. Benedict, Città di Castello, main center of the early Renaissance situated in the Tiber High Valley, the hometown of St. Ubaldo, Orvieto, Castiglione del Lago, Narni and other small cities. Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Hilly and mountainous, flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres.
It is the only Italian region having a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident. Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley, stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, the Tiber Valley and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio; the Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria; the Chiascio basin is uninhabited as far as Bastia Umbra. About 10 kilometres farther on, it joins the Tiber at Torgiano; the Topino, cleaving the Apennines with passes that the Via Flaminia and successor roads follow, makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow NW for a few kilometres before joining the Chiascio below Bettona. The third river is the Nera, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni.
The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains. In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber, they were drained by the Romans over several hundred years. An earthquake in the 4th century and the political collapse of the Roman Empire resulted in the refilling of the basin, it was drained a second time a thousand years during a 500-year period: Benedictine monks started the process in the 13th century, the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century. The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 and those of 2016. In literature, Umbria is referred to The green heart of Italy; the phrase is taken from a poem by Giosuè Carducci, the subject of, the source of the Clitunno River in Umbria. The region is named for the Umbri people, an Italic people, absorbed by the expansion of the Romans; the Umbri's capital city was Gubbio, where today is housed the longest and most important document of any of the Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets.
Pliny the Elder recounted a fanciful derivation for the tribal name from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower", which had led to the confused idea that they had survived the Deluge familiar from Greek mythology, giving them the claim to be the most ancient race in Italy. In fact, they belonged to a broader family of neighbouring peoples with similar roots, their language was one of the Italic languages, related to Latin and Oscan. The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic tribes; the Umbri sprang, like neighboring peoples, from the creators of the Terramara, Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age. The Etruscans were the chief enemies of the Umbri; the Etruscan invasion went from the western seaboard towards the north and east from about 700 to 500 BC driving the Umbrians towards the Apennine uplands and capturing 300 Umbrian towns. The Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.
The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river: the ancient name of Todi, remembers that. After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome. Communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia. Romans defeated their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum. Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return to their territories to defend against simultaneous Roman attacks, so were unable to help the Samnites in the battle of Sentinum; the Roman victory at Sentinum started a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies and built the via Flaminia. The via Flaminia became a principal vector for Roman development in Umbria. During Hannibal's invasion in the second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought in Umbria, but the local people did not aid the invader. During the Roman civil war between Mark Antony and Octavian, the city of Perugia supported Antony
Cerveteri is a town and comune of northern Lazio in the region of the Metropolitan City of Rome. Known by the ancient Romans as Caere, by the Etruscans as Caisra or Cisra, as Agylla by the Greeks, its modern name derives from Caere Vetus used in the 13th century to distinguish it from Caere Novum, it is the site of the ancient Etruscan city, one of the most important Etruscan cities with an area more than 15 times larger than today's town. Caere was one of the city-states of the Etruscan League and at its height, around 600 BC, its population was around 25,000 - 40,000 people; the ancient city was situated about 7 km from the sea, a location which made it a wealthy trading town derived from the iron-ore mines in the Tolfa Hills. It had three sea ports including Pyrgi, connected to Caere by a road about 13 km long and 10 m wide, Punicum. Pyrgi was famous for its sanctuary of monumental temples from 510 BC, built by the king of Caere and dedicated to the goddesses Leucothea and Ilithyia, of which impressive and beautiful sculptures are exhibited at the Villa Giulia.
Little is known of the ancient city. Two of them have been excavated, one of the other in the north of the city. Parts of the city walls are still visible today and excavations opened up a theatre. Three necropolis were found; the contents of the tombs were excavated chaotically and illegally. One famous and important work of art is the Sarcophagus of the Spouses; the most famous attraction of Cerveteri is the Necropoli della Banditaccia, declared by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site together with the necropolis in Tarquinia. It covers an area of 400 hectares, of which 10 hectares can be visited, encompassing a total of about 1,000 tombs housed in characteristic mounds, it is the largest ancient necropolis in the Mediterranean area. The name Banditaccia comes from the leasing of areas of land to the Cerveteri population by the local landowners; the tombs date from the 9th century BC to the Etruscan period. The earliest tombs are in the shape of a pit; the most important tombs include: Tomb Regolini-Galassi with rich gold finds from the mid-7th century BC Tomb of the capitals, middle 6th century BC Tomb of the shields and chairs, middle 6th century BC Tomb of the Painted Lions, 620 BC Tomb of the Reliefs, 4th - 2nd century BC Tomb of the Sea Waves, 4th-3rd century BC Tomb of the Alcove, 4th - 3rd century BC Tomba della capanna Tomba dei Vasi Greci Tomba dei Doli Tomba calabresiFrom the Etruscan period are two types of tombs: tumulus-type tombs and the so-called "dice", the latter being simple square tombs built in long rows along roads within the necropolis.
The visitable area contains two such roads, the Via dei Monti Ceriti and the Via dei Monti della Tolfa. The tumuli are circular structures built in tuff, the interiors, carved from the living rock, house a reconstruction of the house of the dead, including a corridor, a central hall, several rooms. Modern knowledge of Etruscan daily life is dependent on the numerous decorative details and finds from such tombs. One of the most famous tombs is the Tomb of the Reliefs, identified from an inscription as belonging to the Matuna family and provided with an exceptional series of frescoes, bas-reliefs and sculptures portraying a large series of contemporary life tools; the most recent tombs date from the 3rd century BC. Some of them are marked by external cippi, which are cylindrical for men, in the shape of a small house for women. A large number of finds excavated at Cerveteri are in the National Etruscan Museum, with others in the Vatican Museums and many other museums around the world. Others pottery, are in the Archaeological Museum at Cerveteri itself.
The Rocca Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, including a medieval section reachable from the 1950s addition through a triumphal arch. Palazzo Ruspoli, rebuilt as baronial palace by the Orsini in 1533; the portico and the loggia on the façade are from the 17th century. It is connected to Santa Maria Maggiore through a passetto, built in 1760; the small church of Sant'Antonio Abate, with a 1472 fresco by Lorenzo da Viterbo. The medieval burgh of Ceri Castle of Cerenova Around the city of Cerveteri is an Italian DOC wine region that produces red and white blended wines; the red wines are blends of 60% Sangiovese and Montepulciano, 25% Cesanese and up to 30% of Canaiolo and Barbera. The grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 15 tonnes/ha and the final wine must have a minimum alcohol level of 11%; the white wines are composed of a minimum blend of 50% Trebbiano Romagnolo and Giallo, a maximum of 35% Malvasia di Candia and a maximum of 15% Friulano, Verdicchio and Bombino bianco. The grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 14 tonnes/ha and the final wine must have a minimum alcohol level of 12%.
For the ancient bishopric that had its seat in Cerveteri and is now a titular see, see Caere. Fürstenfeldbruck, Germany Livry-Gargan, France Almuñécar, Spain Drago Troccoli, Luciana. 2006. Cerveteri. Rome: Istituto Poligrafico. Izzet, Vedia E. 2000. "The Etruscan sanctuary at Cerveteri, Sant’Antonio: Preliminary report of excavations 1995–8." Papers of the British School at
The harvesting of wine grapes is one of the most crucial steps in the process of wine-making. The time of harvest is determined by the ripeness of the grape as measured by sugar and tannin levels with winemakers basing their decision to pick based on the style of wine they wish to produce; the weather can shape the timetable of harvesting with the threat of heat, rain and frost which can damage the grapes and bring about various vine diseases. In addition to determining the time of the harvest and vineyard owners must determine whether to use hand pickers or mechanical harvesters; the harvest season falls between August & October in the Northern Hemisphere and February & April in the Southern Hemisphere. With various climate conditions, grape varieties, wine styles the harvesting of grapes could happen in every month of the calendar year somewhere in the world. In the New World it is referred to as the crush; the majority of the world's wine producing regions lie between the temperate latitudes of 30° and 50° in both hemispheres with regions lying closer to the equator harvesting earlier due to their warmer climates.
In the Northern Hemisphere, vineyards in Cyprus begin harvesting as early as July. In California some sparkling wine grapes are harvested in late July to early August at a unripe point to help maintain acidity in the wine; the majority of Northern Hemisphere harvesting occurs in late August to early October with some late harvest wine grapes being harvested throughout the autumn. In Germany, the United States and Canada, ice wine grapes can be harvested as late as January. In the Southern Hemisphere harvest can begin as early as January 1 in some of the warmer climate sites in New South Wales, Australia; the majority of Southern Hemisphere harvesting occurs between the months of February and April with some cool climate sites like Central Otago, New Zealand picking late harvest wine grapes in June. Recent climate changes have shifted the harvest season in some countries. Throughout the history of wine, winemakers would use the sugar and acid levels of the grape as a guide in determining ripeness.
Early winemakers tasted the grapes to gauge ripeness. Modern winemakers use a refractometer to measure high sugar levels and °Brix or titration tests to determine the titratable acidity within the grape. In recent times there has been more of an emphasis on the "physiological" ripeness of the grape in the form of tannins and other phenolics. Tasting is the only way to measure tannin ripeness, which can take experience and skill to do accurately. Viticulturalists have not yet explained the complex processes that go into the ripening of tannins but most believe it begins with the polymerization of small astringent tannins into larger molecules which are perceived by the taste buds as being softer; the question of using mechanical harvesting versus traditional hand picking is a source of contention in the wine industry. Mechanical harvesting of grapes has been one of the major changes in many vineyards in the last third of a century. First introduced commercially in the 1960s, it has been adopted in different wine regions for various economic and winemaking reasons.
In Australia, the reduced work force in the wine industry has made the use of mechanized labor a necessity. A mechanical grape harvester works by beating the vine with rubber sticks to get the vine to drop its fruit onto a conveyor belt that brings the fruit to a holding bin; as technology improves mechanical harvesters have become more sophisticated in distinguishing grape clusters from mud and other particles. Despite the improvement many harvesters still have difficulties in distinguishing between ripe, healthy grapes and unripe or rotted bunches which must be sorted out at the winemaking facility. Another disadvantage is the potential of damaging the grape skins which can cause maceration and coloring of the juice, undesirable in the production of white and sparkling wine; the broken skins bring the risk of oxidation and a loss of some of the aromatic qualities in the wine. One of the benefits of mechanical harvesting is the low cost. A harvester is able to run 24 hours a day and pick 80–200 tons of grapes, compared to the 1–2 tons that an experienced human picker could harvest.
In hot climates, where picking or in the cool of night is a priority, mechanical harvesting can accomplish these goals well. Despite the costs, some wineries prefer the use of human workers to hand-pick grapes; the main advantage is the knowledge and discernment of the worker to pick only healthy bunches and the gentler handling of the grapes. The production of some dessert wine like Sauternes and Trockenbeerenauslese require that individual berries are picked from the botrytized bunches which can only be done by hand. In areas of steep terrain, like in the Mosel, it would be impossible to run a mechanical harvester through the vineyard. In many wine regions, migrant workers are a sizable composition of the harvest time work force as well as local student and itinerant workers. Karen Ross, president of the California Association of Winegrowers, has estimated that as of 2007 as many as 70% of the employees in the California wine industry may be immigrants from Mexico
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Castel del Monte is a 13th-century citadel and castle situated on a hill in Andria in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. It was built during the 1240s by the Emperor Frederick II, who had inherited the lands from his mother Constance of Sicily. In the 18th century, the castle's interior marbles and remaining furnishings were removed, it has neither a moat nor a drawbridge and some considered it never to have been intended as a defensive fortress. Described by the Enciclopedia Italiana as "the most fascinating castle built by Frederick II", the site is protected as a World Heritage Site, it appears on the Italian version of the one cent Euro coin. Castel del Monte is situated on a small hill close to the monastery of Santa Maria del Monte, at an altitude of 540 m; when the castle was built, the region was famously fertile with a plentiful supply of water and lush vegetation. It lies in the comune of Andria, province of Barletta-Andria-Trani, occupying the site of an earlier fortress of which no structural remains exist.
The castle's construction is mentioned in only one contemporary source, a document dating to 1240, in which the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II ordered the governor of Capitanata to finish some works in it. It was never finished and there is no proof that the emperor used it as a hunting lodge as stated, it was turned into a prison, used as a refuge during a plague, fell into disrepair. It had marble walls and columns, but all were stripped by vandals or re-used in constructions nearby; because of its small size, it was once considered to be no more than a "hunting lodge", but scholars now believe it had a curtain wall and did serve as a citadel. Frederick was responsible for the construction of many castles in Apulia, but Castel del Monte's geometric design was unique; the fortress is an octagonal prism with an octagonal tower at each corner. The towers were some 5 m higher than now, they should include a third floor. Both floors have eight rooms and an eight-sided courtyard occupies the castle's centre.
Each of the main rooms has vaulted ceilings. Three of the corner towers contain staircases; the castle has an unobtrusive service entrance and an ornate main entrance. Frederick's main entrance featured elements from classical design, may have been influenced by Frederick's interest in Greco-Roman architecture; the octagonal plan is unusual in castle design. Historians have debated the purpose of the building and it has been suggested that it was intended as a hunting lodge. Another theory is that the octagon is an intermediate symbol between a circle. Frederick II may have been inspired to build to this shape by either the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which he had seen during the Sixth Crusade, or by the Palace Chapel of Aachen Cathedral. Used as a hunting lodge under Manfred of Sicily, the castle become a state prison under the latter's victor, Charles I of Anjou: here Manfred's sons Henry and Enzo were kept as prisoner after 1266, as well as other Hohenstaufen supportersThe main wall is 25 m high and the eight bastions each 26 m.
The sides of the main octagon are 16.5 m long and those of the octagonal towers each 3.1 m. The castle has a diameter of 56 m, its main entrance faces east. In the 18th century, the castle's marbles and other ornamentation were looted. Members of the House of Bourbon took the marble columns and window frames and reused them at their palace in Caserta. What remains now includes fragments of a knight and a re-used Roman relief, while in the Provincial Gallery of Bari there are a head fragment and a cloaked, headless bust, sometimes interpreted as Frederick II. After having been abandoned for a considerable length of time, the castle was purchased in 1876 for the sum of 25,000 lire by the Italian State, which began the process of restoration in 1928. During the Allied occupation of WWII, the 15th Army Air Force headquartered a secret navigational aid station called Big Fence at the Castel. In the 1950s, soil around the castle was discovered to contain a bright red compound produced by a strain of the bacterium Streptomyces peucetius.
Scientists named the drug daunorubicin and further development identified a related compound doxorubicin that finds use as a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat cancer. Central to the plot of Umberto Eco's novel The Name of the Rose is an old fortress known as the'Aedificium'; this was certainly inspired by Castel del Monte. It was the set for the film Tale of Tales. In 1996 Castel del Monte was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, which described it as "a unique masterpiece of medieval military architecture". Castel del Monte is depicted on the reverse of the Italian-issue 1 Euro cent coin. Around the castle, Andria is the Italian DOC wine region of Castel del Monte that produces red and rose wines. Most of the wines are blends but varietal wines can be produced as long as at least 90% of the wine is composed of the same grape; the reds are a blend of 65-100% Uva di Troia, up to 35% of Sangiovese, Pinot noir and Aglianico. The roses include 65-100% Uva di Troia and/or Bombino nero with the other red grape varieties filling out the rest.
The whites are composed of Pampanuto with other local white grape varieties filling out the rest. Red and rose grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 14 tonnes/ha and must make a wine with a minimum of 12% alcohol level. White wine grapes are limited to a harvest yield of 15 tonnes/ha and must make a wine with a minimum alcohol of 11%. If the wine is to be labe
Tuscan wine is Italian wine from the Tuscany region. Located in central Italy along the Tyrrhenian coast, Tuscany is home to some of the world's most notable wine regions. Chianti, Brunello di Montalcino and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano are made with Sangiovese grape whereas the Vernaccia grape is the basis of the white Vernaccia di San Gimignano. Tuscany is known for the dessert wine Vin Santo, made from a variety of the region's grapes. Tuscany has thirty-three Denominazioni di origine controllata and eleven Denominazioni di Origine Controllata e Garantita. In the 1970s a new class of wines known in the trade as "Super Tuscans" emerged; these wines were made outside DOC/DOCG regulations but were considered of high quality and commanded high prices. Many of these wines became cult wines. In the reformation of the Italian classification system many of the original Super Tuscans now qualify as DOC or DOCG wines but some producers still prefer the declassified rankings or to use the Indicazione Geografica Tipica classification of Toscana.
Tuscany has five sub-categories of IGT wines today. The history of viticulture in Tuscany dates back to its settlements by the Etruscans in the 8th century BC. Amphora remnants originating in the region show that Tuscan wine was exported to southern Italy and Gaul as early as the 7th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, there were literary references by Greek writers about the quality of Tuscan wine. From the fall of the Roman Empire and throughout the Middle Ages, monasteries were the main purveyors of wines in the region; as the aristocratic and merchant classes emerged, they inherited the sharecropping system of agriculture known as mezzadria. This system took its name from the arrangement whereby the landowner provides the land and resources for planting in exchange for half of the yearly crop. Many Tuscan landowners would turn their half of the grape harvest into wine that would be sold to merchants in Florence; the earliest reference of Florentine wine retailers dates to 1079 and a guild was created in 1282.
The Arte dei Vinattieri guild established strict regulations on how the Florentine wine merchants could conduct business. No wine was to be sold within 100 yards of a church. Wine merchants were prohibited from serving children under 15 or to prostitutes and thieves. In the 14th century, an average of 7.9 million US gallons of wine was sold every year in Florence. The earliest references to Vino Nobile di Montepulciano wine date to the late 14th century; the first recorded mention of wine from Chianti was by the Tuscan merchant Francesco di Marco Datini, the "merchant of Prato", who described it as a light, white wine. The Vernaccia and Greco wines of San Gimignano were considered luxury items and treasured as gifts over saffron. During this period Tuscan winemakers began experimenting with new techniques and invented the process of governo which helped to stabilize the wines and ferment the sugar content sufficiently to make them dry. In 1685 the Tuscan author Francesco Redi wrote Bacco in Toscana, a 980-line poem describing the wines of Tuscany.
Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Tuscany returned to the rule of the Habsburgs. It was at this point that the statesman Bettino Ricasoli inherited his family ancestral estate in Broglio located in the heart of the Chianti Classico zone. Determined to improve the estate, Ricasoli traveled throughout Germany and France, studying the grape varieties and viticultural practices, he imported several of the varieties back to Tuscany and experimented with different varieties in his vineyards. However, in his experiments Ricasoli discovered that three local varieties— Sangiovese and Malvasia— produced the best wine. In 1848, revolutions broke out in Italy and Ricasoli's beloved wife died, leaving him with little interest to devote to wine. In the 1850s Oidium Uncinula necator and war devastated most of Tuscany's vineyards with many peasant farmers leaving for other parts of Italy or to emigrate to the Americas; the region of Tuscany is Italy's fifth largest region. It is bordered to the northwest by Liguria, the north by Emilia-Romagna, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the south.
To the west is the Tyrrhenian Sea which gives the area a warm mediterranean climate. The terrain is quite hilly, progressing inward to the Apennine Mountains along the border with Emilia-Romagna; the hills serve as a tempering affect on the summertime heat with many vineyards planted on the higher elevations of the hillsides. The Sangiovese grape performs better when it can receive more direct sunlight, a benefit of the many hillside vineyards in Tuscany; the majority of the region's vineyards are found at altitudes of 500–1600 feet. The higher elevations increase the diurnal temperature variation, helping the grapes maintain their balance of sugars and acidity as well as their aromatic qualities. After Piedmont and the Veneto, Tuscany produces the third highest volume of DOC/G quality wines. Tuscany is Italy's third most planted region but it is eighth in production volume; this is because the soil of Tuscany is poor, producers emphasize low yields and higher quality levels in their wine. More than 80% of the regions' production is in red wine.
The Sangiovese grape is Tuscany's most prominent grape. Cabernet Sauvignon has been planted in Tuscany for over 250 years, but has only become associated with the region due to the rise of the Super Tuscans. Other international varieties found in Tuscany include Cabernet franc, Merlot, Pinot noir
Ciliegiolo is a variety of red wine grape from Italy, named after the Italian for'cherry'. It is a minor component of traditional blends such as Chianti, but interest has revived in recent years. In Umbria it is made into a light quaffing wine, while in Tuscany it is made into a bigger, more structured style. A study published in 2007 using DNA typing tentatively identified the Ciliegiolo and Calabrese di Montenuovo as the parents of Sangiovese, but this was disputed by another study published the same year which claimed Ciliegiolo was the offspring of Sangiovese rather than the other way around. Thus, the exact nature of the genetic relationship between Cilieglio and Sangiovese remains disputed; some legend claims that Ciliegiolo came to Italy from Spain, but the genetic link between Ciliegiolo and Sangiovese is impossible to reconcile with a Spanish origin. There are around 5000 hectares of Ciliegiolo in Italy, a figure, in steady decline, it is used in the wines from Torgiano Rosso Riserva, Colli Lucchesi, Val di Cornia, Golfo del Tigullio and Colli di Luni.
It's possible to find ciliegiolo grapes as well in Sicily. The label is "Dedalo", it is a product from Fiore winery in Butera area. Ciliegiolo is not an easy grape to grow; the berries average 19.2mm long, 19.0mm wide, weigh 3.68g. Aleatico di Spagna, Ciliegiolo di Spagna and Ciriegiuolo Dolce. Sangiovese Robinson, Jancis Vines, Grapes & Wines Mitchell Beazley 1986 ISBN 1-85732-999-6
Molise is a region of Southern Italy. Until 1963, it formed part of the region of Abruzzi e Molise, alongside the region of Abruzzo; the split, which did not become effective until 1970, makes Molise the youngest region in Italy. The region covers 4,438 square kilometres and has a population of 313,348 The region is split into two provinces, named after their respective capitals Campobasso and Isernia. Campobasso serves as the regional capital. Molise is bordered by Abruzzo to the north, Apulia to the east, Lazio to the west, Campania to the south, it has 35 kilometres of sandy coastline to the northeast, lying on the Adriatic Sea looking out towards the Tremiti islands. The countryside of Molise is mountainous, with 55% covered by mountains and most of the rest by hills that go down to the sea. Castello Monforte Terzano Tower Campobasso Cathedral Church of Sant'Antonio Church of San Bartolomeo Church of San Giorgio Savoia Theater San Giorgio Palace Provincial Museum of "Sanniti" Isernia Cathedral Fountain Fraterna Monumental complex and museum of Santa Maria delle Monache Abbey Sanctuary of Santi Cosma e Damiano Archeological site Isernia La Pineta Museum of Paleolithic in the site of La Pineta Cathedral of San Basso from Lucera Medieval castle of Frederick II Sinarca Tower Rinascimental Gallery Museum Trivento Cathedral Church of Santa Maria Maggiore Santuario di Santa Maria del Canneto Caldora Castle Castle Anjou Longobard Castle Bojano Cathedral Medieval fortress Civita Superiore Angioina Tower Larino Cathedral Archeological site and Roman theater of Larinum Archeological site and museum of Altilia Italic sanctuary of San Pietro dei Cantoni Megalithic wall of Saipins Church of Santa Maria della Strada Guardialfiera old town Capua castle Abbey of San Vincenzo al Volturno Marinelli Bells Factory and Museum Theatre and Italic temple in the archeological site of Pietrabbondante Parish church and belfry of Saint Silvestro Bagnoli del Trigno Rupestrian church of Pietracupa Church of Sant'Antonio Abate Capracotta Neogothic basilica of Santa Maria Addolorata Venafro Cathedral Castle Pandone Castle Pandone Abbey of Santa Maria del Carmelo Pescolanciano Castle Colli al Volturno Agriculture, involving small and micro holdings, is offering high-quality products.
The agricultural holdings produce wine, olive oil, vegetables and dairy products. Traditional products are Grass Farro. Molise's autochthonous grape is Tintilia, rediscovered during the last ten years, many other PDO wines, both red and white. Though there is a large Fiat plant, the industrial sector is dominated by the farming industry with small and medium-sized farms spread throughout the region. Another important industry is food processing: pasta, milk products and wine are the traditional products of the region. In the services sector the most important industries are distribution and catering, followed by transport and communications and insurance. With few exceptions, in all sectors firms are small, this explains the difficulties encountered when marketing products on a national scale. International tourism is growing as a result of the recent opening of international flights from other European countries to Pescara Airport, not far to the north in Abruzzo and connected to Molise by the A14 highway.
The density of the population in Molise is well below the national average. In 2008, Molise registered 72.3 inhabitants per km2, compared to a national figure of 198.8. The region is subdivided into two provinces: Campobasso and Isernia, which together cover 1.5% of Italy's territory and less than 1% of its population. The larger province in terms of area is Campobasso at 2,909 km2, while the smaller is Isernia at 1,529 km2; the province of Campobasso is the more densely populated of the two provinces, with 79.4 inhabitants per km2, whereas Isernia registers 58.9 inhabitants per km2. At the end of 2008 the most populous towns were Campobasso and Isernia. In the period 1951-71, large-scale emigration to other countries of the European Union, to other parts of Italy and overseas led to a significant decline in the population of Molise. Negative net migration persisted until 1981. Large-scale emigration has caused many of the smaller towns and villages to lose over 60% of their population, while only a small number of larger towns have recorded significant gains.
From 1982 to 1994, net migration has been positive followed by a negative trend until 2001. Between 1991 and 2001, the population of the region decreased by 3.1%. The region is home to two main ethnic minorities: the Molisan Croats, those who speak the "arbereshe" dialect of Albanian in five towns of "basso Molise" in the province of Campobasso. Molise comprises two provinces: Molise has much tradition from the religious to the pagans, many museum, archeological sites and food events. Tradition The Festival dei Misteri in Campobasso Feast of Saint Pardo with ox chariot in Larino Ox chariots (La Carr