Aussois is a commune in the Vanoise massif, in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. The village is on the border of the Vanoise National Park. Although not as well known as other resorts right on the other side of the mountain like Val Thorens, it is popular with the French as ski resort in winter and as mountain destination in summer. At 8 km from Modane, it is ideally located in the Maurienne region with good transport links in and out of Lyon, Geneva and Chambéry. Aussois can be reached from Turin via the Fréjus Road Tunnel, linking Bardonecchia in Italy and Modane. Nearby Gare de Modane is a large railway station with a high-speed service Paris - Chambéry - Turin - Milan; the resort offers 55 km of 21 slopes. Communes of the Savoie department Official site Aussois at Peak Retreats'Plan d'Amont' lake and dam, Aussois
Les Avanchers-Valmorel is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Communes of the Savoie department INSEE Official site
Beaufort Beaufort-sur-Doron, is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. It is the namesake for the Beaufort cheese, produced in the surrounding area. Communes of the Savoie department INSEE
Argentine is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France. Communes of the Savoie department INSEE Official site
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Dolcetto is a black Italian wine grape variety grown in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. The Italian word dolcetto means "little sweet one", but it is not certain that the name carried any reference to the grape’s sugar levels: it is possible that it derives from the name of the hills where the vine is cultivated. In any case the wines produced, they can be tannic and fruity with moderate, or decidedly low, levels of acidity and are meant to be consumed within a few years after release. One theory suggests the grape originated in France and was brought to Monferrato some time in the 11th century. A competing theory has the grape originating in the Piedmontese village of Dogliani. In 1593, an ordinance of the municipality of Dogliani which forbade the harvesting of dozzetti grapes earlier than Saint Matthew's Day, unless an exceptional authorization had been granted, has been taken to refer to this variety, still known in local dialects under the names duzet and duset. A document of 1633 records the presence of Dolcetto in the cellars of the Arboreo family of Valenza.
In 1700, Barnabà Centurione sent the wine as a gift to Queen Anne of Great Britain. Along with the French grape Chatus, Dolcetto is a parent variety to several Piedmontese grapes including Valentino nero and San Martino. Most Dolcetto is found in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy, where many of the top estates produce Dolcetto on less favored sites as an "early to market wine" to generate some income for the winery while the Nebbiolo and Barbera are being matured, it is associated with the towns of Dogliani and Diano d'Alba in the province of Cuneo, although the greatest volumes come from around Alba and Ovada. The grape is found in Liguria under the name Ormeasco, in the Oltrepò Pavese where it is called Nebbiolo or Nibièu. All but one of the 100% Dolcetto DOCs have two levels, the "standard" version requiring a minimum 11.5% ABV, the Superiore 12.5%. They are Dolcetto di Dogliani, Dolcetto d'Acqui, Dolcetto d'Alba, Dolcetto d'Asti, Dolcetto delle Langhe Monregalesi, Dolcetto di Diano d'Alba, Dolcetto d'Ovada and Langhe Dolcetto.
Riviera Ligure di Ponente Ormeasco requires >95% Dolcetto/Ormeasco. Golfo Del Tigullio requires 20-70%, while Lago di Corbara and Rosso Orvietano can contain up to 20% Dolcetto. Outside of Italy, Dolcetto is known as Douce Noire in Charbono in California. However, DNA fingerprinting done at the University of California, Davis has shown that the actual Douce Noire and Charbono vines are not, in fact, but two different vines. In spite of this confirmation, some plantings of true Dolcetto vines still retain the local synonyms in some areas of Savoie and California; the grape was first brought to California by expatriate Italians, is most popular in Lodi AVA, Mendocino County, Russian River Valley AVA, Napa Valley AVA, Santa Cruz Mountains AVA, Sta. Rita Hills AVA, Santa Barbara County. There are some plantings in the Oregon AVAs of Umpqua Valley AVA and Southern Oregon AVA, as well as the statewide appellations of New Mexico and Pennsylvania. Australia is home with vines dating back to the 1860s.
Dolcetto di Dogliani, Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore are Italian red wines produced in the Langhe using only the Dolcetto grape variety. The wines were recognized as DOC in 1974. In 2005, the original DOC for Dolcetto di Dogliani Superiore was revoked and replaced by a DOCG. Furthermore, to qualify for the DOCG status, the wines must be aged for at least one year; the vineyards are restricted to the hilly areas within the boundaries of the communes of Bastia Mondovì, Belvedere Langhe, Cigliè, Dogliani, Farigliano and Rocca Cigliè, plus parts of the communes of Cissone and Somano. Dolcetto wines are known for black cherry and licorice with some prune flavors, a characteristically bitter finish reminiscent of almonds. While the name implies sweetness, the wines are dry; the tannic nature of the grape contributes to a characteristic bitter finish. The dark purple skin of Dolcetto grapes have high amounts of anthocyanins, which require only a short maceration time with the skin to produce a dark-colored wine.
The amount of skin contact affects the resulting tannin levels in the wine, with most winemakers preferring to limit maceration time to as short as possible. During fermentation, the wine is prone to the wine fault of reduction. Overall, Dolcetto is considered a light easy drinking red wine that pairs well with pastas and pizza dishes. Acqui, Bathiolin, Beina, Bignona, Bignonina, Bourdon Noir, Charbonneau, Chasselas Noir, Cote Rouge Merille, Crete de Coq, Debili Rifosk, Dolcedo Rotstieliger, Dolcetta Nera, Dolcetto A Raspe Verde, Dolcetto A Raspo Rosso, Dolcetto Nero, Dolcetto Piemontese, Dolcino Nero, Dolsin, Dolsin Raro, Dolzino, Gros Noir de Montelimar, Gros Plant, Maennlicher Refosco, Mauvais Noir, Monteuse, Mosciolino, Nebbiolo Nera Dolce, Noirin D'Espagne, Nord Du Lot Et Garonne, Orincasca, Ormeasco, Picot Rouge, Plant de Calarin, Plant de Chapareillan, Plant de Moirans, Plant de Montmelian, Plant de Provence, Plant de Savoie, Plant de Turin, Plant du Roi, Primaticcio, Primitivo N