Foothill Transit is a public transit agency, government funded by 22 member cities in the San Gabriel and Pomona valleys. It operates a fixed-route bus public transit service in the San Gabriel Valley of Greater Los Angeles, United States. Foothill Transit operates out of two yards: one in Pomona, the other in Arcadia; the Foothill Transit joint powers authority membership consists of elected representatives from 22 member cities in the San Gabriel Valley and Pomona Valley and three members appointed from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. These representatives are divided into five geographical clusters, which each elect a representative annually to serve on a five-member Executive Board. Los Angeles County Supervisor Pete Schabarum is credited with the formation of the transit agency. Schabarum, annoyed by what he saw as disproportionate cutbacks of bus service by the Southern California Rapid Transit District in the San Gabriel Valley, wanted to secede from the larger agency and form a separate transit agency as early as 1986.
Compared to routes serving more densely-populated areas, routes in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys required greater subsidies to serve fewer riders on longer freeway alignments in eastern Los Angeles County. Foothill was founded by 20 member cities. In 1987, the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission approved Foothill to take over fourteen routes which serviced the San Gabriel Valley that were operated by SCRTD. Although service was planned to start on July 1, 1988, the Foothill Transit Zone had been prevented from starting service in July by an injunction arising from a lawsuit filed by the drivers and mechanics unions of SCRTD against LACTC. Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Eli Chernow ruled that LACTC could not unilaterally transfer the lines without the consent of the SCRTD board of directors; the injunction was upheld on appeal. LACTC had begun withholding $9 million per month from SCRTD in April 1988 on the basis that SCRTD had not followed salary guidelines set by LACTC. SCRTD consented to Foothill Transit taking over the bus lines in December 1988 in return for the restoration of funding.
Those first two lines operated by Foothill Transit were 495 and 498. The trial for the lawsuit against Foothill Transit started in May 1989, was resolved in Foothill's favor by July, the other twelve lines operated by SCRTD were transitioned to Foothill Transit between 1989 and 1992. For a short period in 1992, the last two routes to transition were operated by both Foothill Transit and SCRTD during continued legal disputes; the drivers and mechanics unions disputed the transfer of 486 and 488 since SCRTD had made the decision without negotiating with the union. However, Foothill Transit again prevailed in a February 1993 court ruling. Schabarum, who hated the influence of trade unions, chose to use contractors to operate the service. All of the operations and maintenance work for Foothill Transit are contracted out; as of 2017, bus service is operated by Keolis at Transdev at Arcadia/Irwindale. Embree Bus Lines was the initial contractor that operated the first two lines for Foothill starting in December 1988.
The hourly operating cost under Foothill Transit was reduced by up to half compared to service under SCRTD, ridership grew, but the contract operator drivers earned less in both wages and fringe benefits, had less influence over working conditions. In addition, Foothill Transit was not required to provide typical rider services such as schedules, bus stops, transit police, or telephone information. During the 1992 Los Angeles riot, Foothill Transit terminated service at El Monte rather than continue on to downtown Los Angeles. Over the first five years, Foothill Transit saved money compared to SCRTD's historical costs. In 1994, Foothill reported their hourly cost of operations was $55, compared to $93 for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, with a farebox recovery ratio of 48% at a lower fare of $0.85. In addition, Foothill reported an accident rate of 0.3 per 100,000 mi traveled, compared to Metro's rate of 3.3 per 100,000 mi, although Metro's accident rate was skewed by older buses and more dense traffic in its operating area.
Foothill executives made the service strike-proof by insisting that two different companies operate the two bus yards if it would cost more in the short term. By 1998, Foothill's contractors were Laidlaw and Ryder/ATE. However, due to bus industry consolidation, First Transit operated both yards from 2001 to mid-2007. Both Foothill Transit yards are represented by unions, but past strikes at the agency have been less than successful due to the ability of one yard to operate the other yard's service. In addition, wages are less at Foothill than at other transit operators in the region; the contract operator drivers at Foothill were represented by the Teamsters
Waterfront Red Car
The Port of Los Angeles Waterfront Red Car Line is a non-operational 1.5-mile heritage streetcar line for public transit along the waterfront in San Pedro, at the Port of Los Angeles in Los Angeles, California. It opened for service with a construction cost of $10 million. Service ended on September 27, 2015 due to major construction projects that would result in the demolition of a portion of the route. In March 2016 development plans for the port were announced which would include resumption of service on the Waterfront Red Car Line; the line used replica Pacific Electric Red Cars. The route ran south over a former Pacific Electric Railway right-of-way from the World Cruise Center cruise ship terminal under the Vincent Thomas Bridge to the intersection of 22nd Street and Miner Street, with intermediate stops at Downtown San Pedro, the Maritime Museum, the Ports O' Call Village; the service operated three days a week with occasional service on other weekdays depending on passenger ship landings.
The Pacific Electric Railway Red Car system operated for over 60 years, with more than 1,000 miles of tramway routes throughout Greater Los Angeles and the surrounding cities and counties. Before the line closed, the Waterfront Red Cars comprised three tram cars in the style of the originals. Two of the three Red Cars—the replica cars, numbers 500 and 501 — were built from scratch by employees of the port of Los Angeles; the third car, No. #1058, was a vintage Pacific Electric 950-class car, having been assembled from two wrecked 950-class cars by Richard J. Fellows, restored for parades and the like, cleverly converted to be steered with the original throttle as a tiller and braked by the original brake handle; the Port of Los Angeles bought the car and converted it back for rail operation as a charter service. The Waterfront Red Cars were supplemented by two shuttle bus lines; the Blue line serves downtown San Pedro and Ports O' Call village, whereas the Green line serves the harbor and marina.
The replica cars will be reused again when the line reopens, but they must be modified to run on light rail tracks. Whether the original car will be brought back to service is unknown, though it will most be retired. Future extensions to Cabrillo Beach, Harbor Park, the new cruise ship terminal at Berth 46, Pacific Avenue, Warehouse 1 were under consideration. In April 2010, a new feasibility report was released, with the first priority to switch much of the existing line to street-running tramway track on Sampson Way. In 2015 it was announced the Waterfront Red Car Line would be closed for 18 months, with service ceasing in late September 2015, to make way for the realignment of Sampson Way leading into Ports O’ Call Village; because the street realignment cuts through the southern part of the line, it would require a new track and modified, street-level cars running parallel to the new Sampson Way, estimated to cost $40 million. Port officials concluded that such reconstruction would be cost prohibitive.
Waterfront Red Car Line service ended on September 27, 2015. However development plans for San Pedro's Ports O' Call were announced in March 2016 that included the resumption of Waterfront Red Car service. List of heritage railroads in California Heritage streetcar systems Port of Los Angeles Public transportation in Los Angeles County, California Port of Los Angeles.org: Official Waterfront Red Car Line website
Montebello Bus Lines
Montebello Bus Lines is a municipal bus operator in Montebello, USA serving East Los Angeles and Montebello. Montebello Bus Lines began on 28 July 1931, with a small lot on the corner of Greenwood Avenue and Olympic Boulevard, where the four buses the agency operated were housed; the conception of Montebello Bus Lines came after several other transport services had served the area. Two years after the City of Montebello was incorporated in 1920, the City launched its first attempt at operating a municipal bus route, but the City decided to sell its bus operation to the Motor Transport Company in 1928. Three years in 1931, the City purchased the route back from the Motor Transport Company, Montebello Bus Lines was born. In the agency’s early days, passengers paid a nickel to ride the bus and bus operators earned $120 per month. Montebello Bus Lines has grown to be the third largest municipal transport agency in Los Angeles County, operating seven local routes, an express route, a semi-fixed-route feeder service and a Dial-a-Ride service.
Montebello Bus Lines serves 15 communities, providing transport to 8 million passengers on an annual basis. As of September 2013, Montebello Bus Lines has 7 Compressed natural gas buses, 44 hybrid buses and plans to replace its 15 remaining Diesel fuel buses with CNG in next few years, it own a CNG fueling station to service the Montebello Bus Lines. The American Public Transportation Association has recognised Montebello Bus Line’s service. Montebello Bus Lines is the recipient of APTA's Outstanding Transport System Award and APTA's top Silver Safety Award in 1999, as well as the Achievement Award in 1997, 1998, 2000 and 2002. Within its service area of 67 square kilometres, Montebello Bus Lines serving the communities of: Montebello Bus Lines consists of 8 routes in the San Gabriel Valley Central and West. Montebello Bus Lines fixed route services can broadly be divided into three types: Major Local Services, Minor Local Services, Peak Express Service. Routes 10, 20, 40 are the major service routes.
Routes 30, 50, 60, 70 are the minor service routes. Route 90 is the express route. Former Route. Departs Gage Avenue and Telegraph Road to Downtown LA at 06:20 and 06:50. Departs from Downtown Los Angeles to Gage Avenue and Telegraph Road at 17:20 and 17:50. In the early days of the Montebello Bus Lines, there was a route that had a bus stop in the middle of the 700 block of Bradshawe Street; the buses used to be blue, student riders of the bus affectionately called the Montebello Bus, "the big blue limousine." Montebello Link begins operations in 1997. Montebello Bus Lines contracts five Metrolink feeder routes offers a kerb-to-kerb shuttle to and from the Montebello/Commerce Metrolink station during the peak hours; this reservation based service utilises shuttles meet the Metrolink's arriving schedule in the morning and takes passengers to major employment centres. The feeder routes carry commuters back to the station in the afternoon; the City of Montebello operates Montebello Dial-A-Taxi since 2007, a programme which offers transport for elderly residents and qualified handicapped persons of any age and their attendants.
15,000 residents utilise this service. Official website
Christmas is an annual festival, commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ, observed on December 25 as a religious and cultural celebration among billions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it is preceded by the season of Advent or the Nativity Fast and initiates the season of Christmastide, which in the West lasts twelve days and culminates on Twelfth Night. Christmas Day is a public holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated religiously by a majority of Christians, as well as culturally by many non-Christians, forms an integral part of the holiday season centered around it; the traditional Christmas narrative, the Nativity of Jesus, delineated in the New Testament says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem, in accordance with messianic prophecies. When Joseph and Mary arrived in the city, the inn had no room and so they were offered a stable where the Christ Child was soon born, with angels proclaiming this news to shepherds who further disseminated the information.
Although the month and date of Jesus' birth are unknown, the church in the early fourth century fixed the date as December 25. This corresponds to the date of the solstice on the Roman calendar. Most Christians celebrate on December 25 in the Gregorian calendar, adopted universally in the civil calendars used in countries throughout the world. However, some Eastern Christian Churches celebrate Christmas on December 25 of the older Julian calendar, which corresponds to a January date in the Gregorian calendar. For Christians, the belief that God came into the world in the form of man to atone for the sins of humanity, rather than the exact birth date, is considered to be the primary purpose in celebrating Christmas; the celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, completing an Advent calendar or Advent wreath, Christmas music and caroling, lighting a Christingle, viewing a Nativity play, an exchange of Christmas cards, church services, a special meal, pulling Christmas crackers and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, wreaths and holly.
In addition, several related and interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses; the economic impact of Christmas has grown over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. "Christmas" is a shortened form of "Christ's mass". The word is recorded as Crīstesmæsse in 1038 and Cristes-messe in 1131. Crīst is from Greek Khrīstos, a translation of Hebrew Māšîaḥ, "Messiah", meaning "anointed"; the form Christenmas was historically used, but is now considered archaic and dialectal. Xmas is an abbreviation of Christmas found in print, based on the initial letter chi in Greek Khrīstos, "Christ", though numerous style guides discourage its use.
In addition to "Christmas", the holiday has been known by various other names throughout its history. The Anglo-Saxons referred to the feast as "midwinter", or, more as Nātiuiteð. "Nativity", meaning "birth", is from Latin nātīvitās. In Old English, Gēola referred to the period corresponding to December and January, equated with Christian Christmas. "Noel" entered English in the late 14th century and is from the Old French noël or naël, itself from the Latin nātālis meaning "birth". The gospels of Luke and Matthew describe Jesus as being born in Bethlehem to the Virgin Mary. In Luke and Mary travel from Nazareth to Bethlehem for the census, Jesus is born there and laid in a manger. Angels proclaimed him a savior for all people, shepherds came to adore him. Matthew adds that the magi follow a star to Bethlehem to bring gifts to Jesus, born the king of the Jews. King Herod orders the massacre of all the boys less than two years old in Bethlehem, but the family flees to Egypt and returns to Nazareth.
The nativity stories recounted in Matthew and Luke prompted early Christian writers to suggest various dates for the anniversary. Although no date is indicated in the gospels, early Christians connected Jesus to the Sun through the use of such phrases as "Sun of righteousness." The Romans marked the winter solstice on December 25. The first recorded Christmas celebration was in Rome on December 25, 336. Christmas played a role in the Arian controversy of the fourth century. After this controversy was played out, the prominence of the holiday declined; the feast regained prominence after 800. Associating it with drunkenness and other misbehavior, the Puritans banned Christmas during the Reformation, it remained disreputable. In the early 19th century, Christmas was reconceived by Washington Irving, Charles Dickens, other authors as a holiday emphasizing family, kind-heartedness, gift-giving, Santa Claus. Christmas does not appear on th
Long Beach Transit
Long Beach Transit is a municipal transit company providing fixed and flexible bus transit services in Long Beach, United States, in other communities in south and southeast Los Angeles County, northwestern Orange County. Long Beach Transit operates the Passport shuttle and Aqualink; the service, while operated on behalf of the City of Long Beach, is not operated directly by the city, but by a separate nonprofit corporation, the Long Beach Public Transportation Company, operated for that purpose. Long Beach Transit receives its operating revenue from farebox receipts and state tax revenue distributed by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Long Beach Transit began operation in 1963 with the acquisition of Long Beach City Lines and Long Beach Motor Bus Company from National City Lines; the primary service area of Long Beach Transit has been the city of Long Beach and to a limited extent the enclave city of Signal Hill, but it has provided service to surrounding communities in Los Angeles County, including Lakewood, Cerritos and Seal Beach in neighboring Orange County.
The company has operated various types of bus services. During the 1970s and 1980s, it ran small shuttle buses in the downtown area, called DASH, because the routes were shorter, the fare was lower than on the regular buses. Bus transfers could be obtained upon payment of $0.05 for local transfers, $0.10 for "interagency transfers", which allow transfer to another bus line without additional payment. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, instead of using a common transfer with the route number punched on the transfer, each route had its own transfer with the route number printed on them. For transfers to other bus lines, Long Beach Transit used the consolidated Los Angeles County interagency transfer, which every bus company in Los Angeles County except RTD and Orange County Transit District used; the consolidated interagency transfer used by all the other transit agencies had a check box naming the twelve bus companies in the county, the driver would punch the box for the particular agency that issued the transfer.
During the mid-1970s, for a period of six months, a special subsidy was available. All bus trips in Los Angeles County were reduced from $0.80 to $1.25, to $0.25 on weekdays and Saturdays, $0.10 on Sunday. As a result, the issuance of transfers was discontinued for all trips within Los Angeles County; when the subsidy ended, the old price returned and bus companies resumed issuing transfers. In the early 1980s, the company changed its transfer system. Instead of using books of transfers, every bus has a ticket printer, which issues the three types of transfers: regular transfers, which allow the user to transfer to a different route. In case of machine failure, operators would still carry one book of each kind of transfers. Effective in 1999, Long Beach Transit instituted a day pass, on July 1, 2005, it eliminated transfers within the system, although the interagency transfer is available for transfers to other transit systems. In addition to regular service, Long Beach Transit operates two seasonal water taxi services: the 49-passenger AquaBus, the 75-passenger AquaLink, which connects the major attractions of Downtown Long Beach, including the Aquarium of the Pacific, Long Beach Cruise Terminal, the RMS Queen Mary hotel.
The 49-passenger AquaBus has six "ports of call": Dock 4 of the Aquarium of the Pacific, Queen Mary, Shoreline Village at Parker's Lighthouse, Catalina Landing, Dock 7 of Pine Avenue Circle, Hotel Maya. The fare is $1; the AquaLink is a 68-foot catamaran that ferries up to 75 passengers to the most popular attractions in Long Beach Harbor and on to Alamitos Bay Landing. The fare is $5, wheelchair boarding is available at Dock 4 near the Aquarium of the Pacific and at the Queen Mary. Long Beach Transit operated its bus lines as a consecutive set of route numbers, from 1 to 18; the numbers had no significance except that route 1 ran along State Route 1, the Pacific Coast Highway. Some routes had more than one routing. All of the route 9 buses would continue along Bellflower Boulevard, whereupon one would terminate at Bellflower and Stearns Street. Due to the successful renumbering which RTD had done in 1983, Long Beach Transit decided to renumber its routes. In the mid-1980s, the company changed some of its route numbers, keeping the original 1- or 2-digit number and adding a single digit after the number.
This was done to routes which split and serviced multiple streets and d
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New Year's Day
New Year's Day simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar. In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is named; as a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church. In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is the most celebrated public holiday observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family. Mesopotamia instituted the concept of celebrating the new year in 2000 BC and celebrated new year around the time of the vernal equinox, in mid-March.
The early Roman calendar designated March 1 as the first day of the year. The calendar had just ten months, beginning with March; that the new year once began with the month of March is still reflected in some of the names of the months. September through December, our ninth through twelfth months, were positioned as the seventh through tenth months. Roman legend credited their second king Numa with the establishment of the months of Ianuarius and Februarius; these were first placed at the end of the year, but at some point came to be considered the first two months instead. The January Kalends came to be celebrated as the new year at some point after it became the day for the inaugurating new consuls in 153 BC. Romans had long dated their years by these consulships, rather than sequentially, making the kalends of January start the new year aligned this dating. Still and religious celebrations around the March new year continued for some time and there is no consensus on the question of the timing for January 1's new status.
Once it became the new year, however, it became a time for family celebrations. A series of disasters, notably including the failed rebellion of M. Aemilius Lepidus in 78 BC, established a superstition against allowing Rome's market days to fall on the kalends of January and the pontiffs employed intercalation to avoid its occurrence. In 567 AD, the Council of Tours formally abolished January 1 as the beginning of the year. At various times and in various places throughout medieval Christian Europe, the new year was celebrated on December 25 in honor of the birth of Jesus; these days were astronomically and astrologically significant since, at the time of the Julian reform, March 25 had been understood as the spring equinox and December 25 as the winter solstice. Medieval calendars nonetheless continued to display the months running from January to December, despite their readers reckoning the transition from one year to the next on a different day. Among the 7th century pagans of Flanders and the Netherlands, it was the custom to exchange gifts on the first day of the new year.
This custom was deplored by Saint Eligius, who warned the Flemish and Dutch: " make vetulas, little deer or iotticos or set tables at night or exchange New Year gifts or supply superfluous drinks." However, on the date that European Christians celebrated the New Year, they exchanged Christmas presents because New Year's Day fell within the twelve days of the Christmas season in the Western Christian liturgical calendar. Because of the leap year error in the Julian calendar, the date of Easter had drifted backward since the First Council of Nicaea decided the computation of the date of Easter in 325. By the sixteenth century, the drift from the observed equinox had become unacceptable. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII declared the Gregorian calendar used today, correcting the error by a deletion of 10 days; the Gregorian calendar reform restored January 1 as New Year's Day. Although most Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately, it was only adopted among Protestant countries; the British, for example, did not adopt the reformed calendar until 1752.
Until the British Empire – and its American colonies – still celebrated the new year on March 25. Most nations of Western Europe adopted January 1 as New Year's Day somewhat before they adopted the Gregorian Calendar. In Tudor England, New Year's Day, along with Christmas Day and Twelfth Night, was celebrated as one of three main festivities among the twelve days of Christmastide. There, until the adoption of the Gregorian Calendar in 1752, the first day of the new year was the Western Christian Feast of the Annunciation, on March 25 called "Lady Day". Dates predicated on the year beginning on March 25 became known as Annunciation Style dates, while dates of the Gregorian Calendar commencing on January 1 were distinguished as Circumcision Style dates, because this was the date of the Feast of the Circumcision, the observed memorial of the eighth day of Jesus Christ's l