The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 26 August 1987, entered into force on 26 August 1989, following a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since it has undergone nine revisions, in 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2016 As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol". In comparison, effective burden sharing and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol has failed to do so.
In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was global regulation being installed before a scientific consensus was established. Overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks; the two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197 parties, making them the first universally ratified treaties in United Nations history. These universal treaties have been remarkable in the expedience of the policy-making process at the global scale, where only 14 years lapsed between a basic scientific research discovery and the international agreement signed; the treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that deplete stratospheric ozone. All of the ozone depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol contain either chlorine or bromine; some ozone-depleting substances are not yet controlled by the Montreal Protocol, including nitrous oxide For a table of ozone-depleting substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol see:For each group of ODSs, the treaty provides a timetable on which the production of those substances must be shot out and eliminated.
This included a 10-year phase-in for developing countries identified in Article 5 of the treaty. The stated purpose of the treaty is that the signatory states Recognizing that worldwide emissions of certain substances can deplete and otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner, to result in adverse effects on human health and the environment. Determined to protect the ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global emissions of substances that deplete it with the ultimate objective of their elimination on the basis of developments in scientific knowledge Acknowledging that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing countries shall accept a series of stepped limits on CFC use and production, including: There was a faster phase-out of halon-1211, -2402, -1301, There was a slower phase-out of other substances and some chemicals were given individual attention; the phasing-out of the less damaging HCFCs only began in 1996 and will go on until a complete phasing-out is achieved by 2030.
There were a few exceptions for "essential uses" where no acceptable substitutes were found or Halon fire suppression systems used in submarines and aircraft. The substances in Group I of Annex A are: CFCl3 CF2Cl2 C2F3Cl3 C2F4Cl2 C2F5Cl The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental and economic information, assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide expert communities. To provide that input to the decision-making process, advances in understanding on these topics were assessed in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2002 in a series of reports entitled Scientific assessment of ozone depletion, by the Scientific Assessment Panel. In 1990 a Technology and Economic Assessment Panel was established as the technology and economics advisory body to the Montreal Protocol Parties; the Technology and Economic Assessment Panel provides, at the request of Parties, technical information related to the alternative technologies that have been investigated and employed to make it possible to eliminate use of Ozone Depleting Substances, that harm the ozone layer.
The TEAP is tasked by the Parties every year to assess and evaluate various technical issues including evaluating nominations for essential use exemptions for CFCs and halons, nominations for critical use exemptions for methyl bromide. TEAP's annual reports are a basis for the Parties’ informed decision-making. Numerous reports have been published by various inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations to catalogue and assess alternatives to the ozone depleting substances, since the substances have been used in various technical sectors, like in refrigeration, air conditioning and rigid foam, fire protection, electronics and laboratory measurements. Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Executive Committee 53/37 and ExCom 54/39
The Entertainment Industries Council is a United States non-profit organization founded in 1983 that promotes the depiction of accurate health and social issues in film, television and comic books. The Council provides guidelines on the depictions of these issues to the entertainment industry promoting content that includes negative consequences of addiction and violence; the Entertainment Industries Council honors films and television programs that make a positive difference in the world honoring film and TV programs which portray realistic depictions of dependence, in an annual, star-studded, televised awards show. The Annual Prism Awards honors the creative community for accurate portrayals of substance abuse and mental health in entertainment programming. Past winners and nominees have included the films Walk the Line, Ray, City of God, Blow, The Insider and Purgatory House. TV shows and movies of the week honored have included programs such as: Augusta, Monk, Private Practice, The Office, Desperate Housewives and the Brain, ER, Boston Legal, American Dad!, The Simpsons, Castle in its fourth season for its story arc focusing on Kate Beckett's post traumatic stress disorder and General Hospital.
1997 Trainspotting1998 Gridlock'd1999 Down in the Delta2000 The Insider2001 Traffic2002 Blow2003 Skins2004 City of God 2006 Self Medicated2007 Thank You for Smoking and Sherrybaby 2008 Georgia Rule2009 Rachel Getting Married tied with Rolling2010 Crazy Heart and The Soloist 2011 Black Swan and The Fighter 2012 Shame tied with and Take Shelter and Warrior 2013 Silver Linings Playbook and Flight 2014 Home and The Spectacular Now 2015 Still Alice The EDGE Awards concentrate on an accurate depiction of the issues of gun safety and gun violence. The EIC received an 18 month, $125,000 grant in 2004 from the Joyce Foundation, a major financial sponsor of gun control organizations; the PRISM Awards official website Entertainment Industries Council website
The Maui parrotbill or kiwikiu is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper, endemic to Maui in Hawaii. It can only be found in 50 square kilometres of mesic and wet forests at 1,200–2,150 metres on the windward slopes of Haleakalā; this species is critically endangered, with an estimated population of only 500 individuals. Fossil evidence indicates that the bird could at one time be seen in dry forests at elevations as low as 200–300 metres, as well as on the island of Molokaʻi The Maui parrotbill is one of the larger Hawaiian honeycreepers, measuring 14 centimetres and with a mass of 20–25 grams; the bird is yellow on the breast and belly, olive-green on the wings, crown and back, has a bright yellow supercilium. The upper mandible of the bird's beak is hooked and dark gray, while the lower mandible is chisel-like and pale ivory. Males are longer-winged, larger-billed, heavier than females. Juveniles are light gray ventrally, its call is a short “chip”, similar to the Maui Nui ʻalauahio, chirped every three to five seconds.
It song consists of "cheer" notes that are richer than the ʻākepa. It has a short song that sounds like “cheer-wee”; the Maui parrotbill is an insectivore. It uses its large beak and powerful jaw muscles to remove bark and wood from small trees and shrubs such as ʻākala, ʻōhiʻa lehua, eating the insects underneath; the Maui parrotbill bites open fruits in search of insects. It is fond of moth beetle larvae. Pairs of birds forage in a territory of 2.3 hectares, which they must defend from competing parrotbills. The Maui parrotbill is breeds between November and June. Females build a cup-shaped nest out of Usnea lichens and pūkiawe twigs, placing it 12 metres above the forest floor. Pairs raise a single nestling per season; the female incubates it for 16 days. Fledglings remain with their parents for five to eight months; the Maui parrotbill lives only in undisturbed wet forests dominated by ʻōhiʻa lehua and small patches of ʻōhiʻa-koa mesic forest. Its habitat exhibits a dense understory of small trees, epiphytes and sedges, centered between Puʻu ʻAlaea, Kuhiwa Valley, Lake Waianapanapa, upper Kīpahulu Valley, an area less than 2,020 hectares, at elevations of 1,310–2,070 metres.
As far as anyone can determine, Pseudonestor xanthophrys had not had a common name in the Hawaiian language. The name Hawaiian kiwikiu was developed by the Hawaiian Lexicon Committee, contacted by the Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project to select an appropriate name. A naming ceremony was held in the bird's habitat in September 2010; the "kiwi" part of the name means bent or curved, which refers to the shape of the bill of this bird. "Kiu" has a double meaning, referring both to the bird's secretive ways and to a cold, chilly wind, such as the breezes in the bird's habitat. The Maui parrotbill's natural habitat is wet forests, it is threatened by habitat loss. Much of the land in the parrotbill's historic range was changed for agricultural purposes, timber production and animal grazing. Introduced pests, such as mosquitoes and feral ungulates directly and indirectly affect the parrotbill's survival. Mosquitoes spread avian malaria, which the parrotbill is susceptible to, rats prey upon the birds' eggs and young, feral pigs uproot the low-lying vegetation that the parrotbill forages in.
Pigs additionally create wallows, which serve as breeding grounds for avian malaria-infected mosquitoes. The Maui parrotbill was listed as an endangered species in 1967 under the Endangered Species Act, it is part of the Maui-Molokai Bird Recovery Plan in 1984, which led to fencing areas of East Maui and removing feral ungulates. The recovery plan included a captive breeding program, which produced its first chick in 2003. Field research is done by the Maui Forest Bird Recovery Project. A 2009 survey of the Waikamoi Preserve estimates that there are about 20 birds per square kilometer in the windward preserve near the summit of Haleakala, indicating that the population is holding steady or increasing. A contributing factor is. A previous study found about half the density; the preserve contains about 25 percent of the population, while most of the rest is in the Hanawi Natural Area Reserve. The birds were once found throughout Molokai. BirdLife Species Factsheet. Hilford, Jason. "Hatching a Plan".
Sam Beeton is a British singer-songwriter and musician. He released his debut single "What You Look For" in September 2008, which reached number 41 in the UK charts in the week up to 20 September 2008, his first album, No Definite Answer, was released on iTunes in 2008. Sam attended Carlton le Willows School. Sam Beeton was discovered while playing in a bar, The Old Volunteer he was still at school aged 14. Sam was signed to the Notts County School of Excellence and played for the youth teams for 3 years at left midfield, he played in a local young recording band called The Drains who are still playing on the Nottingham circuit. Sam is involved in local charities as The Julie Cotton Foundation, he always plays at the annual concert at Rock City. Sam has modelled for the British fashion label Burberry, notably the Spring 2009 collection. Sam was nominated for the Best Pop Act at the BT Digital Music Awards, lost to Kylie Minogue. Sam Beeton has supported The Script, Sandi Thom, James Morrison, Scouting for Girls and Charlie Simpson on full UK tours and has completed one UK tour in his own right.
Beeton's first single had an unprecedented run as "record of the week" on the two shows Jo Whiley and Scott Mills of BBC Radio One consecutively.. First Takes: released 5 March 2007 Sam Beeton's Record Club: released November 2010 - December 2011 Sam Beeton's Record Club: released May 2012 - Thrills, Adrian. "The next big thing: Sam Beeton". Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 September 2008. Easlea, Daryl. "Sam Beeton: No Definite Answer". BBC Pop & Chart Review. Retrieved 16 September 2008. Sullivan, Caroline. "Pop review: Sam Beeton, No Definite Answer". Guardian, The. Retrieved 16 September 2008. Levine, Nick. "Sam Beeton". Digital Spy. Retrieved 16 September 2008
The FOCSA Building was built from 1954 to 1956, named after the contracting company Fomento de Obras y Construcciones, Sociedad Anónima. The architects were Ernesto Gómez Sampera, Mercedes Diaz, Martín Domínguez Esteban, the architect of the Radiocentro CMQ Building; the structural engineer was Luis Sáenz Duplace, of the firm Sáenz, Cancio & Martín, professor of engineering at the University of Havana. The civil engineers were Manuel Padron. Gustavo Becquer and Fernando H. Meneses were the electrical engineers respectively; the building is located on M and Calles 19 and N in the Vedado. In 1952 the CMQ Radio and TV Network located at Calle Rampa and M in el Vedado planned to provide administrative offices, a radio station and housing for employees. CMQ selected a 110,000 sq. ft. plot of land costing 700,000 pesos. The company Fomento de Hipotecas Aseguradas financed 80% of the cost of the residences and 60% of the commercial shops. El Banco Continental Cubano granted a credit of 6 million pesos.
Work began in February 1954 and finished in June 1956. At the time of construction it was the second-largest residential concrete building in the world, second only to the Martinelli Building in São Paulo, Brazil, it surpassed the López Serrano Building in height, Cuba's tallest building. In the early 1960s, middle-class owners of residential floor units had their properties nationalized by the current government. In the 1970s the building housed Soviet and Eastern bloc specialists and advisors and the ground store supermarket was for non-Cubans only. In 2000 an elevator cable snapped killing one person. In the 2000s the building was repainted and renovated and much of the building was given over to temporary housing of foreign guest workers from Venezuela; the FOCSA rises to a height of 402' above the footings. The bearing walls are solid and have no openings except at the basement and lobby floors to facilitate access between rooms. There is an additional concrete mass at the center of the Y, to increase resistance to lateral forces.
The walls extend through the rear wall to support the corridors. The wall and slab structural system form a three-dimensional lattice resisting horizontal forces. A high strength concrete mix from 3,000 to 7,000 psi. was used. The tower and corridors show prefabricated panels on the exterior. Reinforced concrete columns support the stories below; the residential block, the'Y,' is supported by thirteen eleven-inch walls. The building was chosen in February 1997 by the Unión Nacional de Arquitectos e Ingenieros de la Construcción de Cuba as one of the seven wonders of Cuban civil engineering. Most of the FOCSA Building was cast-in-place concrete, a technology of construction of buildings where walls and slabs of the buildings are cast at the site in wood formwork; this differs from precast concrete technology where slabs are cast elsewhere and brought to the construction site and assembled. It uses concrete slabs for walls instead of bricks or wooden panels, formwork is used for both walls and roof.
Advantages of this technology are strength of the building, versatility for different types of buildings, faster construction time. Disadvantages are requirement of labour. High-strength concrete has a compressive strength greater than 40 MPa. In the UK, BS EN 206-1 defines High strength concrete as concrete with a compressive strength class higher than C50/60. High-strength concrete is made by lowering the water-cement ratio to 0.35 or lower. Silica fume is added to prevent the formation of free calcium hydroxide crystals in the cement matrix, which might reduce the strength at the cement-aggregate bond. Low W/C ratios and the use of silica fume make concrete mixes less workable, likely to be a problem in high-strength concrete applications where dense rebar cages are to be used. To compensate for the reduced workability, superplasticizers are added to high-strength mixtures. Aggregate must be selected for high-strength mixes, as weaker aggregates may not be strong enough to resist the loads imposed on the concrete and cause failure to start in the aggregate rather than in the matrix or at a void, as occurs in regular concrete.
In some applications of high-strength concrete, the design criterion is the elastic modulus rather than the ultimate compressive strength. Modern concrete mix designs can be complex; the choice of a concrete mix depends on the need of the project both in terms of strength and appearance and in relation to local legislation and building codes. The design begins by determining the requirements of the concrete; these requirements take into consideration the weather conditions that the concrete will be exposed to in service and the required design strength. The compressive strength of concrete is determined by taking standard molded, standard-cured cylinder samples. Many factors need to be taken into account, from the cost of the various additives and aggregates, to the trade-offs between the "slump" for easy mixing and placement and ultimate performance. A mix is designed using cement and fine aggregates and chemical admixtures; the method of mixing will be specified, as well as conditions that it may be used in.
This allows a user of the concrete to be confident. Various types of concrete have been developed
Georgia took part in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018, held on 25 November 2018 in Minsk, Belarus. Prior to the 2017 Contest, Georgia had participated in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest ten times since its debut in 2007, since they have never missed a single contest. Georgia is the most successful country in the competition, with three victories in 2008, 2011 and 2016. Tamar Edilashvili is a Georgian child singer, she represented Georgia at the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2018 in Belarus. The young singer studies at the NK School-Lyceum and the E. Mikeladze Central Music School. Tamar is no stranger to music competitions, having participated in the X Factor Georgia in 2017 and reaching the semi-final. In October of last year, the three-month-long competition Ranina had begun, which saw Tamar and nine other entrants participate in multiple rounds of the show. During one of the shows, Tamar performed with Ethno-Jazz Band Iriao, the group that represented Georgia at this year’s Eurovision Song Contest.
During the opening ceremony and the running order draw which both took place on 19 November 2018, Georgia was drawn to perform thirteenth on 25 November 2018, following Australia and preceding Israel. The results of the 2018 Junior Eurovision Song Contest will be determined by national juries and an online audience vote; every country will have a national jury that will consist of three music industry professionals and two kids aged between 10 and 15 who are citizens of the country they represent. This jury will be asked to judge each contestant based on: vocal capacity. In addition, no member of a national jury could be related in any way to any of the competing acts in such a way that they cannot vote impartially and independently; the first phase of the online voting will start on 23 November 2018 when a recap of all the rehearsal performances will be shown on junioreurovision.tv before the viewers can vote. After this, voters will have the option to watch longer one-minute clips from each participant’s rehearsal.
This first round of voting will stop on Sunday, 25 November, at 15:59 CET. The second phase of the online voting will take place during the live show and will start right after the last performance and will be open for 15 minutes. International viewers can vote for a maximum of five, they can vote for their own country’s song. These votes will be turned into points which will be determined by the percentage of votes received. For example, if a song receives 20% of the votes, thus it will receive 20% of the available points; the public vote will count for 50% of the final result, while the other 50% will come from the professional juries. Georgia received 39 points from Online voting