University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
Geoffrey Keating, Irish historian Léon Duguit, French scholar of public law Henri Moysset, French historian and politician Jacques Ellul, French philosopher, lay theologian, professor James Joll, British historian and university lecturer Théophile Obenga, Congolese Egyptologist Spencer C. Tucker, American military historian Charles Butterworth, American political philosopher Helene Hagan, Moroccan–American anthropologist and Amazigh activist Pascal Salin, French economist and professor Marie-France Vignéras, French mathematician Alfredo Co, Filipino Sinologist Idowu Bantale Omole, Nigerian professor and academic administrator Aubrey Willis Williams, American social and civil rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, Haitian political activist and professor Louis Clayton Jones, African-American international attorney and civil rights leader Mireille Gillings, French Canadian neurobiologist and entrepreneur Thomas Barclay, Scottish jurist and professor James Marshall Sprouse, United States Circuit judge François Mauriac French novelist, critic, poet and Nobel Laureate Saint-John Perse, French poet-diplomat Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer and politician Esther Seligson, Mexican writer, poet and historian Lee Mallory, American poet and academic Marc Saikali, Lebanese–French journalist Sarah Ladipo Manyika, British Nigerian writer Luc Plissonneau, French screenwriter and film director Morteza Heidari, Iranian TV presenter Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Ybarnégaray, Basque–French politician Jean-Fernand Audeguil, French politician Michel Kafando, Burkinabé diplomat Xavier Darcos, French politician, civil servant and former Minister of Labour Jean-Paul Gonzalez, French virologist Mario Aoun, Lebanese politician Alain Vidalies, the French Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries Nagoum Yamassoum, Chadian politician and former Prime Minister of Chad Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, Central African politician Reza Taghipour, Iranian conservative politician Thierry Santa, French Polynesian politician in New Caledonia Germaine Kouméalo Anaté, Togolese government minister and writer Olivier Falorni, French politician Myriam El Khomri, French politician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason and namesake of the guillotine Célestin Sieur, French physician Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, French pharmacist and botanist Pierre-Paul Grassé, French zoologist Émile Peynaud, French oenologist Laure Gatet, French pharmacist and spy Basile Adjou Moumouni, Beninese physician Roland Paskoff, French geologist Jean-Marie Tarascon, French chemist and professor Bruno Vallespir, French engineer and professor Jean-Pierre Escalettes, French retired footballer Karounga Keïta, Malian football official and former coach and player Bixente Lizarazu, Basque–French retired footballer Charles James, English-American fashion designer List of medieval universities Le projet Babord-Num
Montpellier 2 University
Montpellier 2 University was a French university in the académie of Montpellier. It was one of the three universities formed in 1970 from the original University of Montpellier, its main campus neighbors the Montpellier 3 University's main campus, for this reason the nearest tramway station is named "Universities of Sciences and Literature" rather than "University of Sciences". In January 2015, Montpellier 1 University and Montpellier 2 University merged into the Montpellier University; the creation of the imperial University by Napoleon I in 1808 stimulated the formation of a number of faculties of Humanities and of Science in the main cities of the French Empire. At that time, Montpellier had a long-established medical college and a school of Pharmacy, but a respected Royal Society of Sciences created in 1706. In 1810, a Faculty of Science started with seven chairs: mathematics, physics, zoology and mineralogy. In 1879, the faculty created a research station of marine biology in Sète, twelve years and Institute of Botany.
The Institute of Chemistry, created in the same period, became the Ecole Nationale Supérieure of Chemistry of Montpellier in 1941. In 1964, the faculty left the centre of Montpellier to settle in a 30 hectare campus to the north of the city on which 146 000 m2 of buildings for teaching and research were built; the University Montpellier 2 retains the Institute of Botany of Montpellier, close to the botanical garden of University Montpellier 1. Demolished after World War II, most of the buildings date from 1956; the building houses a prestigious herbarium, the largest in France after the national museum of natural history, with 4 million samples and an important collection of botany vellums, research laboratories in the fields of ecology and parasitology. The station of marine biology in Sète has been part of the University since 1879. In addition to these collections, the university's media library brings together its old collections of printed works and iconography; these collections are publicly accessible given a reasonable request.
The university is the seat of the Pôle universitaire de Montpellier which collectively represents the higher education establishments in the Languedoc-Roussillon region. Université Montpellier 2 is a research-intensive university where education and research cover most of the Scientific and Technological fields: Biodiversity, Evolution, Environment Biology, Agronomy Biology and Health Chemistry Education Management Mathematics, Informatics and Systems Universe, WaterIt is partnered with 40 joint research units, 1 observatory and divided into 7 specialised faculties; the university curriculum follows the LMD system, which divides higher education into 3 diplomas: Licence Master Doctorat The university is divided into 7 specialised faculties: The Faculty of Science The Montpellier University Graduate Engineering School 3 University Institutes of Technology IUT Montpellier-Sète IUT Nîmes IUT Béziers The Montpellier School of Management The Faculty of EducationAnd 6 doctoral schools. Université Montpellier 2 is composed of about forty research departments in: Biodiversity, Evolution, Environment Biology, Agronomy Biology and Health Chemistry Education Management Mathematics, Informatics and Systems Universe, WaterThe whole research activity is carried out collaboratively with the leading national research organisations.
2014 QS world university rankings 51 – 100th for the Earth and Marine Sciences field 101 – 150th for the Agriculture & Forestry field 385th worldwide 2013 Academic Ranking of World Universities: 201 – 300th worldwide Times Higher Education under 50 universities: 32nd worldwide National Taiwan university: 294th worldwide University of Montpellier List of public universities in France by academy
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
University of Western Brittany
The University of Western Brittany is a French university, located in Brest, in the Academy of Rennes. On a national scale, in terms of graduate employability, the university oscillates between 18th and 53rd out of 69 universities depending on fields of study. Overall, the University is ranked 12th out of 76 universities in France; the University of Western Brittany is on the north-western coast of France. It is a multicampus university, with the main site in Brest and satellite campuses in Quimper and Morlaix. Brest is four hours by train. Brest is one of the world's marine science capitals and is home to 60% of French marine researchers, as well as several major organizations such as IFREMER and IPEV; the city is famous for its sailing activities. Brittany’s economic development is driven by the agri-food and telecommunications sectors. French universities function via a system of collegiate administration; each institution is led by a team of lecturer-researchers and overseen by a president, bringing together representatives from all affiliated faculties and institutes, as well as student-elected delegates.
Universities are chiefly financed by the French government. 6 faculties Humanities and Social Sciences Science and Technology Law and Management Education and Sports Sciences Medicine and Health Sciences Dentistry7 specialized institutes Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Brest, Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Quimper, Institut d’Administration des Entreprises in Morlaix, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, École supérieure du professorat et de l'éducation, Euro Institut d’Actuariat, Institut de Formation en Masso-Kinésithérapie, in partnership with the University Hospital of Brest.1 engineering school École Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Agroalimentaire de Bretagne atlantique 1 midwifery school École de sage-femme, in partnership with the University Hospital of Brest. French research is academic in nature, encompassing the work of university laboratories and their partner organisations. UBO is home to 37 laboratories, some of which are supported by prestigious French research bodies, such as CNRS, INSERM, IRD.
There are four principal areas of research at UBO: Marine Sciences Health and Materials Maths-ICT Humanities and Social Sciences Philippe Collin, anchor for France Inter radio Benoît Hamon and former minister of National Education François Cuillandre and current mayor of the city of Brest Didier Le Gac and member of the National Assembly of France for the city of Brest Joëlle Bergeron and current member of the Europarliament Christophe Miossec and singer Tristan Nihouarn and singer Christian Gourcuff, former football player and manager Paul Le Guen, former football player and manager Chantal Conand, marine biologist Kofi Yamgnane and engineer List of public universities in France by academy
Lumière University Lyon 2
Lumière University Lyon 2 is one of the three universities that comprise the current University of Lyon, having splintered from an older university of the same name, is based on two campuses in Lyon itself. It has a total of 27,500 students studying for three-to-eight-year degrees in the arts and social sciences. At the end of the 18th century, Lyon did not have a university. Education was still linked to religious congregations and influenced by the town's commercial and industrial requirements. 1835 and 1838: Creation of the Faculties of Science and Humanities. 1874 and 1875: Creation of the Faculties of Medicine and Law. 1896: All these faculties were combined to form the University of Lyon. The same year, the historical buildings on the left bank of the Rhone were finished dedicated to the faculties of medicine and science to the faculties of law and humanities. University of Lyon 2 is now established in part of these buildings. December 1969: University Lyon 2 was created as a result of the Loi Faure of 1968, according to which each university must be a independent establishment.
It comprised law and social sciences. The number of students soon rose significantly. In such a demographic context, the University was extended in Bron, where a new campus was built during the 1970s, its original features included a modular organisation, a street within the university and a landscaped environment. For some years now, it has been part of the developing area of Porte des Alpes near Bron. 1987: University Lyon 2 was renamed University Lumière Lyon 2. The logo was created by the Art and Design School of Lyon reflecting the University's new ambitions: offering optimal access to the foundations of culture, promoting initiatives and opening itself to the world. Today: University Lumière Lyon 2 extends over two main sites: Berges du Rhône, the historic site in the centre of Lyon on the left bank of the Rhone, the head office of the University. Robert Faurisson – French academic and arts teacher today redeemed, above all known as activist and Holocaust denial author. Jacques Bichot – French economist, university professor, honorary member of the Economic and Social Council.
Mohammed Arkoun – Algerian intellectual historian of the Islam and philosopher. Bruno Julliard, former President of the UNEF, the largest student union in France. Jérôme Kerviel, former Société Générale trader who incurred one of the largest losses in banking history; the Lumière University extends over 2 main sites: The Berges du Rhône' campus - a historic site in the centre of Lyon on the left bank of the Rhone, the head office of the university. The Porte des Alpes' campus, on the south-eastern outskirts of Lyon, in Bron and Saint-Priest. Lyon 2 Lumière University is one of the first universities to have integrated the European higher education scheme right from the start of the academic year 2004; the courses are organised within the scope of the LMD' system. Lyon 2 Lumière University offers a variety of courses in 4 fields: Humanities and Social Sciences Society and Environment Economics and Management Law Lyon 2 is part of a pilot program on the intensive use of TICE; the digital work environment was introduced at the University in 2003.
The Digital Working Environment project at Lumière Lyon 2 is part of a national and local drive to accompany and assist individuals who make up the academic world throughout their diverse field of activity. The five ENT tool categories include: information: 3 portals, faculties' Internet sites, Web TV.
University of Caen Normandy
The University of Caen Normandy is a Public university in Caen, France. The institution was founded in 1432 by John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, the first rector being a Cornishman, Michael Tregury, afterwards Archbishop of Dublin, it consisted of a faculty of Canon Law and a faculty of Law. By 1438, it had five faculties; the foundation was confirmed by the King of France Charles VII the Victorious in 1452. On July 7th 1944, the university was destroyed by aerial bombing during Operation Charnwood, an action of the Battle of Caen. Between 1944 and 1954, the university was based in the buildings of the regional teachers’ college. A new campus was designed by Henry Bernard and constructed between 1948 and 1957; the new university was inaugurated on 1 and 2 June 1957. Its logo, the mythical Phoenix, symbolises this revival; the mathematician Pierre Varignon, whose work would influence the young Leonhard Euler, earned his M. A. from Caen in 1682. Pierre-Simon Laplace was introduced to mathematics in Caen by Pierre Le Canu.
Henri Poincaré taught there between 1879 and 1881. The University contains a famous scale model of Rome; those intending to become advocates or solicitors in Guernsey must complete three months' study of Norman law at Caen University prior to being called to the Guernsey or Jersey Bar, respectively. The Carré international is located here; the center is a hub for exchange students from around the world who wish to attend university in France. They take students from A1 to C2. List of medieval universities List of universities and colleges in France Official web site, unicaen.fr
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua