Lake Albano is a small volcanic crater lake in the Alban Hills of Lazio, at the foot of Monte Cavo, 20 km southeast of Rome. Castel Gandolfo, overlooking the lake, is the site of the Papal Palace of Castel Gandolfo. In Roman times it lay not far from the ancient city of Alba Longa. With a depth of about 170 m, Lake Albano is the deepest in Lazio; the lake is 3.5 km long by 2.3 km wide, was formed by the overlapping union of two volcanic craters, an origin indicated by the ridge in its center, which rises to a height of 70 m. Plutarch reports that in 406 BC the lake surged over the surrounding hills, despite there being no rain nor tributaries flowing into the lake to account for the rise in water level; the ensuing flood destroyed fields and vineyards before pouring into the sea. It is thought to have been caused by volcanic gases, trapped in sediment at the bottom of the lake and building up until releasing, causing the water to overflow. Around 395 BC, during the wars between Rome and Veii, a discharge tunnel was built crossing the crater walls.
It served as an emissary. According to Titus Livius, this feat of engineering was incited by the Oracle of Delphi: the Roman victory against Veii would be possible only when the lake waters were channeled and used for irrigation; the emissary is at 293 meters over the sea level. The tunnel ends at a spot called Le Mole, below Castel Gandolfo, it hosted the canoeing and rowing events of the 1960 Summer Olympic Games. The lane marking system developed for these events is referred to as the Albano buoy system. Britannica.com Italian Tourism – Lakes The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | Date: 2008 | The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press
Latins (Italic tribe)
The Latins, sometimes known as the Latians, were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium, that is, the area between the river Tiber and the promontory of Mount Circeo 100 kilometres SE of Rome; the Latins were an Indo-European people who migrated into the Italian Peninsula during the late Bronze Age. Their language, belonged to the Italic branch of Indo-European, their material culture, known as the Latial culture, was a distinctive subset of the Proto-Villanovan culture that appeared in parts of the Italian peninsula in the first half of the 12th century BC. The Latins maintained close culturo-religious relations until they were definitively united politically under Rome in 338 BC, for centuries beyond; these included religious sanctuaries. The rise of Rome as by far the most populous and powerful Latin state from c. 600 BC led to volatile relations with the other Latin states, which numbered about 14 in 500 BC.
In the period of the Tarquin monarchy, it appears that Rome acquired political hegemony over the other states. After the fall of the Roman monarchy in c. 500 BC, there appears to have been a century of military alliance between Rome and the other Latins to confront the threat posed to all Latium by raiding by the surrounding Italic mountain-tribes the Volsci and Aequi. This system progressively broke down after c. 390 BC, when Rome's aggressive expansionism led to conflict with other Latin states, both individually and collectively. In 341–338 BC, the Latin states jointly fought the Latin War against Rome in a final attempt to preserve their independence; the war resulted in 338 BC in a decisive Roman victory. The other Latin states were either permanently subjugated to Rome, it has been suggested that the name Latium derives from the Latin word latus, referring, by extension, to the plains of the region. If this is true Latini meant "men of the plain"; the Latins belonged to a group of Indo-European tribes, conventionally known as the Italic tribes, that populated central and southern Italy during the Italian Iron Age.
The most accepted theory suggests that Latins and other proto-Italic tribes first entered Italy in the late Bronze Age Proto-Villanovan culture part of the central European Urnfield culture system. In particular various authors, like Marija Gimbutas, had noted important similarities between proto-Villanova, the South-German Urnfield culture of Bavaria-Upper Austria and Middle-Danube Urnfield culture. According to David W. Anthony proto-Latins originated in today's eastern Hungary, kurganized around 3100 BC by the Yamna culture, while Kristian Kristiansen associated the proto-Villanovans with the Velatice-Baierdorf culture of Moravia and Austria; this is further confirmed by the fact that the subsequent Villanovan culture of Central Italy, which introduced iron-working to the Italian peninsula, was so related to the Central European Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, that it is not possible to tell them apart in their earlier stages. Furthermore, the contemporary Canegrate culture of Northern Italy represented a typical western example of the western Hallstatt culture, whose diffusion most took place in a Celtic-speaking context.
Several authors have suggested that the Beaker culture of Central and Western Europe, was a candidate for an early Indo-European culture, more for an ancestral European branch of Indo-European dialects, termed "North-west Indo-European", ancestral to Celtic, Italic and Balto-Slavic. All these groups were descended from Proto-Indo-European speakers from Yamna-culture, whose migrations in Central Europe split off Pre-Italic, Pre-Celtic and Pre-Germanic from Proto-Indo-European. Leaving archaeology aside, the geographical distribution of the ancient languages of the peninsula may plausibly be explained by the immigration of successive waves of peoples with different languages, according to Cornell. On this model, it appears that the "West Italic" group were the first wave and displaced by, the East Italic group; this is deduced from the marginal locations of the surviving West Italic niches. Besides Latin, putative members of the West Italic group are Faliscan, Venetic and Sicel, spoken in central Sicily.
The West Italic languages were thus spoken in limited and isolated areas, whereas the "East Italic" group comprised the Oscan and Umbrian dialects spoken over much of central and southern Italy. However, the chronology of Indo-European immigration remains elusive, as does the relative chronology between the Italic IE languages and the non-IE languages of the peninsula, notably the Etruscan. Most scholars consider that Etruscan is a pre-IE survival, part of a Mediterranean linguistic substratum; some authors believe that, before the spread of the Gaulish language in the plain of the river Po from c. 400 BC onwards and central Italy were dominated by non-IE languages: Etruscan, which shared some similarities with the Raetic, the non-IE Ligurian and the language of the undeciphered Novilara inscriptions from the region around Ancona on the Adriatic coast. However, Etruscan could have been introduced by migrants; the ancient Greek historian Herodotus preserves the tradition that the Tyrrhenoi originated in Lydia in Anatolia.
Possible support for an eastern
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent. It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface. Magma from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface. If magma reaches the surface, its behavior depends on the viscosity of the molten constituent rock. Viscous magma produces volcanoes characterised by explosive eruptions, while non-viscous magma produce volcanoes characterised by effusive eruptions pouring large amounts of lava onto the surface. In some cases, rising magma can solidify without reaching the surface. Instead, the cooled and solidified igneous mass crystallises within the crust to form an igneous intrusion; as magma cools the chemicals in the crystals formed are removed from the main mix of the magma, so the chemical content of the remaining magma evolves as it solidifies slowly.
Fresh unevolved magma injections can remobilise more evolved magmas, allowing eruptions from more viscous magmas. Movement of molten rock in the mantle, caused by thermal convection currents, coupled with gravitational effects of changes on the earth's surface drive plate tectonic motion and volcanism. Volcanoes are places; the type of volcano depends on the consistency of the magma. These are formed where magma pushes between existing rock, intrusions can be in the form of batholiths, dikes and layered intrusions. Earthquakes are associated with plate tectonic activity, but some earthquakes are generated as a result of volcanic activity; these are formed. These include geysers, fumaroles and mudpots, they are used as a source of geothermal energy; the amount of gas and ash emitted by volcanic eruptions has a significant effect on the Earth's climate. Large eruptions correlate well with some significant climate change events; when magma cools it forms rocks. The type of rock formed depends on the chemical composition of the magma and how it cools.
Magma that reaches the surface to become lava cools resulting in rocks with small crystals such as basalt. Some of this magma may cool rapidly and will form volcanic glass such as obsidian. Magma trapped below ground in thin intrusions cools more than exposed magma and produces rocks with medium-sized crystals. Magma that remains trapped in large quantities below ground cools most resulting in rocks with larger crystals, such as granite and gabbro. Existing rocks that come into contact with magma may be assimilated into the magma. Other rocks adjacent to the magma may be altered by contact metamorphism or metasomatism as they are affected by the heat and escaping or externally-circulating hydrothermal fluids. Volcanism is not confined only to Earth, but is thought to be found on any body having a solid crust and fluid mantle. Evidence of volcanism should still be found on any body that has had volcanism at some point in its history. Volcanoes have indeed been observed on other bodies in the Solar System – on some, such as Mars, in the shape of mountains that are unmistakably old volcanoes, but on Io actual ongoing eruptions have been observed.
It can be surmised that volcanism exists on planets and moons of this type in other planetary systems as well. In 2014, scientists found 70 lava flows. Bimodal volcanism Continental drift Hotspot Volcanic arc "Glossary of Volcanic Terms". G. J. Hudak, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, 2001. Retrieved 2010-05-07. Crumpler, L. S. and Lucas, S. G.. "Volcanoes of New Mexico: An Abbreviated Guide For Non-Specialists". Volcanology in New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 18: 5–15. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2010-04-28. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
Types of volcanic eruptions
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed; some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions; the most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic eruptions are another type of volcanic eruption, driven by the compression of gas within magma, the direct opposite of the process powering magmatic activity; the third eruptive type is the phreatic eruption, driven by the superheating of steam via contact with magma. Within these wide-defining eruptive types are several subtypes; the weakest are Hawaiian and submarine Strombolian, followed by Vulcanian and Surtseyan.
The stronger eruptive types are Pelean eruptions, followed by Plinian eruptions. Subglacial and phreatic eruptions are defined by their eruptive mechanism, vary in strength. An important measure of eruptive strength is Volcanic Explosivity Index, an order of magnitude scale ranging from 0 to 8 that correlates to eruptive types. Volcanic eruptions arise through three main mechanisms: Gas release under decompression causing magmatic eruptions Thermal contraction from chilling on contact with water causing phreatomagmatic eruptions Ejection of entrained particles during steam eruptions causing phreatic eruptionsThere are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions. Explosive eruptions are characterized by gas-driven explosions that propels tephra. Effusive eruptions, are characterized by the outpouring of lava without significant explosive eruption. Volcanic eruptions vary in strength. On the one extreme there are effusive Hawaiian eruptions, which are characterized by lava fountains and fluid lava flows, which are not dangerous.
On the other extreme, Plinian eruptions are large and dangerous explosive events. Volcanoes are not bound to one eruptive style, display many different types, both passive and explosive in the span of a single eruptive cycle. Volcanoes do not always erupt vertically from a single crater near their peak, either; some volcanoes exhibit lateral and fissure eruptions. Notably, many Hawaiian eruptions start from rift zones, some of the strongest Surtseyan eruptions develop along fracture zones. Scientists believed that pulses of magma mixed together in the chamber before climbing upward—a process estimated to take several thousands of years, but Columbia University volcanologists found that the eruption of Costa Rica’s Irazú Volcano in 1963 was triggered by magma that took a nonstop route from the mantle over just a few months. The Volcanic Explosivity Index is a scale, for measuring the strength of eruptions, it is used by the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program in assessing the impact of historic and prehistoric lava flows.
It operates in a way similar to the Richter scale for earthquakes, in that each interval in value represents a tenfold increasing in magnitude. The vast majority of volcanic eruptions are of VEIs between 0 and 2. Volcanic eruptions by VEI index Magmatic eruptions produce juvenile clasts during explosive decompression from gas release, they range in intensity from the small lava fountains on Hawaii to catastrophic Ultra-Plinian eruption columns more than 30 km high, bigger than the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 that buried Pompeii. Hawaiian eruptions are a type of volcanic eruption, named after the Hawaiian volcanoes with which this eruptive type is hallmark. Hawaiian eruptions are the calmest types of volcanic events, characterized by the effusive eruption of fluid basalt-type lavas with low gaseous content; the volume of ejected material from Hawaiian eruptions is less than half of that found in other eruptive types. Steady production of small amounts of lava builds up the broad form of a shield volcano.
Eruptions are not centralized at the main summit as with other volcanic types, occur at vents around the summit and from fissure vents radiating out of the center. Hawaiian eruptions begin as a line of vent eruptions along a fissure vent, a so-called "curtain of fire." These die down. Central-vent eruptions, meanwhile take the form of large lava fountains, which can reach heights of hundreds of meters or more; the particles from lava fountains cool in the air before hitting the ground, resulting in the accumulation of cindery scoria fragments. If eruptive rates are high enough, they may form splatter-fed lava flows. Hawaiian eruptions are extremely long lived. Another Hawaiian volcanic feature is the formation of active lava lakes, self-maintaining pools of raw lava with a thin crust of semi-cooled rock. Flows from Hawaiian eruptions are basal
The Monti Volsini or Vulsini are a minor mountain range in northern Lazio, near the Lake Bolsena. The highest point is that of Passo della Montagnola, in the comune of Latera, at c. 645 m. The area is the relic of an ancient volcano. In the area grape and olives are intenselvy cultivated, while vegetation include Oak and Sweet Chestnut. Boar is present in the Volsini region; the range takes its name from the ancient Etruscan city of Vulsinii
Monte Soratte is a mountain ridge in the province of Rome, Italy. It is a isolated limestone ridge with a length of 5.5 km and six peaks. Located some 10 km south east of Civita Castellana and c. 45 km north of Rome, it is the sole notable ridge in the Tiber Valley. The nearest settlement is the village of Sant'Oreste. Saint Orestes or Edistus, after whom the settlement is named, is said to have been martyred near Monte Soratte; the highest summit is 691 m above sea-level. The ridge is part of a 444-hectare Natural Reserve housing a variety of fauna, it is characterized by the so-called Meri, pits which can be up to 115 metres deep. The area was used by the ancient Italic peoples of the area and the Etruscan civilization for the cult of the God Soranus. Mount Soratte was mentioned by Horace, Virgil, who stated that Apollo was its guardian deity; the hermitage of St. Sylvester is just below the summit. According to a legend, its church was founded by Pope Sylvester, who had taken refuge there to escape Constantine's persecution.
The church houses 14th- and 15th-century frescoes. Another four hermitages are on the ridge; the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie was built in 1835 over a pre-existing 16th-century edifice and houses a once venerated image of the Madonna. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe mentioned the peak in Italian Journey, his diary of his travels through Italy from 1786–1788, he wrote. This mountain is made of limestone and belongs to the Apennines."During World War II, after the 8 September 1943 Frascati air raid, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring moved his headquarters from Frascati to the bunkers in Monte Soratte