Island of Montreal
The Island of Montreal, in southwestern Quebec, Canada, is at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa rivers. It is separated from Île Jésus by the Rivière des Prairies, it is the largest island in the Hochelaga Archipelago, the second largest in the Saint Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence widens into Lake Saint-Louis south-west of the island, narrows into the Lachine Rapids widens again into the Bassin de La Prairie before becoming the St. Lawrence again and flowing toward Quebec City. Saint Helen's Island and Notre Dame Island are in the Saint Lawrence southeast of downtown Montreal; the Ottawa becomes Lac des Deux-Montagnes north-west of the island. The Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal, between the western tip of the island and Île Perrot, connects Lac des Deux-Montagnes and Lake Saint-Louis. Another outlet of Lac des Deux-Montagnes, the Rivière des Prairies, flows along the north shore of the island and into the St. Lawrence at the northeastern tip of the island. Man has altered the topography of the island as evidenced by historical maps that name a lake St Pierre in the island.
The island is 50 km long and 16 km wide at its widest point. The area of the Urban agglomeration of Montreal, which includes the Island of Montreal and several other smaller islands, is 499 km²; the island of Montreal has a shoreline of 266 km. At its centre are the three peaks of Mount Royal; the southwest of the island is separated by the Lachine Canal between Lachine and Montreal's Old Port. The island of Montreal is the major component of the territory of the city of Montreal, along with Île Bizard, Saint Helen's Island, Notre Dame Island, Nuns' Island, some 69 smaller islands. With a population of 2,014,221 inhabitants, it is by far the most populous island in Canada, it is the 6th most populous island of the Americas and the 37th most populated island on Earth, outranking Manhattan Island in New York City. In addition, it is the most populous island surrounded by freshwater on Earth. Montréal and the other municipalities on the island compose the administrative region of Montréal; the crossings which connect the island to its surroundings are some of the busiest bridges in the country and the world.
The Champlain Bridge and the Jacques Cartier Bridge together accommodate 101 million vehicle crossings a year. The first French name for the island was l'ille de Vilmenon, noted by Samuel de Champlain in a 1616 map, derived from the sieur de Vilmenon, a patron of the founders of Quebec at the court of Louis XIII. However, by 1632 Champlain referred to the Isle de Mont-real in another map; the island derived its name from Mount Royal, spread its name to the town, called Ville-Marie. In the Kanien' kéha, the island is called Tiohtià: Ka-wé-no-te. In Anishninaabemowin, the land is called Mooniyaang. List of rivers and water bodies of Montreal Island Flags and Coats of Arms Municipalities of Montreal Island - City of Montreal
Mechanics' Institutes are educational establishments formed to provide adult education in technical subjects, to working men. Similar organisation are sometimes called Institutes; as such, they were funded by local industrialists on the grounds that they would benefit from having more knowledgeable and skilled employees. The Mechanics' Institutes were used as'libraries' for the adult working class, provided them with an alternative pastime to gambling and drinking in pubs; the world's first Mechanics' Institute was established in Edinburgh, Scotland in October 1821 as the School of Arts of Edinburgh, with the provision of technical education for working people and professionals. Its purpose was to "address societal needs by incorporating fundamental scientific thinking and research into engineering solutions"; the school revolutionised access to education in technology for ordinary people. The second Institute in Scotland was incorporated in Glasgow in November 1823, built on the foundations of a group started at the turn of the previous century by George Birkbeck.
Under the auspices of the Andersonian University, Birkbeck had first instituted free lectures on arts and technical subjects in 1800. This mechanics' class continued to meet after he moved to London in 1804, in 1823 they decided to formalise their organisation by incorporating themselves as the Mechanics' Institute; the first Mechanics' Institute in England was opened at Liverpool in July 1823. The London Mechanics' Institute followed in December 1823, the Mechanics' Institutes in Ipswich and Manchester in 1824. By the mid-19th century, there were over 700 institutes in towns and cities across the UK and overseas, some of which became the early roots of other colleges and universities. See for example the University of Gloucestershire, which has the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute and Gloucester Mechanics' Institute within its history timeline, it was as a result of delivering a lecture series at the Cheltenham Mechanics' Institute that the famous radical George Holyoake was arrested and convicted on a charge of blasphemy.
In Australia, the first Mechanics' Institute was established in Hobart in 1827, followed by the Sydney Mechanics' School of Arts in 1833, Newcastle School of Arts in 1835 the Melbourne Mechanics' Institute established in 1839. From the 1850s, Mechanics' Institutes spread throughout Victoria wherever a hall, library or school was needed. Over 1200 Mechanics' Institutes were built in Victoria but just over 500 remain today, only six still operate their lending library services; the Industrial Revolution created a new class of reader in Britain by the end of the 18th century,'mechanics,' who were civil and mechanical engineers in reality. The Birmingham Brotherly Society was founded in 1796 by local mechanics to fill this need, was the forerunner of Mechanics' Institutes, which grew in England to over seven hundred in number by 1850. G. Jefferson explains that: The first phase, the Mechanics Institute movement, grew in an atmosphere of interest by a greater proportion of the population in scientific matters revealed in the public lectures of famous scientists such as Faraday.
More as a consequence of the introduction of machinery a class workmen emerged to build and repair, the machines on which the blessing of progress depended, at a time when population shifts and the dissolving influences of industrialization in the new urban areas, where these were concentrated, destroyed the inadequate old apprentice system and threw into relief the connection between material advancement and the necessity of education to take part in its advantages. Small tradesmen and workers could not afford subscription libraries, so for their benefit, benevolent groups and individuals created "Mechanics' Institutes" that contained inspirational and vocational reading matter, for a small rental fee. Popular non-fiction and fiction books were added to these collections; the first known library of this type was the Birmingham Artisans' Library, formed in 1823. Some mechanics' libraries only lasted a decade or two, many became public libraries or were given to local public libraries after the Public Libraries Act 1850 passed.
Though use of the mechanics' library was limited, the majority of the users were favourable towards the idea of free library use and service, were a ready to read public when the establishment of free libraries occurred. Beyond a lending library, Mechanics' Institutes provided lecture courses, in some cases contained a museum for the member's entertainment and education; the Glasgow Institute, founded in 1823, not only had all three, it was provided free light on two evenings a week from the local Gas Light Company. The London Mechanics' Institute installed gas illumination by 1825, revealing the demand and need for members to use the books. Thousands of Mechanics' Institutes still operate throughout the world—some as libraries, parts of universities, adult education facilities, cinemas, recreational facilities, or community halls. Ballarat Mechanics' Institute, Ballarat Berwick Mechanics' Institute, Berwick Briagolong Mechanics' Institute, Briagolong Footscray Mechanics' Institute Inc. Library Kilmore Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Kyneton Mechanics' Institute Lancefield Mechanics' Institute & Free Library Little River Mechanics' Institute, Little River Maldon Athenaeum, Maldon Melbourne Athenaeum Narre Warren Mechanics Institute Prahran M
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
Downtown Montreal is the central business district of Montreal, Canada. Located in the borough of Ville-Marie, the district is situated on the southernmost slope of Mount Royal; the downtown region houses many corporate headquarters as well a large majority of the city's skyscrapers — which, by law, cannot be greater in height than Mount Royal in order to preserve the aesthetic predominance and intimidation factor of the mountain. The two tallest of these are the 1000 de La Gauchetière and 1250 René-Lévesque, both of which were built in 1992; the Tour de la Bourse is a significant high-rise and is home to the Montreal Exchange that trades in derivatives. The Montreal Exchange was a stock exchange and was the first in Canada. In 1999, all stock trades were transferred to Toronto in exchange for an exclusivity in the derivative trading market. Place Ville-Marie, an I. M. Pei-designed cruciform office tower built in 1962, sits atop an underground shopping mall that forms the nexus of Montreal's underground city, the world's largest, with indoor access to over 1,600 shops, offices, businesses and universities, as well as metro stations, train stations, bus terminals, tunnels extending all over downtown.
The central axis for downtown is Canada's busiest commercial avenue. The area includes high end retail such as the Holt Renfrew and Ogilvy department stores as well as Les Cours Mont-Royal shopping centre. Other major streets include Peel, de la Montagne, de Maisonneuve and Crescent; the skyline may be observed from one of two lookouts on Mount Royal. The lookout at the Belvedere takes in downtown, the river, the Monteregian Hills. On clear days the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York are visible, as are the Green Mountains of Vermont; the eastern lookout has a view of Olympic Stadium and beyond. Downtown Montreal is home to the main campuses of McGill University and UQAM and the Sir George Williams campus of Concordia University. A number of museums can be found in or near Downtown Montreal, including the Canadian Centre for Architecture, McCord Museum, Montreal Museum of Contemporary Art, Montreal Museum of Fine Arts and Redpath Museum. Pointe-à-Callière Museum is more in Old Montreal. Notable religious buildings in Downtown Montreal include: Christ Church Cathedral, Church of St. Andrew and St. Paul, Church of St. John the Evangelist, Queen of the World Cathedral, St. James the Apostle Anglican Church, St. James United Church, St. George's Anglican Church and St. Patrick's Basilica.
The Bell Centre, used for ice hockey and other events, lies in the central/southern portion of Downtown Montreal. Place des Arts is located in the eastern part of the city's downtown, between Ste-Catherine and de Maisonneuve Streets, St-Urbain and Jeanne-Mance streets, in an area now known as the Quartier des Spectacles, the complex is home to the Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Les Grands Ballets Canadiens, the Opéra de Montréal. Percival Molson Memorial Stadium lies just to the North of Pine Avenue at the edge of Downtown Montreal. Public space in Downtown Montreal includes the following squares: Cabot Square, Chaboillez Square, Dorchester Square, Norman Bethune Square, Phillips Square, Place du Canada, Place Émilie-Gamelin, Place des Festivals, Place Jean-Paul Riopelle and Victoria Square. Two railway stations are in Downtown Montreal: Central Station serves both intercity and commuter rail services of the Réseau de transport métropolitain services. Additional commuter services use Lucien-L'Allier Station.
Downtown Montreal contains two bus stations: Gare d'autocars de Montréal serves longer distance services, while Terminus Centre-Ville is a terminus for services operated by RTL. Two lines of the Montreal Metro run east–west through Downtown Montreal. Line 1 is aligned with De Maisonneuve Boulevard, serving: Atwater, Guy-Concordia, Peel, McGill, Place-des-Arts, Saint-Laurent and Berri-UQAM stations. Line 2 runs some blocks south of the Green Line, serving Lucien-L'Allier, Square-Victoria-OACI, Place-d'Armes, Champ-de-Mars and Berri-UQAM. Place-d'Armes and Champ-de-Mars stations would be considered as in Old Montreal. Berri-UQAM is the terminus for Line 4. Air Canada was headquartered in Downtown Montreal. In 1990, the airline announced that it was moving its headquarters from Downtown Montreal to Montreal-Trudeau Airport to cut costs. Portions of four university-level establishments lie within Downtown Montreal: the main campus of McGill University, on the northern side of Sherbrooke Street. Four colleges lie in downtown: the public Cégep du Vieux Montréal on Ontario Street East.
Underground City, Montreal Old Montreal Old Port of Montreal Downtown Montreal travel guide from Wikivoyage
Timeline of Montreal history
The timeline of the history of Montreal is a chronology of significant events in the history of Montreal, Canada's second-most populated city, with about 3.5 million residents in 2018, the fourth-largest French-speaking city in the world. The area known today as Montreal had been inhabited by Algonquin and Iroquois for some 2,000 years, while the oldest known artifact found in Montréal proper is about 2,000 years old. In the earliest oral history, the Algonquin migrated from the Atlantic coast, together with other Anicinàpek, at the "First Stopping Place". There, the Nation found a "turtle-shaped island" marked by miigis shells; the Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee, were centred, from at least 1000 CE, in northern New York, their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montréal area of modern Quebec. 1142 – The Iroquois Confederacy is, from oral tradition, said to have been formed in 1142 CE. In the modern Iroquois language, Montréal is called Tiohtià:ke. Other native languages, such as Algonquin, refer to it as Moniang.
The St. Lawrence Iroquoians established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal. 1535 – Jacques Cartier renames the Saint Lawrence River in honour of Saint Lawrence on August 10, the feast day of the Roman martyr. Prior to this, the Saint Lawrence River had been known by other names, including Hochelaga River and Canada River. 1535 – September 19, Cartier starts his journey from Québec City to Montréal, while in search of a passage to Asia. 1535 – Cartier visits Hochelaga on October 2, claiming the St. Lawrence Valley for France, he becomes the first European to reach the area now known as Montréal when he enters the village of Hochelega. Cartier estimates the population to be "over a thousand". 1535 – October 3, Cartier climbs up the mountain on the Île de Montréal and names it Mont Royal. 1556 – On his map of Hochelega, Italian geographer Giovanni Battista Ramusio writes "Monte Real" to designate Mont Royal. 1580 – The St. Lawrence Iroquoians appear to have vacated the Saint Lawrence River Valley sometime prior to 1580.
1601 – On his map, Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan writes Hochelaga for the inhabited area, calls the hill Mont Royal. 1603 – Samuel de Champlain reaches the Island of Montreal and Île Perrot, describes Mont Royal, Lake Saint-Louis and the Lachine Rapids. 1608 – Québec City is founded by Samuel de Champlain. 1611 – Samuel de Champlain, in the company of a young Huron, whom he had taken to and brought back from France on a previous voyage, visits the Île de Montréal. 1611 – Champlain decides to establish a fur trading post at present-day Pointe-à-Callière. 1611 – A young man named Louis drowns, thus giving his name to both the Sault-Saint-Louis and Lake Saint-Louis. 1611 – Saint Helen's Island is named by Samuel de Champlain, in honour of his wife. 1613–20 – The Compagnie des Marchands operates in New France but, in 1621, loses its rights in to the Compagnie de Montmorency, due to a breach of their contract. 1615 – Denis Jamet and Joseph Le Caron say the first Catholic Mass on the island of Montréal.
1615 – Samuel de Champlain, expected at the Saint-Louis Rapids in late June, does not arrive by July 8, prompting the Aboriginals, angry, to leave, taking with them Joseph Le Caron and twelve Frenchmen. 1615 – Les Franciscains des Recollets, an order of French missionaries, are the first to settle Canada. In their honour, the area known as Griffintown is called Faubourg des Recollet. 1627 – Cardinal Richelieu replaces the Compagnie de Montmorency with the Company of One Hundred Associates. The French Crown grants the new Company a monopoly on the fur trade, directs it to colonize the St. Lawrence Valley. 1627 – the King of France introduces the seigneurial system to New France, forbids settlement by anyone other than Roman Catholics. 1634 – Trois-Rivières founded by Sieur de Laviolette. 1635 - Death of Samuel de Champlain, 25 December. 1636 – Jean de Lauzon becomes the seigneur of the Île de Montréal. 1636 – Louis XIII grants the seigneurie of Madeleine to Jacques La Ferté, priest at Sainte Madeleine de Châteaudun.
1639–49 – Sainte-Marie among the Hurons in use. The establishment of Montréal was part of a large missionary movement based in France. 1641 – Establishment of the Société de Notre-Dame de Montréal pour la conversion des sauvages de la Nouvelle-France. 1641–42 – The colonists spend the winter at St Michel, near Sillery. 1642 – Maisonneuve arrives on May 17. 1642 – Barthélemy Vimont, the superior of the Jesuits, leads the first mass in Ville-Marie on May 18. 1642 – The construction of Fort Ville-Marie begins around the initial hamlet as protection against Iroquois attacks. 1642 – Construction of Fort Richelieu by Charles de Montmagny begins on August 13 when 40 men led by Montmagny arrive. 1642 – Significant flooding on December 23. 1643 – The first Mount Royal Cross is erected on January 6. 1643 – On June 9, the first persons are killed at Montréal during an attack by Iroquois. 1643 – At the end of August, a vessel with a reinforcement commanded by Louis d'Ailleboust de Coulonge arrives at Ville-Marie.
1644 – Iroquois attack on March 16 and on March 30. 1645 – The hospital is located within the fort. Maisonneuve grants the first concession outside the fortifications to Jeanne Mance to build Hôtel-Dieu de Montréal. 1646–53 – War with the Iroquois. 1646 – Fort Richelieu is abandoned at the end of the year and burned down by the Iroquois in February 1647. 1647 – Jacques de La Ferté from the Company of One
2002–06 municipal reorganization of Montreal
Montreal was one of the cities in Quebec affected by the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec. On January 1, 2002, all the municipalities on the island of Montreal were merged into the city of Montreal. However, following a change of government in the 2003 Quebec election and a 2004 referendum, some of those municipalities became independent cities again on January 1, 2006; the recreated cities did not regain all of their previous powers, however. A new urban agglomeration of Montreal was created, which resulted in the recreated cities still sharing certain municipal services with Montreal; until 2001, the island of Montreal was divided into the city of Montreal proper and 27 smaller municipalities. These formed the Montreal Urban Community. On January 1, 2002, all 28 municipalities on the island were merged into the "megacity" of Montreal, under the slogan "Une île, une ville"; this merger was part of a larger provincial scheme launched by the Parti Québécois all across Quebec, resulting in the merging of many municipalities.
It was felt that larger municipalities would be more efficient, would be more able to withstand comparison with the other cities in Canada, which had expanded their territory--most notably Toronto, which had merged with the other municipalities of what was dubbed "Metro Toronto" in 1998-1999. As happened elsewhere in Canada, the merger was opposed by many residents on the island of Montreal; the situation on the island of Montreal was further complicated by the presence of predominantly English-speaking municipalities that were due to merge with the predominantly French-speaking city of Montreal. English speakers were afraid to lose their rights, despite claims by the mayor of Montreal that their linguistic rights would remain protected in the new city of Montreal. Many street protests were organized, lawsuits were filed, 15 municipalities appealed to the Court of Appeal of Quebec, it was all to no avail. In Canada, municipal governments are creatures of the provincial governments, provincial governments have the power to create and dissolve municipalities by ordinary statute.
At the 2001 census, the city of Montreal had 1,039,534 inhabitants. After the merger, the population of the new city of Montreal was 1,812,723; the post merger city was 169% larger in terms of land area, had 74% more people. For comparisons, at the 2001 census the city of Toronto had 2,481,494 inhabitants; the merged city of Montreal was divided into 27 boroughs in charge of local administration. The city government was responsible for larger matters such as economic development or transportation issues, it is only a coincidence that there were 27 independent municipalities before 2002, 27 arrondissements in the merged entity. In fact, in most areas the arrondissements did not correspond to the former municipalities, cutting across the territory of the former municipalities. At the provincial elections of April 2003, the Quebec Liberal Party defeated the Parti Québécois. One central plank of the Liberal campaign was that if elected, they would allow merged municipalities to organize referendums in order to demerge if they wished to do so.
As promised, on June 20, 2004, the referendums were held throughout Quebec. The process to demerge from the forced amalgamation was complicated; the first stage was to sign a register in order for a referendum to be held the population had to vote a second time. In several areas, the referendums failed because though a majority of those voting supported demerging, it did not meet the required threshold of 35% of registered voters; this process was detailed in a documentary film called The Village Resists: The Forced Municipal Mergers of Quebec by Ryan Young that followed the municipality of Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue as it fought to demerge. On the island of Montreal, referendums were held in 22 of the 27 independent municipalities. Following the referendum results, 15 of the independent municipalities have regained most of their independence; these are predominantly English-speaking municipalities, with some French-speaking municipalities. Oddly, one of the 15 municipalities recreated, L'Île-Dorval, had no permanent inhabitants at the 2001 census, being a cottaging island.
The demerger took place on January 1, 2006. After this date, there were 16 municipalities on the island of Montreal--the city of Montreal proper plus 15 independent municipalities; the current city of Montreal comprises the pre-2002 city of Montreal plus 12 of the independent municipalities, is divided into 19 arrondisements. The post-demerger city of Montreal has a territory of 366.02 km2 and a population of 1,583,590 inhabitants. Compared with the pre-merger city of Montreal, this is a net increase of 96.8% in land area, 52.3% in population. Compared with the post-merger city of Montreal, this is a net decrease of 26.8% in land area, 12.64% in population. Corporate lobbies close to the Liberal Party of Quebec stress the fact that after the demerger, the city of Montreal still has as many inhabitants as the "megacity" of Montreal, that the overwhelming majority of industrial sites will still be located on the territory of the post-demerger city of Montreal; the post-demerger city of Montreal will be greater than half the size of the pos