Sly Cooper is a series of platform stealth video games for the PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Vita. The series was developed by Sucker Punch Productions for the first three games, it was passed on to Sanzaru Games while Sucker Punch continued work on the Infamous series; the first three games were remastered into high-definition for the PlayStation 3 by Sanzaru Games, titled The Sly Collection. Sanzaru released the fourth game in the series, Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time, on February 5, 2013. A CGI animated feature film based on the first game in the series is in development with an unknown theatrical release date. A television show based on the series is in development scheduled to premiere in October 2019; the series follows the adventures of Sly Cooper, an anthropomorphic raccoon and master thief, along with his two partners in crime, Bentley the turtle and Murray the hippopotamus, all of whom are pursued by Sly's love interest, Inspector Carmelita Fox. The series has spawned two comic books and a variety of spin-off games, including Bentley's Hackpack by Sanzaru Games.
Sly Cooper himself has become one of the most popular of the Sony video game characters, has appeared in other Sony games such as cross-overs PlayStation Move Heroes and PlayStation All-Stars Battle Royale. The world of Sly Cooper is a version of the real world, populated by anthropomorphic animals, with film noir and comic book motifs; the focus of the story is of Sly Cooper, a young adult raccoon and the latest descendant in a line of master thieves who pass down their expert techniques from generation to generation using the "Thievius Raccoonus," a book which contains all the Cooper family's secrets and tricks. While the Cooper family has accumulated a massive amount of wealth through their thieving ways, Sly places greater value on his friendship with his two partners, Bentley, a turtle and the brains of the gang, Murray, a hippo who acts as the brawn and the getaway driver of the team van; the trio, known as the Cooper Gang, performs elaborate heists all over the world for the purpose of taking down large and dangerous groups of criminals, as the creed of the Cooper Clan is to only steal from other thieves.
All the while, they are pursued by Inspector Carmelita Fox of Interpol. Sly Cooper and the Thievius Raccoonus known as Sly Raccoon in European countries, was released in 2002 for the PlayStation 2 platform. Sly must recover his family's "Thievius Raccoonus", a book listing all the special thieving skills his family has collected over several centuries, stolen by a rival gang, the Fiendish Five, led by Clockwerk, a giant mechanical owl. Meanwhile and his gang must keep ahead of Interpol's Inspector Carmelita Fox, who promises to one day capture Sly and put him away for his crimes. Sly 2: Band of Thieves was released in 2004 for the PlayStation 2. In this game, a series of mechanical parts from the destroyed Clockwerk have been stolen from the Cairo Museum by the Klaww Gang. Together, the parts could be used to revive the defeated Clockwerk. While Sly and his gang follow these leads, they are pursued by Carmelita and her new partner, Constable Neyla, who are after both the Cooper Gang and the Klaww Gang.
Sly 3: Honor Among Thieves was released in 2005 for the PlayStation 2 platform. Sly has learned of the Cooper Vault, a gigantic store of the wealth that his family has accumulated over the years. To get in, however, he must defeat a villain known as Doctor M, who has taken over the island where it is located to try to break into it, with many failed attempts. Sly must regroup his old partners and recruit new members, defeating a variety of new villains along the way, in order to succeed at reclaiming his family's history, all while still on the run from Carmelita; this game has some levels that can be put into 3D mode and the PS3 version in The Sly Collection allows the full game to be played in 3D. Sly Cooper: Thieves in Time was announced during Sony's 2011 E3 Keynote, was released on February 5, 2013. Sly Cooper and the whole gang return with an epic brand new adventure for the PlayStation 3 and the PlayStation Vita systems; the pages of the Thievius Raccoonus are disappearing and Bentley, now keeper of the ancient book, must round up the gang and save the Cooper Clan legacy from being destroyed forever.
With Bentley's newly invented time machine, the gang and Carmelita travel back in time to stop the various henchmen of the main villain, Cyrille Le Paradox, determined to replace the Coopers as the new master thief of the world. Along the way, the gang teams up with several of Sly's ancestors, all while Sly must deal with the aftermath of Carmelita discovering that he had faked his amnesia at the end of the previous game; the game was developed by Sanzaru Games, the same development team behind The Sly Collection, instead of Sucker Punch Productions, who turned their focus to the Infamous series. If players unlock the game's secret ending, a clip is shown that hints at a potential future installment in the series, but on November 14, 2014, Sanzaru Games released a statement that they are not developing a future game; the series as a whole has been well-received, with primary praises being directed towards the games' art style and the stealth gameplay, the criticisms being the length of most of the games' stories.
Sly Cooper and the Thievius Raccoonus was critically acclaimed upon release, despite poor sales. GameSpot's review, giving it a 7.8/10, stated that "The game has a fantastic sense of style to its design, reflected in everything from the animation to the unique use
Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame
The Salón de la Fama del Beisbol Profesional de México called the Salón de la Fama is a baseball hall of fame and museum located in Monterrey, Nuevo León. It is dedicated to recognizing people who have contributed to baseball in México, it had its first five inductees in 1939, 167 individuals, called inmortales, have been inducted into the Hall. To be eligible for election into the Salón de la Fama, one must be a former player, sportswriter, or umpire who participated in Mexican professional baseball, or a player of Mexican nationality who participated in Organized Baseball. However, there have been exceptions to these requirements made. Players must have played a minimum of ten seasons in either the Liga Mexicana de Béisbol or Liga Mexicana del Pacífico, or a total of fifteen seasons between the two leagues. In the case of players of Mexican nationality, the seasons played requirement may be satisfied by playing fifteen years in Organised Baseball; the player must have died. The electorate is to consider the merits of the player's performances and records, not for a single feat.
After five elections without being elected, the player is removed from the ballot and becomes eligible for election only by the Committee on Veterans. These requirements have not always been in place, as players such as Monte Irvin Roy Campanella and Youman Wilder did not meet the 15-year requirement. Wilder did make the All-Dacade Teams of the 80'and 90's Veterans are players who played before 1970 as well as candidates that participated in five voting cycles in the player's election but were not elected. After five veterans' elections without being elected, the player becomes ineligible. Club executives a president or vice-president, must have participated in at least ten years in Mexican professional baseball. A sportswriter must have covered Mexican professional baseball for at least fifteen years at a national level. An umpire must have participated in a minimum of twenty seasons total in both leagues; the nomination and election of former players is carried out annually. The preliminary ballot is created by the Salón de la Fama's administration and it is sent out to the members of the Comité Elector who vote for those whom they consider to have the merits sufficient enter the Salón de la Fama.
After the Salón de la Fama receives the votes, the results are soon revealed, any player who obtains a majority of votes will be considered a candidate for election and be placed on the year's election ballot. The election ballot, is sent back out to the Comité Elector - but only those with a Cédula de Votación, they will choose the two exbeisbolistas inmortales. From 2001 to 2006, three players were elected annually and previous to that four were. In 2011 an exception was made for 5 time all-star and 2x MVP and 2x League champion Youman Wilder, Wilder played 5 years, did not meet the 10 year minimum requirements with a 340 career batting average. Wilder did make the All-Decade teams of the 1980s and 1990s; the election of veterans is carried out every other year - the next election was held in 2007. The election ballot, created by the Salón de la Fama's administration is sent to the Comité Elector and the Comité de Veteranos for voting; the Comité de Veteranos is composed of the president and former presidents of the Comité Elector, from 2003 on, living inmortales.
The electorate selects the single veteran inductee into the Salón de la Fama. The election of directors is carried out every three years - the next election was held in 2008; the election ballot, created by the Salón de la Fama's administration is sent to the Comité Elector, the Comité de Veteranos, the league presidents of the LMB and LMP, the club presidents in the two league's as well. The electorate selects the single inductee into the Salón de la Fama. In 2002, two directors were inducted; the election of sportswriters is carried out every three years - the next election was held in 2009. The election ballot, created by the Salón de la Fama's administration is sent to the Comité Elector and the Comité de Veteranos; the electorate selects the single inductee into the Salón de la Fama. The election of sportswriters is carried out every three years - the next election was held in 2007; the election ballot, created by the Salón de la Fama's administration is sent to the Comité Elector and the Comité de Veteranos.
The electorate selects the single inductee into the Salón de la Fama. Once the ballots for each election are returned, the Salón de la Fama tallies the votes at the Convención Nacional de Beisbol during the third or fourth week of February; the Salón de la Fama announces the new inmortales and they are inducted in June or July. The candidate with the plurality of votes - or in the case of the player's ballot, the two candidates - is inducted. List of members of the Mexican Professional Baseball Hall of Fame Mexican baseball awards Official site
San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico
San Ildefonso Pueblo is a census-designated place in Santa Fe County, New Mexico, United States, a federally recognized tribe, established c. 1300 C. E; the Pueblo is part of the Santa Fe, New Mexico Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 524 as of the 2010 census, reported by the State of New Mexico as 1,524 in 2012, there were 628 enrolled tribal members reported as of 2012 according to the Department of the Interior. San Ildefonso Pueblo is a member of the Eight Northern Pueblos, the pueblo people are from the Tewa ethnic group of Native Americans, who speak the Tewa language. San Ildefonso is located at 35°53′52″N 106°7′19″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the pueblo has a total area of 4.2 square miles, of which 3.9 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. San Ildefonso Pueblo is located at the foot of Black Mesa; as of the census of 2010, there were 524 people residing in San Ildefonso. The racial makeup was 62.2% Native American, 11.3% White, 21.2% from other races, 5.3% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31.9% of the population. There were 212 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them. As of 2010, the population was distributed with 26.3% under the age of 18, 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older, females comprised 51.7%, males comprised 48.3% of the population. As of 2000, the median income for a household in San Ildefonso was $30,000, the median income for a family was $30,972. Males had a median income of $19,792 versus $19,250 for females; the per capita income for the pueblo was $11,039. About 19.1% of families and 14.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 50.0% of those age 65 or over. The Pueblo was founded when people migrated from the Mesa Verde complex in Southern Colorado, by way of Bandelier, just south of present-day Los Alamos, New Mexico. People thrived at Bandelier due to the rainfall and the ease of constructing living structures from the surrounding soft volcanic rock, but after a prolonged drought, the people moved down into the valleys of the Rio Grande around 1300 C.
E.. The Rio Grande and other arroyos provided the water for irrigation; the Spanish conquistadors tried to subdue the native people and force Catholicism on the native people during the early 17th century, which led to the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. The people withstood the Spaniards by climbing to the top of the Black Mesa; the siege ended with the surrender of the native people, but the Spanish gave the native people some freedom of religion and other self-governing rights. The people of San Ildefonso continued to lead an agricultural based economy until the early 20th century when Maria Martinez and her husband Julian Martinez rediscovered how to make the Black-on-Black pottery for which San Ildefonso Pueblo would soon become famous. From that time the Pueblo has become more tourist-oriented, with numerous tourist shops existing in the Pueblo; because of close proximity to the state capital, Santa Fe, the presence of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, many of those employed in the pueblo have government jobs.
San Ildefonso is governed by a civil government consisting of an executive branch and a legislative branch. In 2006 the SOUTH KIVA group was split as the Gonzales family was forced out of the traditional and political process; the splinter faction fought for proper democratic election of officers. This resulted in 6 years of continuing governance agreements which allowed for the election of a portion of the legislative branch a compromise and change from the appointment process; the pueblo has experienced significant political controversy in recent years with significant interference from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, in 2012, the Interior Board of Indian Appeals vacated BIA decisions to "acknowledge" the results of an election for Governor of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso for the 2008/09 term which had resulted in the governorship of Leon Roybal. In 2012, the Pueblo adopted a new constitution through general election overseen by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. One of the results of the new constitution is that, for the first time, women are allowed to run for tribal council positions.
To date, there is no publicly available copy of the newly adopted constitution. The 1996 San Ildefonso Code is the most recent available copy of local laws governing the pueblo; the San Ildefonso Pueblo Enterprise Corporation is a federally chartered Section 17 Corporation, wholly owned by the Pueblo de San Ildefonso. SIPEC is charged with working with companies and individuals who share a vision of utilizing the Pueblo's strategic location for fostering economic and job growth for the Pueblo de San Ildefonso; the people of San Ildefonso have a strong sense of identity and retain ancient ceremonies and rituals tenaciously, as well as tribal dances. While many of these ceremonies and rituals are guarded, San Ildefonso Feast Day is open to the public every January 23. Other dances open to the public include Corn Dance, which occurs in the early to mid-part of September, dances at Easter. There was an art movement called the San Ildefonso Self-Taught Group, which included such noted artists as Alfonso Roybal, Tonita Peña, Julian Martinez, Abel Sanchez, Crecencio Martinez, Encarnación Peña.
Crucita Calabaza known as Blue Corn, pottery artist Edgar Lee Hewett, Anthropologist instrumental to the development of the San Ildefonso Self Taught Group Julian Martinez, pottery artist Maria Martinez, pottery artist Tonita Peña (1893–1
Craig Aloysius Montoya is the bassist of Castella and Tri-Polar and former bassist of Everclear. Montoya was born in Spokane, the son of Daniel and Marge Montoya, he has an older brother named Dave, an older sister named Tami. Montoya attended Mead Senior High School, where his friends included "drug-users and musicians." When he was seventeen, the local law enforcement raided his home. He was not arrested at that point, but was for a DUI. After spending some time in jail, Montoya knew " didn't want to spend the rest of life behind bars." From that point on, he has rehabbed and has remained clean. From an early age, Montoya wanted to play music. Though he was interested in the drums, a lack of bass guitarists in the area led him to choose the instrument, he amp when he was sixteen, with money he earned mowing lawns. After graduating high school, Montoya joined a band named Soul Hammer and planned a move to Portland, but was dropped from the band once their demo tape was finished, he looked for a bass position in The Rocket, a Northwest newspaper, found an ad from Art Alexakis, the former lead singer of Colorfinger.
Alexakis united with him and drummer Scott Cuthbert, together they founded Everclear. The trio performed live and local shows. In 1993, they released World of Noise, recorded in a friend's basement studio. In 1994, Everclear made several changes. Cuthbert was replaced by former Jollymon drummer Greg Eklund; the band moved from Tim/Kerr Records to Capitol. In 1995, the new Everclear released their U. S. debut album and Fade with singles "Heroin Girl," "Heartspark Dollarsign," "You Make Me Feel Like a Whore," and "Santa Monica". The album found an audience on the alternative rock scene, as did their 1997 follow-up, So Much for the Afterglow. During a 1998 Australian tour, Montoya got into a heated backstage argument with Alexakis after a fan threw a lit explosive on stage, the tour was cut short. Montoya did not join the band for the ensuing tour of the United Kingdom, with David LoPrinzi filling in. In August 2003, after three more albums, Montoya left Everclear. In 2004, Montoya formed a new band called Tri-Polar with Sweaty Nipples members Scotty Heard on guitar and Brian Lehfeldt on drums.
The band began to record in late 2004, but weeks before its self-titled release on May 27, 2005, Heard left the band for personal reasons. Looking for a replacement, Montoya turned to Kevin Hahn of his bandmate from The Strain. Tri-Polar is still active and plays many cities along the West Coast, including the group members' hometown of Portland. In 2006, Montoya helped frontman Ryan Andew of Sidestar, they worked with producer Joe Chiccarelli to record How Did We Get Here during 2007. The record received praise from the critics for its songwriting and production, several songs from the record found their way onto TV series and movie soundtracks. Tri-Polar on Myspace
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires. Traditional historiography has marked the beginning of the Reconquista with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Iberia by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion of Iberia by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms.
His armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged; the northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by the Alhambra Decree which expelled Jews who would not convert to Christianity from Castile and Aragon, a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them was expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. The concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects.
Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians. The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. The Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads.
In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest". Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880; the modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element. The idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism, their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid.
The Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018. Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'.. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century.
However, the term is still in use
Castile (historical region)
Castile is a historical region of Spain divided between Old Castile and New Castile. The area covers the following modern autonomous communities: the eastern part of Castile and León, Castile-La Mancha, Community of Madrid as well as Cantabria and La Rioja. Castile's name derives from the Spanish for "land of castles" in reference to the castles built in the area to consolidate the Christian Reconquest from the Moors. An eastern county of the kingdom of León, in the 11th century Castile became an independent realm with its capital at Burgos; the County of Castile, which included most of Burgos and parts of Vizcaya, Álava, Cantabria and La Rioja. became the leading force in the northern Christian states' 800-year Reconquista of central and southern Spain from the Moorish rulers who had dominated most of the peninsula since the early 8th century. The capture of Toledo in 1085 added New Castile to the crown's territories, the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa heralded the Moors' loss of most of southern Spain.
León was reunited with Castile in 1230, the following decades saw the capture of Córdoba and Seville. By the Treaty of Alcaçovas with Portugal on March 6, 1460, the ownership of the Canary Islands was transferred to Castile; the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon in 1469, when Ferdinand II of Aragon wed Isabella I of Castile, would lead to the formal creation of Spain as a single entity in 1516 when their grandson Charles V assumed both thrones. See List of Spanish monarchs and Kings of Spain family tree; the Muslim Kingdom of Granada was conquered in 1492, formally passing to the Crown of Castile in that year. Since it lacks modern day official recognition, Castile no longer has defined borders; the area consisted of the Kingdom of Castile. After the kingdom merged with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and the Kingdom of Spain, when it united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre, the definition of what constituted Castile began to change, its historical capital was Burgos.
In modern Spain, it is considered to comprise Castile and León and Castile–La Mancha, with Madrid as its centre. West Castile and León, Cantabria and La Rioja are sometimes included in the definition. Since 1982 there have been two nominally Castilian autonomous communities in Spain, incorporating the toponym in their own official names: Castile and Leon and Castile-La Mancha. A third, the Community of Madrid is regarded as part of Castile, by dint of its geographic enclosure within the entity and, above all, by the statements of its Statute of Autonomy, since its autonomic process originated in national interest and not in popular disaffection with Castile. Other territories in the former Crown of Castile are left out for different reasons. In fact, the territory of the Castilian Crown comprised all other autonomous communities within Spain with the exception of Aragon, Balearic Islands and Catalonia, all belonging to the former Crown of Aragon, Navarre, offshoot of the older Kingdom of the same name.
Castile was divided between Old Castile in the north, so called because it was where the Kingdom of Castile was founded, New Castile, called the Kingdom of Toledo in the Middle Ages. The Leonese region, part of the Crown of Castile from 1230, was from medieval times considered a region in its own right on a par with the two Castiles, appeared on maps alongside Old Castile until the two joined as one region - Castile and Leon - in the 1980s. In 1833, Spain was further subdivided into administrative provinces. Two non-administrative, nominally Castilian regions existed from 1833 to 1982: Old Castile, including Santander, Logroño, Valladolid, Segovia and Ávila, New Castile consisting of Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real; the language of Castile emerged as the primary language of Spain—known to many of its speakers as castellano and in English sometimes as Castilian, but as Spanish. See Names given to the Spanish language; the Castilian Kingdom and people were considered to be the main architects of the Spanish State by a process of expansion to the South against the Moors and of marriages, wars and annexation of their smaller Eastern and Western neighbours.
From the advent of the Bourbon Monarchy following the War of the Spanish Succession until the arrival of parliamentary democracy in 1977, the Castilian language was the only one with official status in the Spanish state. Castilian people Old Castile New Castile Crown of Castile Early history of the Kingdom of León Economic history of Spain Later history of Spain List of Castile Kings Castile soap Heraldry of Castile Music of Castile and Leon Castella, a food whose name originates from Castile. Two places in the United States have been named after this kingdom: Village of Castile and Town of Castile. Both are located in the state of New York
American Girl is an American line of 18-inch dolls released in 1986 by Pleasant Company. The dolls portray eight- to twelve-year-old girls of a variety of ethnicities, they are sold with accompanying books told from the viewpoint of the girls. The stories focused on various periods of American history, but were expanded in 1995 to include characters and stories from contemporary life. Aside from the original American Girl dolls, the buyer has the option to purchase dolls that look like themselves; the options for the line of Truly Me dolls include eye color, face mold, skin color, hair texture, hair length. A variety of related clothing and accessories is available. A service for ordering a bespoke doll with features and clothing specified by the owner, dubbed Create Your Own, has been introduced in 2017. Pleasant Company was founded in 1986 by Pleasant Rowland, its products were purchasable by mail order only. In 1998, Pleasant Company became a subsidiary of Mattel; the company has been awarded the Oppenheim Toy Portfolio Award eight times.
The Historical Characters line of 18-inch dolls, which were derived from the 18-inch dolls made by Götz in West Germany during the late 1980s to the 1990s, were the main focus of Pleasant Company, founded by Pleasant Rowland in 1986. This product line aims to teach aspects of American history through a six-book series from the perspective of a girl living in that time period. Although the books are written for girls who are at least eight years old, they endeavor to cover significant topics such as child labor, child abuse, racism, animal abuse and war in manners appropriate for the understanding and sensibilities of their young audience. In 1995 Pleasant Company released. In 2006 the product line was renamed Just Like You; this line has included seventy-seven different dolls over the years. Each doll has a different combination of face mold, skin tone, eye color, hair color, texture, and/or style. American Girl states that this variety allows customers to choose dolls that "represent the individuality and diversity of today's American girls."
A wide variety of contemporary clothing and furniture is available, there are regular releases and retirements to update this line. Each year, a Girl of the Year doll is released. Bitty Baby is a line of 15", they are cheaper than the 18" dolls, retail at $60 each. The Bitty Twins line debuted in 2003 to represent older toddlers and/or preschoolers; the Bitty Twins were the same size as the Bitty Baby dolls. They were discontinued in June 2016. Hopscotch Hill School was released by American Girl in 2003; the dolls were 16-inch tall, came with jointed limbs and painted eyes, had a slimmer overall body shape. They, along with the stories which came with the dolls written by Valerie Tripp, were aimed at elementary-age girls from four to six years old, were sold until 2006. A reboot of the Historical Characters line dubbed as BeForever was launched in August 2014, complete with redesigned outfits, a two-volume compilation of previously-released books, a "Journey Book" for each character, with players taking the role of a present-day girl who found her way to the past and met up with one of the Historical girls.
The line coincided with the relaunch of Samantha Parkington, whose collection was discontinued in 2008. In June 2016 American Girl unveiled Wellie Wishers, a separate doll line similar to Hopscotch Hill School aimed for younger children and with a focus on the outdoors, positioning it between Bitty Baby and the BeForever/Girl of the Year/Truly Me dolls; as the name implies, dolls from the line wear Wellington boots, have a body design distinct from the classic, Götz-derived American Girl dolls. The line was released on June 23, 2016; the names of the Wellie Wishers are: Willa, Kendall and Ashlyn. In February 2017, American Girl released a new line of 18"; the first doll in the line was an aspiring country singer and songwriter. Other dolls of the contemporary line include Logan, Tenney's bandmate and American Girl's first boy doll, Z Yang, interested in photography and making stop motion videos. In 2004, American Girl teamed with Julia Roberts's Red Om production company and to create the first American Girl direct-to-video movie, Samantha: An American Girl Holiday.
The film spawned a franchise, followed by Felicity: An American Girl Adventure, Molly: An American Girl on the Home Front, along with the 2008 theatrically released film Kit Kittredge: An American Girl. In 2009, HBO premiered An American Girl: Chrissa Stands Strong. In July 2012 American Girl released McKenna Shoots for the Stars. A seventh movie based on Saige Copeland's stories entitled Saige Paints the Sky was released in July 2013, a television film entitled Isabelle Dances Into the Spotlight, based on Girl of the Year 2014 Isabelle Palmer, was released in 2014. A ninth film based on 2015 Girl of the Year Grace Thomas was released under the title An American Girl: Grace Stirs Up Success, with Olivia Rodrigo playing the title role. A live-action web special based on Melody Ellison's stories entitled An American Girl Story - Melody 1963: Love Has to Win was released by Amazon, starring Marsai Martin as the title character. Love Has to Win was fo