Île-de-France called the région parisienne, contains the city of Paris, is the most populous of the 18 regions of France. It covers 12,012 square kilometres, or two percent of the national territory, has official estimated population of 12,213,364 as of January 1, 2019, or 18.2% of the population of France. The region accounts for nearly 30 percent of the French Gross Domestic Product; the region is made up of eight administrative departments: Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Seine-et-Marne, Val-de-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Yvelines. It was created as the "District of the Paris Region" in 1961 renamed in 1976 after the historic province of Île-de-France, when its status was aligned with the other French administrative regions created in 1972. Residents are sometimes referred to an administrative word created in the 1980s; the GDP of the region in 2016 was €681 billion. It has the highest per-capita GDP among regions in France and the third-highest of regions in the European Union. In 2018 all of the twenty-eight French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 had their headquarters in the Paris region.
Besides the landmarks of Paris, the region has many important historic sites, including the Palace of Versailles and the Palace of Fontainebleau, as well as the most-visited tourist attraction in France, Disneyland Paris. Although the modern name Île-de-France means "Island of France", the etymology is in fact unclear; the "island" may refer to the land between the rivers Oise and Seine, or it may have been a reference to the Île de la Cité, where the French royal palace and cathedral were located. The Île-de-France was inhabited by the Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris's Left Bank, it became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris's strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris. In 987, Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks, was elected King of the Franks. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris became the largest and most prosperous city in France; the Kings of France enjoyed getting away from Paris and hunting in the game-filled forests of the region. They built palatial hunting lodges, most notably Palace of Fontainebleau and the Palace of Versailles. From the time of Louis XIV until the French Revolution, Versailles was the official residence of the Kings and the seat of the French government; the Ile-de-France became the term used for the territory of Paris and the surrounding province, administered directly by the King.
During the French Revolution, the royal provinces were abolished and divided into departments, the city and region were governed directly by the national government. In the period after World War II, as Paris faced a major housing shortage, hundreds of massive apartment blocks for low-income residents were built around the edges of Paris. In the 1950s and the 1960s, Many thousands of immigrants settled in the communes bordering the city. In 1959, under President Charles De Gaulle, a new region was created out of six departments, which corresponded with the historic region, with the name District de la région de Paris. On 6 May 1976, as part of the process of regionalisation, the district was reconstituted and increased administrative and political powers and renamed the Île-de-France region. Île-de-France has a land area of 12,011 km2. It is composed of eight départements centered on Paris. Around the département of Paris, urbanization fills a first concentric ring of three departments known as the petite couronne, extends into a second outer ring of four départements known as the grande couronne.
The former département of Seine, abolished in 1968, included the city proper and parts of the petite couronne. The petite couronne consists of the départements of Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, the grande couronne of those of Seine-et-Marne, Yvelines and Val-d'Oise. Politically, the region is divided into 8 départements, 25 arrondissements, 155 cantons and 1 276 communes, out of the total of 35 416 in metropolitan France, The outer parts of the Ile-de-France remain rural. Agriculture land and natu
In heraldry, gules is the tincture with the colour red. It is one of the class of five dark tinctures called "colours", the others being azure, sable and purpure. In engraving, it is sometimes depicted by hatching of vertical lines. In "trick" or "tricking" it is marked with gu.. The term gules derives from the Old French word goules "throats", but used to refer to a fur neckpiece made of red fur. For many decades, heraldic authors have believed that the term may have arisen from the Persian word گل, but according to Brault, there is no evidence to support this derivation. Gules is the most used heraldic tincture. Through the sixteenth century, nearly half of all noble coats of arms in Poland had a field gules with one or more argent charges on them. Examples of coats of arms consisting of purely a red shield include those of: the d'Albret family, the Rossi family, the Swiss canton of Schwyz, the old coats of arms of the cities of Nîmes and Montpellier. Polish heraldry Cinnabar Murrey Sinople
Guy Olivier Nyokas is a French handball player for HBC Nantes and the French national team. He participated at the 2016 European Men's Handball Championship
Boulogne-Billancourt is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 8.2 km from the centre of Paris. Boulogne-Billancourt is a subprefecture of the Hauts-de-Seine department and the seat of the Arrondissement of Boulogne-Billancourt. With an average household income in 2013 of €47,592, nearly twice the French average of €25,548, Boulogne-Billancourt is one of the wealthiest cities in France. Boulogne-Billancourt is the most populous suburb of Paris and one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe. An important industrial site, it has reconverted into business services and is now home to major communication companies headquartered in the Val de Seine business district; the original name of the commune was Boulogne-sur-Seine. Before the 14th century, Boulogne was a small village called Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud. In the beginning of the 14th century, King Philip IV of France ordered the building in Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud of a church dedicated to the virgin of the sanctuary of Boulogne-sur-Mer a famous pilgrimage center in northern France.
The church, meant to become a pilgrimage centre closer to Paris than the distant city of Boulogne-sur-Mer, was named Notre-Dame de Boulogne la Petite. The village of Menuls-lès-Saint-Cloud became known as Boulogne-la-Petite, as Boulogne-sur-Seine. In 1924, Boulogne-sur-Seine was renamed Boulogne-Billancourt to reflect the development of the industrial neighbourhood of Billancourt annexed in 1860; as for the name Billancourt, it was recorded for the first time in 1150 as Bullencort, sometimes spelled Bollencort. It comes from Medieval Latin cortem, accusative of cors, meaning "enclosure", "estate", suffixed to the Germanic patronym Buolo, thus having the meaning of "estate of Buolo". On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the communes of Auteuil and Passy were disbanded and divided between Boulogne-Billancourt and the city of Paris. Boulogne-sur-Seine received a small part of the territory of Passy, about half of the territory of Auteuil.
Some of the shooting events of the 1900 Summer Olympics took place in Boulogne-Billancourt. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne, hitherto divided between the communes of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine, was annexed in its entirety by the city of Paris. On that occasion, Boulogne-Billancourt, to which most of the Bois de Boulogne belonged, lost about half of its territory. Boulogne-Billancourt is known for being the birthplace of three major French industries, it was the location, in 1906 for the first aircraft factory, that of Appareils d'Aviation Les Freres Voisin, followed by those of many other aviation pioneers, the tradition continues with several aviation related companies still operating in the area. The automobile industry had a large presence with Renault on Île Seguin, Salmson building both cars and aircraft engines; the French film industry started here and, from 1922 to 1992 it was the home of the Billancourt Studios, since becoming a major location for French film production.
It was used as the setting of the TV show Code Lyoko. The ecologic neighborhood of the Trapèze in Boulogne-Billancourt: the district stands on 74ha and will be able to contain up to 18000 inhabitants at the end of its construction. 65 % of the district's energy is brought by geothermal power, which freshens the buildings. Solar panels and a vegetable greenhouse were installed in the aim to link the district to sustainable energies. Bicycle and “soft” travels will of course be put first to reduce the pollution caused by cars, others vehicles which do not run on electricity; the Ambroise Paré Hospital is located in the city. With the city of Sèvres, Boulogne-Billancourt is part of the communauté d'agglomération Val de Seine. Boulogne-Billancourt is served by two stations on Paris Métro Line 10: Boulogne – Jean Jaurès and Boulogne – Pont de Saint-Cloud, it is served by three stations on Paris Métro Line 9: Marcel Sembat and Pont de Sèvres. Boulogne-Billancourt hosts the global headquarters of several multinational companies, including: Alcatel-Lucent Carrefour Française des Jeux Pika Édition Renault TF1 Vallourec YoplaitPrior to 2000 Schneider Electric's head office was in Boulogne-Billancourt.
The Musée Albert-Kahn at 14, rue du Port, Boulogne-Billancourt is a national museum and includes four hectares of gardens, joining together landscape scenes of various national traditions. The museum includes historic photographs and film; the Musée des Années Trente is a museum of industrial objects from the 1930s. See also: Enseignement à Boulogne-Billancourt The public collèges in the commune include Jacqueline-Auriol, Paul-Landowski, Jean-Renoir; the public high schools are the Lycée polyvalent Étienne-Jules-Marey. Prior to the September 1968 opening of Prévert, the first high school/sixth-form in Boulogne, an annex of Lycée La Fontaine served the city; the private school Groupe Scolaire Maïmonide Rambam covers maternelle through lycée. There is the private high school Notre-Dame; the latter's performance and ranking in Boulogne-Billancourt are given by its success of baccalaureate rate in different series. According to the ranking of L'Express in 2015, the national rank of Notre-Dame de Boulogne was 1
Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.3 km from the center of Paris. Argenteuil is a sub-prefecture of the Val-d'Oise department, the seat of the arrondissement of Argenteuil. Argenteuil is the second most populous commune in the suburbs of Paris and the most populous one in the Val-d'Oise department, although it is not its prefecture, shared between the communes of Cergy and Pontoise. Argenteuil shares borders with communes in 3 departements others than Val d'Oise: the Yvelines, Hauts-de-Seine and Seine-Saint-Denis departements; the name Argenteuil is recorded for the first time in a royal charter of 697 as Argentoialum, from a Latin/Gaulish root argento meaning "silver", "silvery", "shiny" in reference to the gleaming surface of the river Seine, on the banks of which Argenteuil is located, from a Celtic suffix -ialo meaning "clearing, glade" or "place of". Argenteuil was founded as a convent in the 7th century; the monastery that arose from the convent was destroyed during the French Revolution.
A rural escape for Parisians, it is now a suburb of Paris. Painters made Argenteuil famous, including Claude Monet, Jean-Étienne Delacroix, Auguste Renoir, Gustave Caillebotte, Alfred Sisley and Georges Braque. Fabien Ateba, basketball player Franck Beria, footballer Georges Braque, 3 May 1882, Co-founder of cubism and sculptor Ingrid Chauvin, French actress Chevalier d'Argenteuil, French soldier; the French transport system is straightforward to navigate, so Argenteuil is an ideal city where there is an extensive public transport system with stations in Argenteuil and Val d'Argenteuil, where the train stops at Transilien Paris. Saint-Lazare. Since redeveloped by STIF and SNCF, Argenteuil has been equipped with a new Paris-Saint-Lazare-Ermont-Eaubonne line; the new line was launched in 2006, adding the Paris-Saint Lazare / Cormeilles-en-Parisis - Pontoise / Mantes-la-Jolie service to Paris for about ten minutes. By Bus*:361 Gare d'Argenteuil à Gare de Pierrefitte - Stains RER; the commune has: 30 public preschools and one private elementary school with a preschool 26 public and 2 private elementary schools 11 junior high schools - 10 public and 1 private 6 senior high schools/sixth-form colleges:Lycée Georges Braque Lycée Cognacq-Jay Lycée Julie-Victoire Daubié Lycée Jean Jaurès Lycée Fernand et Nadia Léger Ecole nationale des professions de l'automobile Paris 13 University serves as the area university.
The Conservatoire à rayonnement départemental de Musique, Danse et Théâtre is located in Argenteuil. André Bon is one of its former students. By Claude Monet:Autumn at Argenteuil, Regatta at Argenteuil, Red Boats, The Bridge at Argenteuil, The Port at Argenteuil, The Seine at Argenteuil, View of Argenteuil-Snow, Bords de la Seine a Argenteuil, Snow at Argenteuil. By other painters:Argenteuil and Seine near Argenteuil by Édouard Manet, Regatta at Argenteuil by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Bridge in Argenteuil by Gustave Caillebotte. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Official facebook
The Sempin Windmill, or Moulin de Montfermeil, is a windmill located in Montfermeil in the French department of Seine-Saint-Denis 20 km east of Paris. It is the last surviving windmill in the department; the tower was built in 1740 to replace the Bruyères windmill, built in 1525 but had become obsolete. It was rented for the first time by Messire Hocquart to Jacques Boyartaux on May 6, 1742; the windmill, reconstructed in 1818, fell into disrepair in the nineteenth century after it became redundant with competition from another mill. It was restored in 1896 when it became a Sunday attraction. In the twentieth century, the windmill again began to deteriorate. In 1972, an organization was created to protect the windmill; this group attempted to restore the building from 1978 to 1982, but the ground was riddled with old gypsum quarries which caused the windmill to collapse. Due to these unstable conditions, it was decided to rebuild the windmill 140 m away. Work began on restoring the windmill at its new location in 1986, the new windmill was inaugurated on October 9, 1988.
Today, the Sempin Windmill is managed by the not-for-profit organization. The windmill is 17 m high and its wings are 23 m wide