Grand Junction, Colorado
Grand Junction is a home rule municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Mesa County, United States. The city has a council–manager form of government, is the most populous municipality in all of western Colorado. Grand Junction is 247 miles west-southwest of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver; as of the 2010 census, the city's population was 58,566. Grand Junction is the 15th most populous city in the state of Colorado and the most populous city on the Colorado Western Slope, it is a major commercial and transportation hub within the large area between the Green River and the Continental Divide. It is the principal city of the Grand Junction Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 146,723 in 2010 census; the city is along the Colorado River, at its confluence with the Gunnison River, which comes in from the south. "Grand" refers to the historical Grand River. "Junction" refers to the confluence of the Gunnison rivers. Grand Junction has been nicknamed "River City".
It is near the midpoint of a 30-mile arcing valley, known as the Grand Valley. The valley was long occupied by earlier indigenous cultures, it was not settled by European-American farmers until the 1880s. Since the late 20th century, several wineries have been established in the area; the Colorado National Monument, a unique series of canyons and mesas, overlooks the city on the west. Most of the area is surrounded by federal public lands managed by the US Bureau of Land Management; the Book Cliffs are a prominent series of cliffs. Interstate 70 connects the city eastward to Glenwood Springs and Denver and westward to Green River, Utah. S Route 6; the Country Jam Ranch, near Grand Junction just north of I-70 at the Mack exit, is a permanent festival site built for music festivals, including Country Jam. This event has been held annually since 1992; the Grand Junction area has developed as a mountain biking destination, with many bikers coming from the Front Range of Colorado, the Salt Lake City area, as far away as California to enjoy the area's abundant single-track trails.
Two prominent trails are the Tabeguache and Kokopelli trails, the latter running from near Loma to Moab, Utah. Fruita, with its 18-Road trail system, is within 10 miles of the city and has become a major mountain biking destination. In September 1881 the former Ute Indian Territory was abolished and the Utes removed to a reservation so that the U. S. government could open the area to white settlers. Clinton County, Pennsylvania-born George Addison Crawford soon purchased a plot of land. On July 22, 1882, he incorporated the town of Grand Junction and planted Colorado's first vineyard near Palisade, causing the area to become known as the Colorado Wine Country. Grand Junction has a storied past with gunfighters and early settlers of the American Southwest; the infamous "Doc" Holliday was buried in Grand Junction Cemetery after his death from "consumption", as Grand Junction was one of his favorite places before he began living full-time at the sanatorium in Glenwood Springs, Colorado. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 38.6 square miles, with 38.2 square miles of it land, 0.39 square miles, or 0.87% of it water.
The downtown area displays a semi-arid climate grading into an arid type. Grand Junction sits in a large area of high desert lands in Western Colorado. Winters are cold and dry, with a January mean temperature of 27.4 °F. Due to its location west of the Rockies, Grand Junction does not receive as much influence from the Chinook winds as locations in Colorado east of the Front Range, yet it does receive protection from the Arctic masses that can settle to the east of the Rockies; this is illustrated by the fact. Lows drop below on 2.9 nights per year. Snowfall is low compared to much of the rest of the state, averaging 19.1 inches per season. Snow is greatest in January. Spring warming is quickens when nearing June. Summer is hot but dry, with a July mean temperature of 78.2 °F. Grand Junction averages 64.5 days a year with temperatures at 90 °F or above, an average 6.5 days attaining 100 °F or more. Autumn cooling is rapid, with the average first freeze date being October 15; the area receives little precipitation year-round, averaging 9.42 inches, with no real seasonal spike.
Sunshine hours are abundant in winter, total just over 3200 hours per year, or 73% of the possible total. According to the census.gov website the estimate population as of July 1, 2017 is 62,475 people. As of the census of 2000, there were 41,986 people, 17,865 households, 10,540 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,362.6 people per square mile. There were 18,784 housing units at an average density of 609.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.78% White, 0.60% African American, 0.94% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 3.81% from other races, 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Lati
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park
Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park is an American national park located in western Colorado and managed by the National Park Service. There are two primary entrances to the park: the south rim entrance is located 15 miles east of Montrose, while the north rim entrance is 11 miles south of Crawford and is closed in the winter; the park contains 12 miles of the 48-mile long Black Canyon of the Gunnison River. The national park itself contains the deepest and most dramatic section of the canyon, but the canyon continues upstream into Curecanti National Recreation Area and downstream into Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area; the canyon's name owes itself to the fact that parts of the gorge only receive 33 minutes of sunlight a day, according to Images of America: The Black Canyon of the Gunnison. In the book, author Duane Vandenbusche states, "Several canyons of the American West are longer and some are deeper, but none combines the depth, narrowness and dread of the Black Canyon."
The Gunnison River drops an average of 34 feet per mile through the entire canyon, making it the 5th steepest mountain descent in North America. By comparison, the Colorado River drops an average of 7.5 feet per mile through the Grand Canyon. The greatest descent of the Gunnison River occurs within the park at Chasm View dropping 240 feet per mile; the Black Canyon is so named because its steepness makes it difficult for sunlight to penetrate into its depths. As a result, the canyon is shrouded in shadow, causing the rocky walls to appear black. At its narrowest point the canyon is only 40 ft wide at the river; the extreme steepness and depth of the Black Canyon formed as the result of several geologic processes acting together. The Gunnison River is responsible for carving the canyon, though several other geologic events had to occur in order to form the canyon as it is seen today; the Precambrian gneiss and schist that make up the majority of the steep walls of the Black Canyon formed 1.7 billion years ago during a metamorphic period brought on by the collision of ancient volcanic island arcs with the southern end of what is present-day Wyoming.
The lighter-colored pegmatite dikes that can be seen crosscutting the basement rocks formed during this same period. The entire area underwent uplift during the Laramide orogeny between 70 and 40 million years ago, part of the Gunnison Uplift; this raised the Precambrian gneiss and schist. During the Tertiary from 26 to 35 million years ago large episodes of volcanism occurred in the area surrounding the present day Black Canyon; the West Elk Mountains, La Sal Mountains, Henry Mountains, Abajo Mountains all contributed to burying the area in several thousand feet of volcanic ash and debris. The modern Gunnison River set its course 15 million years ago as the run-off from the nearby La Sal and West Elk Mountains and the Sawatch Range began carving through the soft volcanic deposits. With the Gunnison River's course set, a broad uplift in the area 2 to 3 million years ago caused the river to cut through the softer volcanic deposits; the river reached the Precambrian rocks of the Gunnison Uplift.
Since the river was unable to change its course, it began scouring through the hard metamorphic rocks of the Gunnison Uplift. The river's flow was much larger than with much higher levels of turbidity; as a result, the river dug down through the Precambrian gneiss and schist at the rate of 1-inch every 100 years. The extreme hardness of the metamorphic rock along with the relative quickness with which the river carved through them created the steep walls that can be seen today. A number of feeder canyons running into the Black Canyon slope in the wrong direction for water to flow into the canyon, it is believed that less-entrenched streams in the region shifted to a more north-flowing drainage pattern in response to a change in the tilt of the surrounding terrain. The west-flowing Gunnison, was trapped in the hard Precambrian rock of the Black Canyon and could not change its course; the Ute Indians had known the canyon to exist for a long time. They referred to the river as "much rocks, big water," and are known to have avoided the canyon out of superstition.
By the time the United States declared independence in 1776, two Spanish expeditions had passed by the canyons. In the 1800s, the numerous fur trappers searching for beaver pelts would have known of the canyon's existence but they left no written record; the first official account of the Black Canyon was provided by Captain John Williams Gunnison in 1853, leading an expedition to survey a route from Saint Louis and San Francisco. He described the country to be "the roughest, most hilly and most cut up," he had seen, skirted the canyon south towards present-day Montrose. Following his death at the hands of Ute Indians that year, the river that Captain Gunnison had called the Grand was renamed in his honor. In 1881, William Jackson Palmer's Denver and Rio Grande Railroad had reached Gunnison from Denver; the line was built to provide a link to the burgeoning gold and silver mines of the San Juan mountains. The rugged terrain precluded using 4' 8 1/2" standard rail, it took over a year for Irish and Italian laborers to carve out a 15-mile roadbed from Sapinero to Cimarron, costing a staggering $165,000 a mile.
The last mile is said to have cost more than the entire Royal Gorge project. On August 13, 1882, the first passenger train passed through the Black Canyon; the editor of the Gunnison Review-Press rode in one of the observation cars.
A Legend of Montrose
A Legend of Montrose is an historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, set in Scotland in the 1640s during the English Civil War. It forms, along with The Bride of Lammermoor, the 3rd series of Scott's Tales of My Landlord; the two novels were published together in 1819. A Legend of the Wars of Montrose was composed during May 1819 after the completion of its companion novel The Bride of Lammermoor though it had been envisaged before the Bride was begun. Scott was still recovering from his serious illness of March 1819 and it is that the greater part of the new novel was dictated to John Ballantyne and William Laidlaw, though the manuscript for most of Chapters 3 to 6 is extant in his own hand; the first edition of Tales of my Landlord, consisting of The Bride of Lammermoor and A Legend of Montrose, was published by Archibald Constable in Edinburgh on 21 June 1819 and in London on the 26th. As with all of the Waverley novels before 1827 publication was anonymous. Scott appears to have made some small changes to the text of Montrose when it appeared that year in the Novels and Tales, but his main revision was carried out in late 1829 and early 1830 for the'Magnum' edition, including the provision of notes and an introduction: it appeared as Volume 15 in August 1830.
The standard modern edition, by J. H. Alexander, was published under Scott's preferred title A Legend of the Wars of Montrose as Volume 7b of the Edinburgh Edition of the Waverley Novels in 1993: this is based on the first edition with emendations principally from Scott's manuscript; the story takes place during the Earl of Montrose's 1644-5 military campaign in Scotland on behalf of King Charles I against the Covenanters who had sided with the English Parliament in the English Civil War. The main plot concerns a love triangle between Allan M'Aulay, his friend the Earl of Menteith, Annot Lyle. Annot is a young woman, brought up by the M'Aulays since being captured as a girl during a blood feud against the MacEagh clan. M'Aulay and Menteith are both members of Montrose's army. Annot marries Menteith after it is discovered that she has aristocratic blood, was kidnapped by the MacEaghs as a baby; this leads to the jealous M'Aulay stabbing Menteith and fleeing Montrose's army. Menteith survives whilst M'Aulay is rumoured to have been killed by the MacEaghs.
Much of the novel is taken up with a subplot involving an expedition into enemy territory by Dugald Dalgetty, an experienced mercenary fighting for Montrose. Dalgetty does not fight out of political or religious conviction, but purely for the love of carnage. However, he is professional, remains loyal to an employer to the end of his contract, he gained his experience fighting for various armies during the Thirty Years' War still raging in Germany. Note: He did not fight all thirty years. Dalgetty is regarded as one of Scott's finest comic characters, however he dominates so much of the story that the main plot is not developed in detail; the Earl of MenteithAnderson, his servant. Ch. 1: A sketch of the political situation in late 17th-century Scotland. Ch. 2: The mercenary soldier Dugald Dalgetty encounters the Earl of Menteith on the borders of the Highlands and tells him of his service on the Continent. Ch. 3: Menteith and his servant Anderson outline to Dalgetty the advantages for a mercenary of serving in the Royalist interest.
Ch. 4: Arriving at Darnlinvarach castle and Anderson exchange views on Dalgetty. Allan MacAulay seats Anderson above Dalgetty at table, his brother, the laird Angus, wins a wager with his guest Sir Miles Musgrave by having some of his men act as living chandeliers. Ch. 5: Menteith tells Dalgetty the story of Allan's feud with the Children of the Mist, of his reluctant sparing of Annot Lyle and subsequent fondness for her. Ch. 6: Dalgetty agrees to serve with the Royalists. Annot soothes Allan by singing, he foresees. Ch. 7: The Royalist chiefs arrive with their retinues, Menteith reveals Montrose, alias Anderson, as their leader. Ch. 8: Sir Duncan Campbell arrives with a proposal from the Marquis of Argyle for a truce, Dalgetty is selected to go to Inverara to negotiate terms. Volume Two Ch. 1: After debating the political situation with Allan and Menteith, Campbell is affected by Annot's singing. Ch. 2: As they arrive at Ardenvohr castle and Campbell discuss its defensive capabilities. Ch. 3: Dalgetty is struck by Lady Campbell's gloomy demeanour at dinner, afterwards the servant Lorimer explains that it is the anniversary of the murder of the four Campbell children by Highland freebooters.
Dalgetty travels to Inverara. Ch. 4: Dalgetty receives a hostile reception from Argyle. Ch. 5: Imprisoned in a dungeon, Dalgetty meets Ranald MacEagh, who says he killed three of Campbell's four children, but one survives. Argyle enters in disguise and ascertains that the surviving child is Ann
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft, propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq; the traditional kayak has one or more cockpits, each seating one paddler. The cockpit is sometimes covered by a spray deck that prevents the entry of water from waves or spray, differentiating the craft from a canoe; the spray deck makes it possible for suitably skilled kayakers to roll the kayak: that is, to capsize and right it without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler. Some modern boats vary from a traditional design but still claim the title "kayak", for instance in eliminating the cockpit by seating the paddler on top of the boat. Kayaks are being sailed, as well as propelled by means of small electric motors, by outboard gas engines; the kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Inuit and Ainu hunters in subarctic regions of the world. Kayaks were developed by the Inuit, Yup'ik, Aleut, they used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans.
These first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whalebone-skeleton frame.. Kayaks are believed to be at least 4,000 years old; the oldest existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, with the oldest dating from 1577. Native people made many types of boat for different purposes; the Aleut baidarka was made in double or triple cockpit designs, for hunting and transporting passengers or goods. An umiak is a large open sea canoe, ranging from 17 to 30 feet, made with wood, it is considered a kayak although it was paddled with single-bladed paddles, had more than one paddler. Native builders designed and built their boats based on their own experience and that of the generations before them, passed on through oral tradition; the word "kayak" means "man's boat" or "hunter's boat", native kayaks were a personal craft, each built by the man who used it—with assistance from his wife, who sewed the skins—and fitting his size for maximum maneuverability.
The paddler wore a tuilik, a garment, stretched over the rim of the kayak coaming, sealed with drawstrings at the coaming and hood edges. This enabled the "eskimo roll" and rescue to become the preferred methods of recovery after capsizing as few Inuit could swim. Instead of a tuilik, most traditional kayakers today use a spray deck made of waterproof synthetic material stretchy enough to fit around the cockpit rim and body of the kayaker, which can be released from the cockpit to permit easy exit. Inuit kayak builders had specific measurements for their boats; the length was three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builder's hips plus two fists; the typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb. Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20–22 inches wide by 7 inches deep; this measurement system confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak, because each kayak was a little different. Traditional kayaks encompass three types: Baidarkas, from the Bering sea & Aleutian islands, the oldest design, whose rounded shape and numerous chines give them an Blimp-like appearance.
Most of the Aleut people in the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland Inuit relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey—primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin-on-frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland, because the smooth and flexible skin glides silently through the waves. In other parts of the world home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric, such as sc. ballistic nylon. Contemporary traditional-style kayaks trace their origins to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, Southwest Greenland. Wooden kayaks and fabric kayaks on wooden frames dominated the market up until the 1950s, when fiberglass boats were first introduced in the US, inflatable rubberized fabric boats were first introduced in Europe. Rotomolded plastic kayaks first appeared in 1973, most kayaks today are made from roto-molded polyethylene resins; the development of plastic and rubberized inflatable kayaks arguably initiated the development of freestyle kayaking as we see it today, since these boats could be made smaller and more resilient than fiberglass boats.
Kayak design is a matter of trade-offs: directional stability vs maneuverability. Multihull kayaks face a different set of trade-offs; the paddler's body shap
Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo
Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo is a 1944 American war film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. It is based on the historic Doolittle Raid, America's first retaliatory air strike against Japan four months after the December 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Mervyn LeRoy directed Sam Zimbalist produced the film; the screenplay by Dalton Trumbo was based on the 1943 book of the same name, by Captain Ted W. Lawson, a pilot on the raid; the film stars Van Johnson as Lawson, Phyllis Thaxter as his wife Ellen, Robert Walker as Corporal David Thatcher, Robert Mitchum as Lieutenant Bob Gray and Spencer Tracy as Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle, the man who planned and led the raid. In the book Lawson gave an eyewitness account of the training, the mission, the aftermath as experienced by his crew and others who flew the mission on April 18, 1942. Lawson piloted "The Ruptured Duck", the seventh of 16 B-25s to take off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet; the film depicted the raid and used actual wartime footage of the bombers.
In spring 1942, a few months after the Pearl Harbor attack, the United States Army Air Forces plan to retaliate by bombing Tokyo and four other Japanese cities—launching traditionally land-based bombers from US Navy aircraft carriers that can approach near enough the Japanese mainland to make bombing feasible. After dropping bombs planes will continue to Nationalist controlled parts of China, crews will regroup in Chungking. Lt. Col. James Doolittle, the architect and leader of the mission, assembles a volunteer force of aircrew, who begin their top-secret training by learning a new technique to make their North American B-25 Mitchell medium bombers airborne in the short distance of 500 feet or less, to simulate taking off from the deck of an aircraft carrier, although they were not told why they were learning short takeoffs at the time. After depicting the groups' weeks of hazardous training at Eglin Field and Naval Air Station Alameda, the story goes on to describe the raid and its aftermath.
While en route to Japan, the Hornet's task force is discovered by a Japanese picket boat, which has radioed their position. It is sunk by American gunfire but the bombers are forced to take off twelve hours early, at the extreme limit of their range. However, the bombers reach Japan and drop their bombs. Dolittle himself leads the raid with incendiary bombs, designed to aid the following aircraft identify targets. After the attack, most of the B-25s run out of fuel before reaching their recovery airfields in Nationalist controlled China. Crews are forced to either crash-land along the coast. Lawson's B-25 crashes in the surf just off the Chinese coast while trying to land on a beach in darkness and heavy rain, he and his crew survive, badly injured, but face hardships and danger while being escorted to Nationalist lines by friendly Chinese. Lawson's injuries require the mission's flight surgeon to amputate his left leg above the knee; the closing stages of the film feature many of the Dolittle Raiders reunited in Chungking, per the original plan, where Chinese sing “the Star Spangled Banner”, in Mandarin, in an emotional climax.
The story ends in the United States with Lawson reunited with his pregnant wife Ellen in a Washington, D. C. hospital. In tears, Lawson tells his wife: "When things were the worst I could see your beautiful face." Van Johnson as Lieutenant Ted W. Lawson Robert Walker as Corporal David Thatcher Tim Murdock as Lt. Dean Davenport Don DeFore as Lt. Charles McClure Herbert Gunn as Lt. Bob Clever Phyllis Thaxter as Ellen Lawson Stephen McNally as Lt. Thomas "Doc" White Spencer Tracy as Lieutenant Colonel James Doolittle John R. Reilly as Lt. Jacob "Shorty" Manch Robert Mitchum as Lt. Bob Gray Scott McKay as Captain David M. "Davey" Jones Donald Curtis as Lt. Randall Louis Jean Heydt as Navy Lieutenant Henry Miller William "Bill" Phillips as Lt. Don Smith Douglas Cowan as Lt. Everett "Brick" Holstrom Paul Langton as Captain "Ski" York Leon Ames as Lt. Jurika Bill Williams as Bud Felton Robert Bice as "Jig" White Hsin Kung as Dr. Chung Benson Fong as Young Dr. Chung Ching Wah Lee as Guerilla Charlie Alan Napier as Mr. Parker Ann Shoemaker as Mrs. Parker Dorothy Morris as Jane Jacqueline White as Emmy York Selena Royle as Mrs. Reynolds John Dehner as Lieutenant Commander Blake Edwards as Lt. Smith's crewman In both the film and book Lawson gives eyewitness accounts of the training, the mission, the aftermath as experienced by his crew and others who flew the mission on April 18, 1942.
Lawson piloted "The Ruptured Duck", the seventh of 16 B-25s to take off from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet. The film is noted for its accurate depiction of the raid and use of actual wartime footage of the bombing aircraft. Verisimilitude was obtained by working with Captain Ted Lawson and other members of the raid; the use of Hurlburt Field and Peel Field near Mary Esther and Eglin Field, along with using operational USAAF B-25C and -D bombers made for an authentic, near-documentary feel. Auxiliary Field 4, Peel Field, was used for the short-distance take off practice scenes. Although an aircraft carrier was not available due to wartime needs, a mix of realistic studio sets and original newsreel footage faithfully recreated the USS Hornet scenes. Principal photography took place between February and June 1944. Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo was recognized as an inspirational patriotic film with propagandistic value; the New York Times in 1944 summed up
Exodus (1960 film)
Exodus is a 1960 American epic film on the founding of the modern State of Israel. It was distributed by United Artists. Produced and directed by Otto Preminger, the film was based on the 1958 novel Exodus by Leon Uris; the screenplay was written by Dalton Trumbo. The film features an ensemble cast, its celebrated soundtrack music was written by Ernest Gold. Characterized as a "Zionist epic", the film has been identified by many commentators as having been enormously influential in stimulating Zionism and support for Israel in the United States. While Preminger's film softened the anti-British and anti-Arab sentiment of the novel, the film remains contentious for its depiction of the Arab–Israeli conflict. Preminger hired screenwriter Dalton Trumbo, on the Hollywood blacklist for over a decade for being a communist and forced to work under assumed names. Together with Spartacus written by Trumbo, Exodus is credited with ending the practice of Blacklisting in the motion picture industry. Nurse Katherine "Kitty" Fremont is an American volunteer at the Karaolos internment camp on Cyprus, where thousands of Jews—Holocaust survivors—are being held by the British, who will not let them go to Palestine.
They anxiously wait for the day. Ari Ben Canaan, a Haganah rebel, a decorated captain in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army in the Second World War, obtains a cargo ship and smuggles 611 Jewish inmates out of the camp for an illegal voyage to Mandate Palestine before being discovered by military authorities; when the British learn the refugees are in a ship in the harbor of Famagusta, they blockade the harbor and prevent it from sailing. The refugees stage a hunger strike, during which the camp's doctor dies, Ari threatens to blow up the ship and the refugees; the British allow the Exodus safe passage. Kitty has grown fond of Karen Hansen Clement, a young Danish-Jewish girl searching for the father from whom she was separated during the war, she has taken up the Zionist cause, much to the chagrin of Kitty, who had hoped to adopt Karen and take her to America to begin a new life. During this time, opposition to the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states is heating up. Karen's young beau Dov Landau proclaims his desire to join the Irgun, a radical Zionist resistance group.
Dov goes to an address given him by an Irgun recruiter, only to be caught in a police trap. After he is released, he is contacted by members of the Irgun and is interviewed by Ari Ben Canaan's uncle Akiva, the head of the Irgun. Before swearing Dov in, Akiva forces the boy to confess that he was a Sonderkommando in Auschwitz, that he was sodomized by Nazis. Due to his activities, Akiva has been disowned by Ari's father, who heads the mainstream Jewish Agency trying to create a Jewish state through political and diplomatic means, he fears that the Irgun will derail his efforts as the British have put a price on Akiva's head. Karen has gone to live at Gan Dafna, a fictional Jewish kibbutz near Mount Tabor near the moshav where Ari was raised. Kitty and Ari have fallen in love, but Kitty pulls back, feeling like an outsider after meeting Ari's family and learning of his previous love: Dafna, a young woman kidnapped and murdered by Arabs, the namesake of the Gan Dafna kibbutz. Leaving Kitty, Ari promises to help find Karen's father.
Dr. Clement is found in a mental hospital in Jerusalem, he is in a dissociative state, withdrawn to a degree. Because of the horrors he experienced in a concentration camp, he has disconnected from the outside world, he does not recognize Karen, devastated. When the Irgun bombs the King David Hotel in an act of terrorism resulting in dozens of fatalities, Akiva is arrested, imprisoned in Acre fortress, sentenced to hang. Seeking to save Akiva's life, as well as to free the Haganah and Irgun fighters imprisoned by the British, Ari organizes an escape plan for the prisoners. Dov, who eluded the soldiers who captured Akiva, turns himself in so he can use his knowledge of explosives to facilitate the Acre Prison break. All goes according to plan. Hundreds of prisoners, including Akiva, escape from the prison. Akiva is mortally wounded by British soldiers while evading a roadblock set up to catch the escapees. Ari is badly wounded, he makes his way to Gan Dafna, where Dr. Lieberman, head of the village, removes a bullet from his right lung.
With the British on Ari's trail, he is taken to Abu Yesha, an Arab village near Gan Dafna, where his lifelong friend, Taha, is the mukhtar. Kitty goes with him and provides postoperative treatment that saves his life; the romance between Ari and Kitty is rekindled as a result. Meanwhile, Dr. Lieberman is arrested by the British when they learn the camp has stored illegal weapons within the children's village. An independent Israel is now in plain view, but Arab nationals commanded by Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, plot to attack Gan Dafna and massacre the Jews, including the children. Ari receives prior warning of this attack from Taha as Taha reluctantly decides he must join the Grand Mufti in fighting the establishment of Israel. Ben Canaan spirits the younger children to safety in a nighttime evacuation as a small detachment of Palmach troops arrives to reinforce the defenses of Gan Dafna. Karen, ecstatic over the prospect of the new nation, proclaims her love for him.
Dov assures her. As Karen returns to Gan Dafna, she is murdered by a gang of Arab thugs. Dov discovers her lifeless body the following morning; the same day, the body of Taha is found hanging in his vil
San Juan Mountains
The San Juan Mountains are a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. The area is mineralized and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range; the last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s. Famous old San Juan mines include the Camp Bird and Smuggler Union mines, both located between Telluride and Ouray; the Summitville mine was the scene of a major environmental disaster in the 1990s when the liner of a cyanide-laced tailing pond began leaking heavily. Summitville is in the Summitville caldera, one of many extinct volcanoes making up the San Juan volcanic field. One, La Garita Caldera, is 35 miles in diameter.
Large beds of lava, some extending under the floor of the San Luis Valley, are characteristic of the eastern slope of the San Juans. Tourism is now a major part of the regional economy, with the narrow gauge railway between Durango and Silverton being an attraction in the summer. Jeeping is popular on the old trails which linked the historic mining camps, including the notorious Black Bear Road. Visiting old ghost towns is popular, as is wilderness trekking and mountain climbing. Many of the old mining camps are now popular sites of summer homes. Though the San Juans are steep and receive a lot of snow, so far only Telluride has made the transition to a major ski resort. Purgatory Resort, once known as Durango Mountain Resort, is a small ski area 26 miles north of Durango. There is skiing on Wolf Creek Pass at the Wolf Creek ski area. Silverton Mountain ski area has begun operation near Silverton; the Rio Grande drains the east side of the range. The other side of the San Juans, the western slope of the continental divide, is drained by tributaries of the San Juan and Gunnison rivers, which all flow into the Colorado River.
The San Juan and Uncompahgre National Forests cover a large portion of the San Juan Mountains. The San Juan Mountains are distinctive for their high altitude plateaus and peaks; as a result, facilities in the towns and cities of the region are among the highest in the nation. Telluride Airport, at an elevation of 9,070 feet, is the highest in the United States with scheduled commercial service. Note: This is only a partial list of important peaks in the San Juans, listing peaks by prominence only. There are dozens more summits over 12,000 feet. Mining operators in the San Juan mountain area formed the San Juan District Mining Association in 1903, as a direct result of a Western Federation of Miners proposal to the Telluride Mining Association for the eight-hour day, approved in a referendum by 72 percent of Colorado voters; the new association consolidated the power of thirty-six mining properties in San Miguel and San Juan counties. The SJDMA refused to consider any reduction in hours or increase in wages, helping to provoke a bitter strike.
Southern Rocky Mountains Sneffels Range Cimmaron Range Needle Mountains La Garita Mountains Cochetopa Hills La Plata Mountains Mountain ranges of Colorado Bove, D. et al.. Geochronology and geology of Late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Lippman, P. W.. Geologic map of southwestern Colorado. Reston, VA: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Widerange.org: Photos of the San Juan Mountains San Juan Mountains @ Peakbagger Southern Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger Rocky Mountains @ Peakbagger