The Barberini are a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome. Their influence peaked with the election of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini to the papal throne in 1623, as Pope Urban VIII, their urban palace, the Palazzo Barberini, today houses Italy's Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica. The Barberini family were a family of minor nobility from the Tuscan town of Barberino Val d'Elsa, who settled in Florence during the early part of the 11th century. Carlo Barberini and his brother Antonio Barberini were successful Florentine grain and textile merchants. In 1530 Antonio participated in the defense of the Florentine Republic but after the capture of the city by Imperial troops, the return to power of the Medici, Antonio grew weary of Medici rule and left Florence in 1537 to oversee Barberini business in Rome. In 1552, Carlo's son Francesco followed his uncle to business flourished. Francesco became a rich man and bought a number of high offices within government and the Catholic church.
In 1559, his uncle Antonio was murdered by forces loyal to the Medici. Francesco continued to build his fortune and amass titles until his death in 1600. Ordinarily his estate would have been "fined" by the Camera Apostolica for operating a business while holding church office but his relatives appealed to the head of the organization Francesco had, once directed; the continuation of Barberini business fell to his nephews including Maffeo Barberini. The Barberini acquired great wealth and influence when Cardinal Maffeo Barberini was elected to the papal throne in 1623, taking the name Pope Urban VIII, he elevated a brother Antonio Marcello Barberini and two nephews, Francesco Barberini and Antonio Barberini, to the cardinalate. He made another brother Duke of Monterotondo, gave a third nephew, Taddeo Barberini, the principality of Palestrina. Taddeo was made Gonfalonier of the Church, Prefect of Rome and Commander of Sant'Angelo; the ecclesiastical and cultural accomplishments of Urban's reign were overshadowed by the nepotism the pope practised.
Urban's contemporary, John Bargrave, wrote: Likewise, the War of Castro, toward the end of Urban's papacy, sullied Urban's reputation and the popularity of those family members who survived him. It is estimated that during the course of Urban's reign, the Barberini amassed 105 million scudi in personal wealth; when the pope removed the ancient bronze beams from the portico of the Pantheon to procure bronze for the baldachin of St. Peter's Basilica and for the papal cannon foundry, an anonymous critic punningly wrote: This translates to "What the barbarians did not do, the Barberini did"; the pope erected a tablet proudly proclaiming his re-use of these hidden beams for the glory and defense of the church. The Barberini participated extensively in the First War of Castro; the conflict began when Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza, visited Rome and insulted the pope's nephews by suggesting the brothers were too young to manage the Pope's affairs. The war produced no clear victor, Pope Urban died in 1644, only months after a peace accord was signed.
Despite Urban's appointment of a number of relatives as cardinals, the College of Cardinals elected Pope Innocent X of the Pamphili family. Innocent X launched an investigation into the conduct of various members of the Barberini family during the wars; the three nephews who had risen to prominence under their uncle Pope Urban VIII, cardinals Antonio and Francesco and Prince Taddeo were forced into exile and fled to Paris under the protection of Cardinal Mazarin. Antonio and Taddeo left first, by sea, but not before hanging the French coat of arms above the door of the Palazzo Barberini to confirm they were under the protection of France. Francesco joined his brothers soon after. Taddeo's wife, Anna Colonna joined her husband and children in Paris but not before making a passionate appeal to the Pope, urging him not to strip the Barberini of their assets; the Pope agreed and, though he paid some debts out of the Barberini estate, left the Barberini alone. In Paris they relied on the hospitality of Louis XIV, King of France, until 1653 when most of the family returned to Rome.
Though Taddeo died in exile in 1647, his brothers reconciled with the papacy through the marriage of Taddeo's younger son Maffeo with Olimpia Giustiniani, a niece of Pope Innocent. Maffeo was given that of Prince of Palestrina. Taddeo's older son Carlo Barberini was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent X. Taddeo's daughter, Lucrezia Barberini, married Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena, further stabilizing relations; the 1627 marriage of Taddeo Barberini and Anna Colonna, daughter of Filippo I Colonna began the century-long process which would see the Barberini merge with the Colonna family. In 1728, the Carbognano branch of the Colonna family added the name Barberini to its family name when Giulio Cesare Colonna di Sciarra married Cornelia Barberini, daughter of Urbano Barberini, the last legitimate male Barberini heir. Though Urbano's wives bore him no legitimate male heirs, Urbano fathered a son, Maffeo Callisto Barberini in 1688 prior to any one of his three marriages; the will of Urbano Barberini's last wife, Maria Teresa Boncompagni, makes mention of this Maffeo Callisto as the Marquis of Corese.
A large portion of the Barberini estate was left for him in her will. Her progeny came into conflict with his over claims to the Barberini estate but the quarrel was settled with
Bracciano is a small town in the Italian region of Lazio, 30 kilometres northwest of Rome. The town is famous for its volcanic lake and for a well-preserved medieval castle Castello Orsini-Odescalchi; the lake is used for sailing and is popular with tourists. The town is served by an urban railway. Close to it lie the two medieval towns of Trevignano Romano. There is no certain information about the origins of Bracciano, on the Via Cassia overlooking the lake, it rose from one of the numerous towers built in the tenth century as a defence against the Saracen attacks, as implied by the ancient name of Castrum Brachiani. In the eleventh century the neighbouring territory was acquired by the Prefetti di Vico family, who turned the tower into a castle. Ferdinand Gregorovius dated the possession of Bracciano by the Orsini to 1234; the area was acquired by the Roman hospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia and, from 1375, was a Papal possession. In 1419 the Colonna Pope Martin V confirmed the fief of Bracciano in the Orsini family branch of Tagliacozzo.
Under this powerful family the city developed into a flourishing town, famous in the whole of Italy for its castle, enlarged, starting from 1470, by Napoleone Orsini and his son Virginio. In 1481 it housed Pope Sixtus IV. Four years however, the city and the castle were ravaged by Papal troops under Prospero Colonna, subsequently a new line of walls was built. In 1494 Charles VIII of France and his troops marching against Rome stopped at Bracciano; this act led to the excommunication of the Orsini, in 1496 the city was besieged by a papal army headed by Giovanni di Candia, son of Pope Alexander VI Borgia, though it resisted successfully. Cesare Borgia, another of Alexander's natural sons, was unsuccessful in his attempt to take the Orsini stronghold a few years later; the sixteenth century was a period of splendour for Bracciano. The notorious spendthrift and libertine Paolo Giordano I Orsini, having married in 1558 Isabella de' Medici, daughter of Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany, received the title of duke of Bracciano in 1560.
The castello received some modernization for the brief visit of the Medici that year. He hired the most prestigious painter available in Rome, Taddeo Zuccaro, to fresco with allegories and coats-of-arms the fortress's most prestigious room, the Sala Papalinia, occupied by Sixtus IV. Isabella spent the remainder of her life avoiding a return to the castle, which a modern tourist tradition would have her haunting; the economy was boosted by the exploitation of sulphur and iron, the production of tapestries and paper. The latter was favoured by the construction of an aqueduct whose ruins can still be seen in the city. Bracciano in this period had some 4,500 inhabitants. However, the expensive tenor of life of the Orsini damaged the economic conditions of the city; the last great ruler was Paolo Giordano II, a patron of arts and literature who made Bracciano a center of culture in Italy. The decline culminated in 1696 when the castle was sold to Livio Odescalchi, nephew of Pope Innocent XI. In the castle, richly frescoed friezes and ceilings now contrast with blank walls, which were hung with richly coloured tapestries when the lords of Bracciano were in residence.
The important late-15th century frieze showing the labours of Hercules is still visible. The main economic activities are tourism and agriculture; until the twentieth century the region was notoriously unhealthy for its malaria, now eradicated. The main monument of Bracciano is its castle, Castello Orsini-Odescalchi, one of the most noteworthy examples of Renaissance military architecture in Italy. 3 km outside the city, alongside the road leading to Trevignano Romano, is the ancient church of San Liberato. It occupies what was once the Roman settlement of Forum Clodii, now surrounded by an herb garden, part of the complex of English-style gardens at the adjoining Villa San Librato, designed by Russell Page in 1965 for the art historian conte Donato Sanminatelli and his contessa, Maria Odescalchi, carried out over the following decade. On the same road are the ruins of the Aquae Apollinaris, a complex of baths famous in the Roman age. At Vigna di Valle, next to the lake, the former seaplane base today houses the Italian Air Force Museum.
The museum's four hangars hold a number of historical military aircraft, including famous planes such as the MC. 202, the Supermarine Spitfire, the Savoia Marchetti S.79, the F-104 Starfighter, the Caproni Ca.100 and the Panavia Tornado. On view is a remarkable collection of three Schneider Cup racers, including the Macchi M. C.72. The museum stages an annual'Giornata Azzura' airshow at Pratica di Mare airport; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Csa". Bracciano is twinned with Neusäß, Germany Châtenay-Malabry, France Medici: Masters of Florence TV series. Orsini Lake of Bracciano Tourist Information Castello Orsini-Odescalchi Roberto Piperno, "Bracciano" Bracciano historical database
The Sabines were an Italic people that lived in the central Apennine Mountains of ancient Italy inhabiting Latium north of the Anio before the founding of Rome. The Sabines divided into two populations just after the founding of Rome, described by Roman legend; the division, however it came about, is not legendary. The population closer to Rome transplanted itself to the new city and united with the preexisting citizenry, beginning a new heritage that descended from the Sabines but was Latinized; the second population remained a mountain tribal state, coming to war against Rome for its independence along with all the other Italic tribes. After losing, it became assimilated into the Roman Republic. There is little record of the Sabine language. There are personal names in use on Latin inscriptions from the Sabine country, but these are given in Latin form. Robert Seymour Conway, in his Italic Dialects, gives 100 words which vary from being well attested as Sabine to being of Sabine origin. In addition to these he cites place names derived from the Sabine, sometimes giving attempts at reconstructions of the Sabine form.
Based on all the evidence, the Linguist List tentatively classifies Sabine as a member of the Umbrian Group of Italic languages of the Indo-European family. Latin-speakers called the Sabines' original territory, straddling the modern regions of Lazio and Abruzzo, Sabinium. To this day, it bears the ancient tribe's name in the Italian form of Sabina. Within the modern region of Lazio, Sabina constitutes a sub-region, situated north-east of Rome, around Rieti. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, many Roman historians regarded the origins of indigenous Romans to be Greek though their knowledge was derived from Greek legendary accounts. Dionysius regarded Lista as the mother-city of the Aborigines. Ancient historians debated the specific origins of the Sabines. Zenodotus of Troezen claimed that the Sabines were Umbrians that changed their name after being driven from the Reatine territory by the Pelasgians. However, Porcius Cato argued that the Sabines were a populace named after the son of Sancus.
In another account mentioned in Dionysius's work, a group of Lacedaemonians fled Sparta since they regarded the laws of Lycurgus as too severe. In Italy, they founded the Spartan colony of Foronia and some from that colony settled among the Sabines. According to the account, the Sabine habits of belligerence and frugality were known to have derived from the Spartans. Plutarch mentions, in the Life of Numa Pompilius, "Sabines, who declare themselves to be a colony of the Lacedaemonians". Legend says; the resultant war ended only by the women throwing themselves and their children between the armies of their fathers and their husbands. The Rape of the Sabine Women became a common motif in art. According to Livy, after the conflict, the Sabine and Roman states merged, the Sabine king Titus Tatius jointly ruled Rome with Romulus until Tatius' death five years later. Three new centuries of Equites were introduced at Rome, including one named Tatienses, after the Sabine king. A variation of the story is recounted in the pseudepigraphal Sefer haYashar.
Tradition suggests that the population of the early Roman kingdom was the result of a union of Sabines and others. Some of the gentes of the Roman republic were proud of their Sabine heritage, such as the Claudia gens, assuming Sabinus as a cognomen or agnomen; some Sabine deities and cults were known at Rome: Semo Sancus and Quirinus, at least one area of the town, the Quirinale, where the temples to those latter deities were located, had once been a Sabine centre. The extravagant claims of Varro and Cicero that augury, divination by dreams and the worship of Minerva and Mars originated with the Sabines are disputable, as they were general Italic and Latin customs, as well as Etruscan though they were espoused by Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome and a Sabine. Titus Tatius, legendary King of the Sabines Numa Pompilius, legendary King of Rome Ancus Marcius, legendary King of Rome Quintus Sertorius, republican general Attius Clausus, founder of the Roman Claudia gens Gaius Sallustius Crispus, Roman writer Marcus Terentius Varro, Roman scholar Dius Fidius Feronia Ops Quirinus Sabus Sancus Soranus Vacuna Varro's list of Sabine gods During the expansion of ancient Rome, there were a series of conflicts with the Sabines.
Manius Curius Dentatus conquered the Sabines in 290 BC. The citizenship without the right of suffrage was given to the Sabines in the same year; the right of suffrage was granted to the Sabines in 268 BC. Ancient peoples of Italy Hostus Hostilius Ovid, Fasti Ovid, Ars Amatoria Livy, Ab urbe condita Cicero, De Republica Plutarch, Parallel Lives Juvenal, Satires Donaldson, John William. "Chapter IV: The Sabello-Oscan Language". Varronianus: a critical and historical introduction to the ethnography of ancient Italy and the philological study of the Latin language. London: John W. Parker and Son. Brown, Robert. "Livy's Sabine Women and the Ideal of Concordia." Transactions of the American Philological Association 125: 291-319
The Orsini family is an Italian noble family, one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and Renaissance Rome. Members of the Orsini family include three popes: Celestine III, Nicholas III, Benedict XIII. In addition, the family membership includes 34 cardinals, numerous condottieri, other significant political and religious figures. According to their family legend, the Orsini are descended from the Julio-Claudian dynasty of ancient Rome; the Orsini carried on a political feud with the Colonna family for centuries in Rome, until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511. In 1571, the heads of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V; the Orsini were related to the Bobone family existing in Rome in the 11th century. The first members used the surname of Bobone-Orsini; the first known family member is one Bobone, in the early 11th century, father of Pietro, in turn father of Giacinto Bobone, who in 1191 became pope as Celestine III. One of the first great nepotist popes, he made two of his nephews cardinals and allowed his cousin Giovanni Gaetano to buy the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza and Nettuno, which formed the nucleus of the future territorial power of the family.
The Bobone surname was lost with his children. Two of them and Matteo Rosso the Great increased the prestige of the family; the former was the founder of the first southern line, which disappeared with Camillo Pardo in 1553. He obtained the city of Manoppello a countship, was gonfaloniere of the Papal States. Matteo Rosso, called the Great, was the effective lord of Rome from 1241, when he defeated the Imperial troops, to 1243, holding the title of Senator. Two of his sons, Napoleone, were Senators. Matteo ousted the traditional rivals, the Colonna family, from Rome and extended the Orsini territories southwards up to Avellino and northwards to Pitigliano. During his life, the family entered in the Guelph party, he had some ten sons, who divided the fiefs after his deaths: Gentile originated the Pitigliano line and the second southern line, Rinaldo that of Monterotondo, Napoleone that of Bracciano, another Matteo Rosso that of Montegiordano, from the name of the district in Rome housing the family's fortress.
The most distinguished of his sons was Giovanni Gaetano: elected pope as Nicholas III, he named his nephew Bertoldo as count of Romagna, had two nephews and a brother created cardinals. The rise of the Orsini did not stop after Nicholas' death. Bertoldo's son, Gentile II, was two times Senator of Rome, podestà of Viterbo and, from 1314, Gran Giustiziere of the Kingdom of Naples, he married Clarice Ruffo, daughter of the counts of Catanzaro, forming an alliance of the most powerful Calabrian dynasty. His son Romano, called Romanello, was Royal Vicar of Rome in 1326, inherited the countship of Soana through his marriage with Anastasia de Montfort, Countess of Nola. Romano's stance was markedly Guelph. After his death, his two sons divided his fiefs, forming the Pitigliano and the second southern line. Roberto, Gentile II's grandson, married Sibilla del Balzo, daughter of the Great Senechal of the Kingdom of Naples. Among his sons, Giacomo was created cardinal by Gregory XI in 1371, while Nicola obtained the counties of Ariano and Celano.
The latter was Senator of Rome and enlarged the family territories in Lazio and Tuscany. His second son, Raimondello Orsini del Balzo, supported Charles III' coup d'état in Naples against Queen Joan I. Under king Ladislaus he was among the few Neapolitan feudataries who were able to maintain their territorial power after the royal war against them. However, at his death in 1406 the southern Orsini fiefs were confiscated. Relationships with the royal family remained cold under Joan II; the links with the court increased further under Sergianni Caracciolo, Joan's lover and Great Senechal. A younger brother of Giannantonio married one of Sergianni's daughters. However, the Orsini changed side when Alfonso V of Aragon started his conquest of the Kingdom of Naples. Giannantonio was awarded with the duchy of Bari, the position of Great Connestable and an appanage of 100,000 ducati. Giannantonio remained faithful to Alfonso's heir, Ferdinand I, but was killed during a revolt of nobles. Having died without legitimate sons, much of his possessions were absorbed into the Royal Chamber.
This line was initiated by Guido Orsini, second son of Romano, who inherited the county of Soana, on the western side of Lake Bolsena in southern Tuscany. He and his descendants ruled over the fiefs of Soana and Nola, but in the early 15th century wars against the Republic of Siena and the Colonnas caused the loss of several territories. Bertoldo managed to keep only Pitigliano, while his grandson Orso was count of Nola and fought as condottiere under the Duke of Milan and the Republic of Venice, he entered the service of Ferdinand I of Naples, not having taken part in the Barons' conspiracy, he was rewarded with the fiefs of Ascoli and Atripalda. He was killed at the siege of Viterbo; the most outstanding member of the Pitigliano line was Niccolò, one of the major condottiere of the time. His son Ludovico and his nephew Enrico (died 1528
Bellegra is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in the Lazio region of central Italy. Its original name had been Civitella; the town council changed that name to its current one in 1880, out of the belief that the town lay on the site of an ancient town called Belecre from the Latin bella aegra
Canale Monterano is a comune, former bishopric and Latin titular see in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in the central Italian region of Lazio. Canale Monterano, located about 40 kilometres northwest of Rome, borders the following municipalities: Blera, Oriolo Romano and Vejano. Giardini Botanici di Stigliano Ruins of the former village of Monterano, set on fire, together with its population, by the French Republican army at the end of the 18th century, it included the church of San Bonaventura and a baroque fountain with a lion statue designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Remains of Roman aqueduct Official website
Arcinazzo Romano is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 50 kilometres east of Rome. Arcinazzo Romano borders the following municipalities: Affile, Piglio, Serrone, Trevi nel Lazio, it was called Ponza until 1891. The area of Arcinazzo includes a popular holiday resort. Official website