Monterey, California

Monterey is a city located in Monterey County on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast. Founded on June 3, 1770, it was the capital of Alta California under both Mexico. During this period, Monterey hosted California's first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, newspaper, it was originally the only port of entry for all taxable goods in California. In 1846 during the Mexican–American War, the United States flag was raised over the Customs House. After California was ceded to the U. S. after the war, Monterey hosted California's first constitutional convention in 1849. The city occupies a land area of 8.466 sq mi and the city hall is at 26 feet above sea level. The 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century and many celebrated painters and writers have lived there; until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Monterey's notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fisherman's Wharf, California Roots Music and Arts Festival, the annual Monterey Jazz Festival.

Long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula. Researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlone's primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone. A number of midden sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans' Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno recorded the name "Bahía de Monterrey", which has evolved into Monterey Bay. Vizcaíno landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaíno noted and named the "Point of Pines". All other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcaíno's name for the bay.

Variants of the city's name are recorded as Monte Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolá expedition, traveled north from San Diego, seeking Vizcaino's "Port of Monterey" from 167 years earlier. For some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1, 1769; the party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back. On the return journey, they camped near one of Monterey's lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, "We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a small lagoon which has rather muddy water, but abounds in pasture and firewood."Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcaino's Port of Monterey after all. The land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3, 1770, Serra founded the Cathedral of San Carlos Borromeo inside the presidio enclosure.

Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the second governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. San Diego is the only city in California older than Monterey. Serra's missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, he moved the mission to Carmel the following year to gain greater independence from Fages; the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio. Monterey became the capital of the "Province of Both Californias" in 1777, the chapel was renamed the Royal Presidio Chapel; the original church was replaced by the present sandstone structure. It was completed in 1794 by Indian labor. In 1840, the chapel was rededicated to the patronage of Saint Charles Borromeo; the cathedral is the oldest continuously operating parish and the oldest stone building in California. It is the oldest serving cathedral along with St. Louis Cathedral in New Orleans, Louisiana.

It is the only existing presidio chapel in California and the only surviving building from the original Monterey Presidio. The city was the only port of entry for all taxable goods in California. All shipments into California by sea were required to go through the Custom House, the oldest governmental building in the state and California's Historic Landmark Number One. Built in three phases, the Spanish began construction of the Custom House in 1814, the Mexican government completed the center section in 1827, the United States government finished the lower end in 1846. On November 24, 1818, Argentine corsair Hippolyte Bouchard landed 7 km away from the Presidio of Monterey in a hidden creek; the fort's resistance proved ineffective, after an hour of combat the Argentine flag flew over it. The Argentines took the city for six days, during which time they stole the cattle and burned the fort, the artillery headquarters, the governor's residence and the Spanish houses; the town's residents were unharmed.

Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, but the civil and religious institutions of Alta California remained much the same until the 1830s, when the secularization of the missions converted most of the mission pasture l

Eunice Gayson

Eunice Elizabeth Sargaison, known professionally as Eunice Gayson, was an English actress best known for playing Sylvia Trench, James Bond's love interest in the first two Bond films and is therefore considered to have been the first-ever "Bond girl". Gayson was born in 1928 in London, to John and Maria Sargaison, her father was a civil servant. The family moved to Purley and Glasgow, before settling in Edinburgh. There she studied operatic singing. Gayson played a major role in the Hammer horror film The Revenge of Frankenstein and appeared on television in series such as The Saint and The Avengers, she played the Baroness Elsa Schraeder in the 1962 London stage production of The Sound of Music, during which time she filmed scenes for the first two Bond films, Dr. No and From Russia with Love, she remained a regular in London theatre, appearing in, among other productions, the comedy The Grass Is Greener. In the early 1990s, Gayson appeared in Stephen Sondheim’s Into the Woods in the role of the grandmother.

In the first two James Bond films, Dr. No and From Russia with Love, Gayson played James Bond's love interest in London, Sylvia Trench. In early scenes, Bond attempts to set up a liaison with her, but gets called away on a mission before anything serious can develop; this was intended to be a running motif in multiple films, but the character was dropped after the second film. The character is responsible for Bond's iconic introductory catchphrase. Gayson had been cast in Dr. No as Miss Moneypenny, the secretary of Bond's boss, who flirted with Bond, while the actress who played Moneypenny, Lois Maxwell, had been cast as Sylvia Trench. However, Maxwell found the Trench character too immodest, their roles were switched. Gayson's voice was overdubbed by Nikki van der Zyl, who provided the voices recorded for other female characters in both films. Gayson is therefore considered the first "Bond girl". Gayson married the writer Leigh Vance in 1953, a marriage, featured on the American daytime television series Bride and Groom.

They divorced in 1959, in 1968 she married the film and stage actor Brian Jackson. She and Jackson had a daughter before divorcing after a decade of marriage, their daughter Kate would appear in the casino scene in the 1995 Bond film GoldenEye. Gayson died on 8 June 2018, aged 90. Official website Eunice Gayson at the British Film Institute Eunice Gayson on IMDb

Bruno Pereirinha

Bruno Alexandre Marques Pereirinha is a Portuguese footballer. He plays as a right midfielder being able to operate as an attacking right back, he spent most of his professional career with Sporting, appearing in 143 official matches during five seasons and winning three major titles, including two Portuguese Cups. Abroad, he had spells at Lazio in Atlético Paranaense of Brazil. All youth levels comprised, Pereirinha won 52 caps for Portugal, including 23 for the under-21s. Born in Rio de Mouro, Lisbon District, Pereirinha made his professional debut for Sporting CP in 2006–07, having started that same season on loan at second division team C. D. Olivais e Moscavide, as Miguel Veloso before him, his first appearance for the main squad came on 13 January 2007, playing 18 minutes of a 0–0 away draw with C. F. Os Belenenses, the club where he spent most of his youth career. On 13 March 2008, in the campaign's UEFA Cup round-of-16 second leg against Bolton Wanderers, Pereirinha scored an 85th-minute goal that gave Sporting a 1–0 home victory and a spot in the quarter-finals.

He had netted in the previous round, to help beat hosts FC Basel 3–0. In the following years, Pereirinha continued to be used, but exclusively from the bench. On 21 March 2009, in a rare start, he opened the score against Lisbon neighbours S. L. Benfica in the final of the Portuguese League Cup, but the Lions lost on penalties after 1–1 in regulation time. On 22 June 2010, being deemed surplus to requirements at Sporting, the 22-year-old Pereirinha was loaned to fellow Primeira Liga side Vitória de Guimarães in a season-long move. In early January 2011, however, he joined Kavala F. C. of the Super League Greece on loan. In 2012–13, Pereirinha was ostracised by all four Sporting managers – as several other Portuguese players – being demoted to the B-team in the second level and dealing with a right knee injury. Subsequently, he cut ties with the club and signed shortly after with S. S. Lazio in Italy, for three and a half years. On 15 July 2015, Pereirinha left the Romans after buying out his contract.

On 15 July 2015, Pereirinha signed a two-year deal with Club Athletico Paranaense. He made his debut ten days as a 76th-minute substitute for Eduardo in a 2–1 Série A win at Avaí FC. In July 2017 Pereirinha returned to his country's top flight with a one-year contract at C. F. Os Belenenses, managed by Domingos Paciência, his last boss at Sporting, he played about half of their league games, split as a starter and substitute, was sent off in the first half of the last one, a 1–0 loss at Boavista FC. Having started the 2018–19 season without a club, Pereirinha was signed in September by C. D. Cova da Piedade of the second tier. In 2007, aged 19, Pereirinha broke into the Portugal under-21 side representing the nation in the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup held in Canada. On 25 March 2009 he, alongside teammate Rui Pedro, was suspended by under-21 coach Carlos Queiroz after both attempted an unsuccessful backpass penalty during a match against Cape Verde for the Madeira International Tournament. Pererinha's father, was a footballer.

A defender, he represented among others Benfica and S. C. Farense; as of 31 August 2015 Sporting Taça de Portugal: 2006–07, 2007–08 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira: 2008 Taça da Liga: Runner-up 2007–08, 2008–09Lazio Coppa Italia: Runner-up 2014–15Atlético Paranaense Campeonato Paranaense: 2016 Bruno Pereirinha at ForaDeJogo Bruno Pereirinha at National team data