Municipalities of Bolivia
Municipalities in Bolivia are administrative divisions of the entire national territory governed by local elections. Municipalities are the third level of administrative divisions, below provinces; some of the provinces consist of only one municipality. In these cases the municipalities are identical to the provinces. Municipalities in Bolivia are each led by an executive office. Mayors were appointed by the national government from 1878 to 1942 and from 1949 to 1987. Local elections were held under the 1942 municipal code, in force until 1991; the 1985 Organic Law of Municipalities restored local elections for mayor and created a legislative body, the municipal council. In 1994, the entire territory of Bolivia was merged into municipalities, where only urban areas were organized as municipalities; as an effect of decentralization through the 1994 Law of Popular Participation the number of municipalities in Bolivia has risen from an initial twenty-four to 327, to 337, to 339. Of the 327 municipalities existing after 2005, 187 are inhabited by indigenous population.
New municipalities must have 5,000 in the case of border areas. The municipalities are as follows ordered by department: Baures Municipality Exaltación Municipality Guayaramerín Municipality Huacaraje Municipality Loreto Municipality, Beni Magdalena Municipality, Beni Puerto Siles Municipality Reyes Municipality Riberalta Municipality Rurrenabaque Municipality San Andrés Municipality, Beni San Borja Municipality San Ignacio Municipality, Beni San Javier Municipality, Beni San Joaquín Municipality, Beni San Ramón Municipality, Beni Santa Ana Municipality, Beni Santa Rosa Municipality, Beni Trinidad Municipality, Beni Aiquile Municipality Alalay Municipality Anzaldo Municipality Arani Municipality Arbieto Municipality Arque Municipality Ayopaya Municipality Bolívar Municipality, Cochabamba Capinota Municipality Chimoré Municipality Cliza Municipality Cocapata Municipality Cochabamba Municipality Colcapirhua Municipality Colomi Municipality Cuchumuela Municipality Entre Ríos Municipality, Cochabamba Mizque Municipality Morochata Municipality Muela Municipality Omereque Municipality Pasorapa Municipality Pocona Municipality Pojo Municipality Puerto Villarroel Municipality Punata Municipality Quillacollo Municipality Sacaba Municipality Sacabamba Municipality San Benito Municipality Santivañez Municipality Shinahota Municipality / Shinaota Municipality / Sinahota Municipality Sicaya Municipality Sipe Sipe Municipality Tacachi Municipality Tacopaya Municipality Tapacarí Municipality Tarata Municipality Tiquipaya Municipality Tiraque Municipality Toco Municipality Tolata Municipality Totora Municipality Tunari Municipality Vacas Municipality Vila Vila Municipality Vinto Municipality Azurduy Municipality Camargo Municipality, Chuquisaca Culpina Municipality El Villar Municipality Huacareta Municipality Huacaya Municipality Icla Municipality Incahuasi Municipality Mojocoya Municipality Camataqui Municipality Las Carreras Municipality Macharetí Municipality Monteagudo Municipality Padilla Municipality Poroma Municipality Presto Municipality San Lucas Municipality Sopachuy Municipality Sucre Municipality, Bolivia Tarabuco Municipality Tomina Municipality Villa Alcalá Municipality Villa Charcas Municipality Villa Serrano Municipality Villa Vaca Guzmán Municipality Villa Zudañez Municipality Tarvita Municipality Yotala Municipality Yamparáez Municipality Achacachi Municipality Achocalla Municipality Alto Beni Municipality Ancoraimes Municipality Apolo Municipality Aucapata Municipality Ayata Municipality Ayo Ayo Municipality Batallas Municipality Cairoma Municipality Cajuata Municipality Calacoto Municipality Calamarca Municipality Caquiaviri Municipality Caranavi Municipality Catacora Municipality Chacarilla Municipality Charaña Municipality Chúa Cocani Municipality Chulumani Municipality Chuma Municipality Collana Municipality Colquencha Municipality Colquiri Municipality Comanche Municipality Combaya Municipality Copacabana Municipality, La Paz Coripata Municipality Coro Coro Municipality Coroico Municipality Curva Municipality Desaguadero Municipality El Alto Municipality, La Paz Escoma Municipality General Juan José Pérez Municipality Guanay Municipality Guaqui Municipality Huatajata Municipality Huarina Municipality Humanata Municipality Ichoca Municipality Inquisivi Municipality Irupana Municipality Ixiamas Municipality La Asunta Municipality La Paz Municipality Laja Municipality Licoma Pampa Municipality Luribay Municipality Malla Municipality Mecapaca Municipality Mocomoco Municipality Nazacara de Pacajes Municipality Palca Municipality Palos Blancos Municipality Papel Pampa Municipality Patacamaya Municipality Pelechuco Municipality Pucarani Municipality Puerto Acosta Municipality Puerto Carabuco Municipality Puerto Pérez Municipality Quiabaya Municipality Quime Municipality San Buenaventura Municipality, La Paz San Pedro de Curahuara Municipality San Pedro de Tiquina Municipality Santiago de Callapa Municipality Santiago de Huata Municipality Santiago de Machaca Municipality Sapahaqui Municipality Sica Sica Municipality Sorata Municipality Tacacoma Municipality Tiwanaku Municipality Tipuani Municipality Tito Yupanqui Municipality Umala Municipality Viacha Municipality Waldo Ballivián Municipality Yaco Municipality Yanacachi Municipality Andamarca Municipality Antequera Municipality Belén de Andamarca Municipality Caracollo Municipality Carangas Municipality Challapata Municipality Chipaya Municipality Choquecota Municipality Coipasa Municipality Corque Municipality Cruz de Machacamarca Municipality Curahuara de Carangas Municipality El Choro Municipalit
Bolivia the Plurinational State of Bolivia is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. The capital is Sucre; the largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales a flat region in the east of Bolivia. The sovereign state of Bolivia is a constitutionally unitary state, divided into nine departments, its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands, situated within the Amazon Basin. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is within the Andean mountain range. With 1,098,581 km2 of area, Bolivia is the fifth largest country in South America, the 27th largest in the world and the largest landlocked country in the Southern Hemisphere; the country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans and Africans.
The racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most spoken are Guarani and Quechua languages. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes. Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. Spain built its empire in large part upon the silver, extracted from Bolivia's mines. After the first call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar. Over the course of the 19th and early 20th century Bolivia lost control of several peripheral territories to neighboring countries including the seizure of its coastline by Chile in 1879.
Bolivia remained politically stable until 1971, when Hugo Banzer led a coup d'état which replaced the socialist government of Juan José Torres with a military dictatorship headed by Banzer. Banzer's regime cracked down on leftist and socialist opposition and other forms of dissent, resulting in the torture and deaths of a number of Bolivian citizens. Banzer was ousted in 1978 and returned as the democratically elected president of Bolivia from 1997 to 2001. Modern Bolivia is a charter member of the UN, IMF, NAM, OAS, ACTO, Bank of the South, ALBA and USAN. For over a decade Bolivia has had one of the highest economic growth rates in Latin America, it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index, a poverty level of 38.6%, one of the lowest crime rates in Latin America. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing goods such as textiles, refined metals, refined petroleum. Bolivia is rich in minerals, including tin and lithium. Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a Venezuelan leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The leader of Venezuela, Antonio José de Sucre, had been given the option by Bolívar to either unite Charcas with the newly formed Republic of Peru, to unite with the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, or to formally declare its independence from Spain as a wholly independent state. Sucre opted to create a brand new state and on 6 August 1825, with local support, named it in honor of Simón Bolívar; the original name was Republic of Bolívar. Some days congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed: "If from Romulus comes Rome from Bolívar comes Bolivia"; the name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825. In 2009, a new constitution changed the country's official name to "Plurinational State of Bolivia" in recognition of the multi-ethnic nature of the country and the enhanced position of Bolivia's indigenous peoples under the new constitution; the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, in Western Bolivia.
The capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD 600 and AD 800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes. According to early estimates, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers at its maximum extent and had between 15,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. In 1996 satellite imaging was used to map the extent of fossilized suka kollus across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people. Around AD 400, Tiwanaku went from being a locally dominant force to a predatory state. Tiwanaku expanded its reaches into the Yungas and brought its culture and way of life to many other cultures in Peru and Chile. Tiwanaku was not a violent culture in many respects. In order to expand its reach, Tiwanaku exercised great political astuteness, creating colonies, fostering trade agree
The soybean, or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein, are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes; the beans contain significant amounts of dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste and tempeh. "Soy" originated as a corruption of the Japanese names for soy sauce. The etymology of the genus, comes from Linnaeus; when naming the genus, Linnaeus observed that one of the species within the species had a sweet root. Based on the sweetness, the Greek word for sweet, glykós, was Latinized; the genus name is not related to the amino acid glycine.
The genus Glycine Willd. is divided into two subgenera and Soja. The subgenus Soja F. J. Herm. Includes the cultivated soybean, Glycine max Merr. and the wild soybean, Glycine soja Sieb. & Zucc. Both species are annuals. Glycine soja is the wild ancestor of Glycine max, grows wild in China, Japan and Russia; the subgenus Glycine consists of at least 25 wild perennial species: for example, Glycine canescens F. J. Herm. and G. tomentella Hayata, both found in Australia and Papua New Guinea. Perennial soybean is now a widespread pasture crop in the tropics. Like some other crops of long domestication, the relationship of the modern soybean to wild-growing species can no longer be traced with any degree of certainty, it is a cultural variety with a large number of cultivars. Like most plants, soybeans grow in distinct morphological stages as they develop from seeds into mature plants; the first stage of growth is germination, a method which first becomes apparent as a seed's radicle emerges. This is the first stage of root growth and occurs within the first 48 hours under ideal growing conditions.
The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the soil. These cotyledons both act as leaves and as a source of nutrients for the immature plant, providing the seedling nutrition for its first 7 to 10 days; the first true leaves develop as a pair of single blades. Subsequent to this first pair, mature nodes form compound leaves with three blades. Mature trifoliolate leaves, having three to four leaflets per leaf, are between 6–15 cm long and 2–7 cm broad. Under ideal conditions, stem growth continues. Before flowering, roots can grow 1.9 cm per day. If rhizobia are present, root nodulation begins by the time. Nodulation continues for 8 weeks before the symbiotic infection process stabilizes; the final characteristics of a soybean plant are variable, with factors such as genetics, soil quality, climate affecting its form. Flowering is triggered by day length beginning once days become shorter than 12.8 hours. This trait is variable however, with different varieties reacting differently to changing day length.
Soybeans form inconspicuous, self-fertile flowers which are borne in the axil of the leaf and are white, pink or purple. Depending of the soybean variety, node growth may cease. Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer growing seasons. Soybeans drop their leaves before the seeds are mature; the fruit is a hairy pod that grows in clusters of three to five, each pod is 3–8 cm long and contains two to four seeds 5–11 mm in diameter. Soybean seeds come in a wide variety sizes and hull colors such as black, brown and green. Variegated and bicolored seed coats are common; the hull of the mature bean is hard, water-resistant, protects the cotyledon and hypocotyl from damage. If the seed coat is cracked, the seed will not germinate; the scar, visible on the seed coat, is called the hilum and at one end of the hilum is the micropyle, or small opening in the seed coat which can allow the absorption of water for sprouting.
Some seeds such as soybeans containing high levels of protein can undergo desiccation, yet survive and revive after water absorption. A. Carl Leopold began studying this capability at the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research at Cornell University in the mid-1980s, he found soybeans and corn to have a range of soluble carbohydrates protecting the seed's cell viability. Patents were awarded to him in the early 1990s on techniques for protecting biological membranes and proteins in the dry state. Like many legumes, soybeans can fix atmospheric nitrogen, thanks to symbiotic bacteria from the Rhizobia group. Together and soybean oil content account for 56% of dry soybeans by weight; the remainder consists of 9 % water and 5 % ash. Soybeans comprise 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. 100 grams of raw soybeans supply 446 calories and are 9% water, 30% carbohydrates, 20% total fat and 36% p
Provinces of Bolivia
A province is the second largest administrative division in Bolivia, after a department. Each department is divided into provinces. There are 112 provinces; the country's provinces are further divided into 337 municipalities which are administered by an alcalde and municipal council. Departments of Bolivia Municipalities of Bolivia Instituto Nacional de Estadística - Bolivia
Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Santa Cruz de la Sierra known as Santa Cruz, is the largest city in Bolivia and the capital of the Santa Cruz department. Situated on the Pirai River in the eastern Tropical Lowlands of Bolivia, the city of Santa Cruz and its metropolitan area are home to over 70% of the population of the department and it is one of the fastest-growing cities in the world; the city was first founded in 1561 by Spanish explorer Ñuflo de Chavez about 200 km east of its current location, was moved several times until it was established on the Pirai River in the late 16th century. For much of its history, Santa Cruz was a small outpost town, after Bolivia gained its independence in 1825 there was little attention from the authorities or the population in general to settle the region, it was not until after the middle of the 20th century with profound agrarian and land reforms that the city began to grow at a fast pace. The city is Bolivia's most populous, produces nearly 35% of Bolivia's gross domestic product, receives over 40% of all foreign direct investment in the country.
This has helped make Santa Cruz the most important business center in Bolivia and the preferred destination of migrants from all over the country. Like much of the history of the people of the region, the history of the area before the arrival of European explorers is not well documented because of the somewhat nomadic nature and the absence of a written language in the culture of the local tribes. However, recent data suggests that the current location of the city of Santa Cruz was inhabited by an Arawak tribe that came to be known by the Spanish as Chané. Remains of ceramics and weapons have been found in the area, leading researchers to believe they had established settlements in the area. Among the few known facts of these tribes, according to accounts of the first Spanish explorers that came into contact with the Chané, are that they had a formal leader, a cacique, called Grigota for several years but his reign came to an end after one of the several Guarani incursions in the area; the first Europeans to set foot in the area were Spanish conquistadores from the created Governorate of New Andalusia that encompassed the territories of present-day Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.
In 1549, Captain General Domingo Martinez de Irala became the first Spaniard to explore the region, but it was not until 1558 that Ñuflo de Chaves, who had arrived in Asuncion in 1541 with Alvar Nuñez/Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, led a new expedition with the objective of settling the region. After discovering that a new expedition from Asuncion was underway, he traveled to Lima and persuaded the Viceroy to create a new province and grant him the title of governor on February 15, 1560. Upon returning from Lima, Chaves founded the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra on February 26, 1561, 220 km east of its present-day location, to function as the capital of the newly formed province of Moxos and Chaves; the settlement was named after Chaves's home town in Extremadura, where he grew up before venturing to America. Shortly after the founding, attacks from local tribes became commonplace and Ñuflo de Chaves was killed in 1568 by Itatine natives. After Chaves's death, the conflicts with the local population as well as power struggles in the settlement forced the authorities in Peru to order the new governor, Lorenzo Suarez de Figueroa to relocate the city to the west.
Many of the inhabitants, chose to stay behind and continued living in the original location. On September 13, 1590 the city was moved to the banks of the Guapay Empero river and renamed San Lorenzo de la Frontera; the conditions proved to be more severe at the new location forcing the settlers to relocate once again on May 21, 1595. Although this was the final relocation of the city, the name San Lorenzo continued to be used until the early 17th century, when the settlers who remained behind in Santa Cruz de la Sierra were convinced by the colonial authorities to move to San Lorenzo. After they moved the city was consolidated in 1622 and took its original name of Santa Cruz de la Sierra given by Ñuflo de Chaves over 60 years before. Remnants of the original settlement can be visited in Santa Cruz la Vieja, an archaeological site south of San José de Iquitos. Over the next 200 years, several tribes were either incorporated under Spanish control or defeated by force; the city became an important staging point for Jesuit Missions to Chiquitos and Moxos, leading to the conversion of thousands of Guaranies, Moxeños, Chiquitanos and Chiriguanos that became part of the racially mixed population of the modern Santa Cruz, Beni and Tarija departaments of Bolivia.
Another important role the small town played in the region for the Spanish Empire was to contain the incursions of Portuguese Bandeirantes, many of which were repelled by the use of force over the years. The efforts for consolidating the borders of the Empire were not overlooked by the authorities in Lima, who granted the province a great degree of autonomy; the province was ruled by a Captain General based in Santa Cruz, and, in turn, the city government was administered by two mayors and a council of four people. Citizens of Santa Cruz were exempt from all imperial taxes and the mita system used in the rest of the Viceroyalty of Peru was not practiced. However, in spite of its strategic importance, the city did not grow much in colonial times. Most of the economic activity was centered in the mining centers of the west and the main source of income of the city was agriculture. Animosity towards imperial author
The Celsius scale known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units. As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries except the United States, the Bahamas, the Cayman Islands and Liberia, it is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius. The degree Celsius can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale or a unit to indicate a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty. Before being renamed to honor Anders Celsius in 1948, the unit was called centigrade, from the Latin centum, which means 100, gradus, which means steps. From 1743, the Celsius scale is based on 0 °C for the freezing point of water and 100 °C for the boiling point of water at 1 atm pressure. Prior to 1743, the scale was based on the boiling and melting points of water, but the values were reversed; the 1743 scale reversal was proposed by Jean-Pierre Christin. By international agreement, since 1954 the unit degree Celsius and the Celsius scale are defined by absolute zero and the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water, a specially purified water.
This definition precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature with symbol K. Absolute zero, the lowest temperature possible, is defined as being 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature of the triple point of water is defined as 273.16 K. This means that a temperature difference of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin are the same. On 20 May 2019, the kelvin, along with it the degree Celsius, will be redefined so that its value will be determined by definition of the Boltzmann constant. In 1742, Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius created a temperature scale, the reverse of the scale now known as "Celsius": 0 represented the boiling point of water, while 100 represented the freezing point of water. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that the melting point of ice is unaffected by pressure, he determined with remarkable precision how the boiling point of water varied as a function of atmospheric pressure.
He proposed that the zero point of his temperature scale, being the boiling point, would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at mean sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere; the BIPM's 10th General Conference on Weights and Measures defined one standard atmosphere to equal 1,013,250 dynes per square centimetre. In 1743, the Lyonnais physicist Jean-Pierre Christin, permanent secretary of the Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de LyonAcadémie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Lyon, working independently of Celsius, developed a scale where zero represented the freezing point of water and 100 represented the boiling point of water. On 19 May 1743 he published the design of a mercury thermometer, the "Thermometer of Lyon" built by the craftsman Pierre Casati that used this scale. In 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus reversed Celsius's scale, his custom-made "linnaeus-thermometer", for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden's leading maker of scientific instruments at the time, whose workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory.
As happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale. The first known Swedish document reporting temperatures in this modern "forward" Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér. In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the University of Uppsala Botanical Garden:...since the caldarium by the angle of the windows from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat that the thermometer reaches 30 degrees, although the keen gardener takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25 degrees, in winter not under 15 degrees... Since the 19th century, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide have used the phrase "centigrade scale". Temperatures on the centigrade scale were reported as degrees or, when greater specificity was desired, as degrees centigrade; because the term centigrade was the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term centesimal degree was used when precise, unambiguous language was required by international standards bodies such as the BIPM.
More properly, what was defined as "centigrade" would now be "hectograde". To eliminate any confusion, the 9th CGPM and the CIPM formally adopted "degree Celsius" in 1948, formally keeping the recognized degree symbol, rather than adopting the gradian/centesimal degree symbol. For scientific use, "Celsius" is the term used, with "centigrade" remaining in common but decreasing use in informal contexts in English-speaking countries, it was not until February 1985 that the weather forecasts issued by
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval