Sierra de la Virgen
Sierra de la Virgen is a mountain range in the Aranda and Comunidad de Calatayud comarcas, Spain. It is located south of the Moncayo Massif between the valleys of the Jalón and the Aranda rivers, rising north of the N-234 road between Calatayud and Torrelapaja; the ridge is aligned in a NW-SE direction. Its highest point is Cabrera; the adjacent Sierra de Vicort stretches east of Sierra de la Virgen in the same direction. The name of this mountain chain derives from the Santuario de la Virgen de la Sierra, a Virgin Mary shrine located in the heights of the mountain range, about 22 km to the north of Villarroya de la Sierra town; these mountains are covered with low maquis shrub and they have been repopulated with pine since the 20th century. The Sierra de la Virgen is subject to wildfires in periods of prolonged drought. Native trees include Carrasca, among others. There are other. One is in Ciudad Real Province, part of the Montes de Toledo, the other is located in Córdoba Province, Andalusia. Mountains of Aragon Aranda Comarca Media related to Sierra de la Virgen at Wikimedia Commons Sierra de la Virgen - Tourism in Aragon Hiking in Sierra de la Virgen
Karst is a topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone and gypsum. It is characterized by underground drainage systems with caves, it has been documented for more weathering-resistant rocks, such as quartzite, given the right conditions. Subterranean drainage may limit surface water, with few to no lakes. However, in regions where the dissolved bedrock is covered or confined by one or more superimposed non-soluble rock strata, distinctive karst features may occur only at subsurface levels and be missing above ground; the study of karst is considered of prime importance in petroleum geology because as much as 50% of the world's hydrocarbon reserves are hosted in porous karst systems. The English word karst was borrowed from German Karst in the late 19th century, which entered German much earlier. According to one interpretation the term is derived from the German name for a number of geological and hydrological features found within the range of the Dinaric Alps, stretching from the northeastern corner of Italy above the city of Trieste, across the Balkan peninsula along the coast of the eastern Adriatic to Kosovo and North Macedonia, where the massif of the Šar Mountains begins, more the karst zone at the northwestern-most section, described in early topographical research as a plateau, between Italy and Slovenia.
In the local South Slavic languages, all variations of the word are derived from a Romanized Illyrian base metathesized from the reconstructed form *korsъ into forms such as Bosnian: krš, Croatian: krš, kraš, Serbian: kras, Slovene: kras. Languages preserving the older, non-metathesized form include Italian: Carso, German: Karst, Albanian: karsti; the Slovene common noun kras was first attested in the 18th century, the adjective form kraški in the 16th century. As a proper noun, the Slovene form Grast was first attested in 1177; the word is of Mediterranean origin. It has been suggested that the word may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root karra-'rock'; the name may be connected to the oronym Karsádios oros cited by Ptolemy, also to Latin Carusardius. Johann Weikhard von Valvasor, a pioneer of the study of karst in Slovenia and a fellow of the Royal Society for Improving Natural Knowledge, introduced the word karst to European scholars in 1689, describing the phenomenon of underground flows of rivers in his account of Lake Cerknica.
Jovan Cvijić advanced the knowledge of karst regions, so much that he became known as the "father of karst geomorphology". Discussing the karstic regions of the Balkans, Cvijić's 1893 publication Das Karstphänomen describes landforms such as karren and poljes. In a 1918 publication, Cvijić proposed a cyclical model for karstic landscape development. Karst hydrology emerged as a discipline in early 1960s in France; the activities of cave explorers, called speleologists, had been dismissed as more of a sport than a science, meaning that underground karstic caves and their associated watercourses were, from a scientific perspective, understudied. The development of karst occurs whenever acidic water starts to break down the surface of bedrock near its cracks, or bedding planes; as the bedrock continues to degrade, its cracks tend to get bigger. As time goes on, these fractures will become wider, a drainage system of some sort may start to form underneath. If this underground drainage system does form, it will speed up the development of karst formations there because more water will be able to flow through the region, giving it more erosive power.
The carbonic acid that causes karstic features is formed as rain passes through Earth's atmosphere picking up carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the water. Once the rain reaches the ground, it may pass through soil that can provide much more CO2 to form a weak carbonic acid solution, which dissolves calcium carbonate; the primary reaction sequence in limestone dissolution is the following: In particular and rare conditions such as encountered in the past in Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, other mechanisms may play a role. The oxidation of sulfides leading to the formation of sulfuric acid can be one of the corrosion factors in karst formation; as oxygen -rich surface waters seep into deep anoxic karst systems, they bring oxygen, which reacts with sulfide present in the system to form sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid reacts with calcium carbonate, causing increased erosion within the limestone formation; this chain of reactions is: This reaction chain forms gypsum. The karstification of a landscape may result in a variety of large- or small-scale features both on the surface and beneath.
On exposed surfaces, small features may include solution flutes, limestone pavement, collectively called karren or lapiez. Medium-sized surface features may include sinkholes or cenotes, vertical shafts, disappearing streams, reappearing springs. Large-scale features may include limestone pavements and karst valleys. Mature karst landscapes, where more bedrock has been removed than remains, may result in karst towers, or haystack/eggbox landscapes. Beneath the surface, complex underground drainage systems and extensive caves and cavern systems may form. Erosion along limes
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Sierra de Nava Alta
Sierra de Nava Alta or Sierra de la Nava Alta is a mountain range in the Valdejalón comarca, Spain, located west of the A-121 road, between Fuendejalón and Ricla and east of Tierga and Mesones de Isuela. The ridge's highest summits are Buitrera de Valdearcos and Monegre; the Santuario de la Virgen de Rodanas is located in the Sierra de Nava Alta, about 12 km to the west of Épila town. The road to the sanctuary from Épila is not paved; these mountains are covered with low and sparse maquis shrub, with some juniper and pine trees. They suffered intense exploitation in the past, with overgrazing by cattle and excessive firewood gathering. Mountains of Aragon Valdejalón Media related to Sierra de Nava Alta at Wikimedia Commons Santuario de Rodanas Valdejalón
Teruel is a city in Aragon, located in eastern Spain, is the capital of Teruel Province. It has a population of 35,675 in 2014 making it the least populated provincial capital in the country, it is noted for its harsh climate, with a big daily variation on temperatures and its renowned jamón serrano, its pottery, its surrounding archaeological sites, rock outcrops containing some of the oldest dinosaur remains of the Iberian Peninsula, its famous events: La Vaquilla del Ángel during the weekend closest to 10 July and "Bodas de Isabel de Segura" around the third weekend of February. Teruel is regarded as the "town of mudéjar" due to numerous buildings designed in this style. All of them are comprised in the Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO. Teruel's remote and mountainous location 915 metres above sea level and its low population has led to relative isolation within Spain. A campaign group with the slogan Teruel existe was founded in 1999 to press for greater recognition and investment in the town and the province.
Due in part to the campaign, transport connections to Teruel are being improved with the construction of a motorway between Zaragoza and Sagunto, large parts of which are now open. However, Teruel remains the only provincial capital in peninsular Spain without a direct railway link to the capital, Madrid. According to the Köppen climate classification, Teruel has a humid subtropical bordering on a cold semi-arid climate. Summer temperatures are warm to hot, although there is much daily variation, winters are cool, with low minimum temperatures sometimes dropping to −10 °C; the lowest amount of rainfall is in winter and the greatest falls at the end of spring and autumn. The temperature records recorded at the Observatoire de Teruel 40.2 °C on August 10, 2012 and −19 °C on December 26, 2001. Teruel was founded in 1171 by Alfonso II. In the Middle Ages Teruel possessed a prominent Jewish community, robust during the centuries Muslims were in power and enjoyed several privileges. On after the Christian reconquest of Spain, the Jewish community paid a yearly tax of 300 sueldos.
Its members were engaged in commerce and industry in wool-weaving. During the persecutions of 1391 many of them were killed, while others accepted Christianity in order to save their lives. Teruel suffered much destruction; the Battle of Teruel in December 1937-February 1938, was one of the bloodiest of the war. The town changed hands several times, first falling to the Republicans and being re-taken by the Nationalists. In the course of the fighting, Teruel was subjected to aerial bombardment; the two sides suffered up to 140,000 casualties between them in the three-month battle. The Nationalists won a decisive victory; the beauty of the town's cultural inheritance, which has some Islamic influence, has been recognised by UNESCO, which includes four churches in the World Heritage Site Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon, notably the town's ornate cathedral in the Mudéjar style. One of Teruel's best known monuments is small statue of a bull on top of a tall column, known as El Torico, it is located in the main square, Plaza Carlos Castell, more known as the Plaza del Torico in the middle of the town center.
Other sights include: Torre de El Salvador, in mudéjar style Cathedral: Catedral de Santa María de Teruel, in mudéjar style San Pedro, a notable mudéjar church with a tower similar to that of the cathedral. It includes a mausoleum, Mausoleo de Los Amantes, housing the mummified bodies of Isabel de Segura and Diego de Marcilla whose love ended tragically; this story is known as los amantes de Teruel and has inspired writers and an opera composed by Tomás Bretón. Church of La Merced, with a bell tower in mudéjar style. Church of San Salvador, with one of the most outstanding mudéjar towers, it houses a 14th-century wooden sculpture of Christ. Church of San Martín. Torre de San Martín, in mudéjar style Church of San Miguel, remade in the 17th century in Baroque style. Castillo de Alambes, a 15th-century fortification built over the Arabic Alcazar. Casa El Torico, Casa Ferrán and Casa La Madrileña, 1910s liberty style houses Palace of the Marquis of Tosos The Gothic church of St. Francis, it has a single nave with chapels covered by a ribbed vault with no crossing.
Los Arcos, an aqueduct with two orders of arcade from 1538. On the outskirts of Teruel is Dinópolis Teruel, a combined theme park and museum centred on dinosaurs. Promoted as a paleontological park, it includes a life-size robotic model of a Tyrannosaurus rex. Dinópolis owns three other museums in the surrounding area, which display the remains of dinosaurs discovered in the region.. The chimney of the Teruel Power Plant is one of the tallest freestanding structures in Western Europe; the city buses are run by Grupo Autobuses Jimenez. Teruel Airport opened in 2013, but is an aircraft storage and maintenance facility. Luis Royo David Civera Manuel Macías y Casado and military governor Pablo Serrano, famous painter and sculptor of the 20th Century. La Vaquilla del Ángel Diocese of Teruel and Albarracín. Lovers of Teruel Battle of Teruel La Vaquilla del Ángel Teruel existe Teruel Travelguide and Hotel bookings in
Villar del Cobo
Villar del Cobo is a municipality located in the province of Teruel, Spain. According to the 2004 census, the municipality had a population of 222 inhabitants. Montes Universales
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers; the Mesozoic is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic and succeeded by the Cenozoic. The era is subdivided into three major periods: the Triassic and Cretaceous, which are further subdivided into a number of epochs and stages; the era began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest well-documented mass extinction in Earth's history, ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, another mass extinction whose victims included the non-avian dinosaurs. The Mesozoic was a time of significant tectonic and evolutionary activity; the era witnessed the gradual rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea into separate landmasses that would move into their current positions during the next era. The climate of the Mesozoic was varied, alternating between cooling periods. Overall, the Earth was hotter than it is today.
Dinosaurs first appeared in the Mid-Triassic, became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic, occupying this position for about 150 or 135 million years until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous. Birds first appeared in the Jurassic; the first mammals appeared during the Mesozoic, but would remain small—less than 15 kg —until the Cenozoic. The flowering plants arose in the Triassic or Jurassic and came to prominence in the late Cretaceous when they replaced the conifers and other gymnosperms as the dominant trees; the phrase "Age of Reptiles" was introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Pterodactylus. Mesozoic means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being"; the name "Mesozoic" was proposed in 1840 by the British geologist John Phillips. Following the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic extended 186 million years, from 251.902 to 66 million years ago when the Cenozoic Era began.
This time frame is separated into three geologic periods. From oldest to youngest: Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous The lower boundary of the Mesozoic is set by the Permian–Triassic extinction event, during which 90% to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates became extinct, it is known as the "Great Dying" because it is considered the largest mass extinction in the Earth's history. The upper boundary of the Mesozoic is set at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which may have been caused by an asteroid impactor that created Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula. Towards the Late Cretaceous, large volcanic eruptions are believed to have contributed to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. 50% of all genera became extinct, including all of the non-avian dinosaurs. The Triassic ranges from 252 million to 201 million years ago, preceding the Jurassic Period; the period is bracketed between the Permian–Triassic extinction event and the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, two of the "big five", it is divided into three major epochs: Early and Late Triassic.
The Early Triassic, about 252 to 247 million years ago, was dominated by deserts in the interior of the Pangaea supercontinent. The Earth had just witnessed a massive die-off in which 95% of all life became extinct, the most common vertebrate life on land were lystrosaurus and euparkeria along with many other creatures that managed to survive the Permian extinction. Temnospondyls would be the dominant predator for much of the Triassic; the Middle Triassic, from 247 to 237 million years ago, featured the beginnings of the breakup of Pangaea and the opening of the Tethys Sea. Ecosystems had recovered from the Permian extinction. Algae, sponge and crustaceans all had recovered, new aquatic reptiles evolved, such as ichthyosaurs and nothosaurs. On land, pine forests flourished, as did groups of insects like mosquitoes and fruit flies. Reptiles began to get bigger and bigger, the first crocodilians and dinosaurs evolved, which sparked competition with the large amphibians that had ruled the freshwater world mammal-like reptiles on land.
Following the bloom of the Middle Triassic, the Late Triassic, from 237 to 201 million years ago, featured frequent heat spells and moderate precipitation. The recent warming led to a boom of dinosaurian evolution on land as those one began to separate from each other, as well as first pterosaurs. During the Late Triassic, some advanced cynodonts gave rise to the first Mammaliaformes. All this climatic change, resulted in a large die-out known as the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event, in which many archosaurs, most synapsids, all large amphibians became extinct, as well as 34% of marine life, in the Earth's fourth mass extinction event; the cause is debatable. The Jurassic ranges from 200 million years to 145 million years ago and features three major epochs: The Early Jurassic, the Middle Jurassic, the L